The Silence of the Lambs (film)
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The Silence of the Lambs Film

The Silence of the Lambs
The Silence of the Lambs poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byJonathan Demme
Produced by
Screenplay byTed Tally
Based onThe Silence of the Lambs
by Thomas Harris
Music byHoward Shore
CinematographyTak Fujimoto
Edited byCraig McKay
Strong Heart Productions
Distributed byOrion Pictures
Release date
  • January 30, 1991 (1991-01-30) (New York City)
  • February 14, 1991 (1991-02-14) (United States)
Running time
118 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$19 million[2]
Box office$272.7 million[2]

The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 American psychological horror[3] film directed by Jonathan Demme and written by Ted Tally, adapted from Thomas Harris' 1988 novel. It stars Jodie Foster as Clarice Starling, a young FBI trainee who is hunting a serial killer, "Buffalo Bill" (Ted Levine), who skins his female victims. To catch him, she seeks the advice of the imprisoned Dr. Hannibal Lecter (Anthony Hopkins), a brilliant psychiatrist and cannibalistic serial killer. Scott Glenn and Anthony Heald also feature.[4] The film was the second adaptation a Harris novel, and the second to feature Lecter, preceded by Manhunter (1986).

The Silence of the Lambs was released on February 14, 1991 and grossed $272.7 million worldwide on a $19 million budget, becoming the fifth-highest-grossing film of 1991 worldwide. It premiered at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival, where it competed for the Golden Bear, while Demme received the Silver Bear for Best Director. It became the third film (the other two being 1934's It Happened One Night and 1975's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest) to win Academy Awards in all the top five categories: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Adapted Screenplay. It is also the only Best Picture winner widely considered a horror film, and one of only six horror films to have been nominated in the category.[5]

The Silence of the Lambs is regularly cited by critics, film directors and audiences as one of the greatest and most influential films. In 2018, Empire ranked it 48th on their list of the 500 greatest movies of all time.[6] The American Film Institute ranked it the fifth-greatest and most influential thriller film while the Starling and Lecter were ranked among the greatest film heroines and villains. The film is considered "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant by the U.S. Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2011.[7] A sequel, Hannibal, was released in 2001. It was followed by the prequels Red Dragon (2002) and Hannibal Rising (2007).


Clarice Starling is pulled from her FBI training at the Quantico, Virginia FBI Academy by Jack Crawford of the Bureau's Behavioral Science Unit. He assigns her to interview Hannibal Lecter, a former psychiatrist and incarcerated cannibalistic serial killer. Lecter's insight could prove useful in the pursuit of a serial killer nicknamed "Buffalo Bill", who kills young women and removes their skin.

At the Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane, Dr. Frederick Chilton makes a crude pass at Starling before he escorts her to Lecter's cell. Although initially pleasant and courteous, Lecter grows impatient with Starling's interviewing and rebuffs her. As she is leaving, a prisoner named Miggs flicks semen at her. Lecter, who considers this an "unspeakably ugly" act, calls Starling back and tells her to seek out his old patient. This leads her to a storage facility, where she discovers a jar containing a man's severed head. She returns to Lecter, who says the man is linked to Buffalo Bill. He offers to profile Buffalo Bill on condition he be transferred away from Chilton, whom he detests. Another Buffalo Bill victim is found who has a death's head moth lodged in her throat.

Buffalo Bill abducts Catherine Martin, a senator's daughter. Crawford authorizes Starling to offer Lecter a fake deal, promising a prison transfer if he provides information that helps them capture Buffalo Bill and rescue Catherine. Instead, Lecter demands a quid pro quo from Starling, offering clues about Buffalo Bill in exchange for personal information. Starling tells Lecter about her father's murder when she was ten years old. Chilton secretly records the conversation and reveals Starling's deceit before offering Lecter a different deal. Lecter agrees and is flown to Memphis, where he meets and torments Senator Martin, then gives her misleading information on Buffalo Bill, including the name "Louis Friend".

Starling deduces that "Louis Friend" is an anagram of "iron sulfide"--fool's gold. She visits Lecter, who is now imprisoned in a cell in a Tennessee courthouse, and requests the truth. Lecter says all the information she needs is contained in the Buffalo Bill case file, then insists on continuing their quid pro quo. She recounts a traumatic childhood incident of hearing spring lambs being slaughtered on a relative's Montana farm. Lecter speculates that Starling hopes saving Catherine will end the recurring nightmares she has of lambs screaming. Lecter returns the Buffalo Bill case files to Starling as Chilton arrives and has the police escort her from the building. Later that evening, Lecter kills his guards, escapes from his cell, and disappears.

Starling analyzes Lecter's file annotations and deduces that Buffalo Bill knew his first victim, Frederika Bimmel. Starling travels to her Ohio hometown and discovers both she and Buffalo Bill were tailors. At Frederika's home, she notices unfinished dresses and dress patterns identical to the patches of skin removed from the victims. She phones Crawford and says Buffalo Bill is making a "suit" with human skin. Crawford is already en route to make an arrest, having cross-referenced Lecter's notes with hospital archives and finding a man named Jame Gumb. Gumb smuggled death's head moths into the U.S. and was refused a sex-change operation, mistakenly believing he was transsexual. Starling continues interviewing Frederika's friends while Crawford and an FBI HRT storm Gumb's address in Illinois, finding the house empty. Meanwhile, Starling goes to interview another person who knew Frederika. At the house, she meets "Jack Gordon", but realizes he is Gumb after spotting a death's head moth flying loose. She pursues him into a cavernous basement where she finds Catherine trapped in a dry well. In a dark room, Gumb stalks Starling with night-vision goggles, but reveals himself by cocking his revolver. Starling reacts quickly and shoots Gumb dead.

At the FBI Academy graduation party, Starling receives a phone call from Lecter, who is at a Bimini airport. He wishes her well, and says he must hang up because he is "having an old friend for dinner". He trails a newly arrived Chilton into the crowd.




The Silence of the Lambs is based the novel 1988 novel by Thomas Harris, and is the second film to feature the character Hannibal Lecter following the 1986 film Manhunter. Prior to the novel's release, Orion Pictures partnered with Gene Hackman to adapt it for film. With Hackman set to direct and possibly star in the role of Crawford, negotiations were made to split the $500,000 cost of rights between Hackman and the studio.[8] In addition to securing the rights to the novel, producers also had to acquire the rights to the name "Hannibal Lecter," which were owned by Manhunter producer Dino De Laurentiis. Owing to the financial failure of Manhunter, De Laurentiis lent the rights to Orion Pictures free.[9]

In November 1987, Ted Tally was brought on to write the adaptation;[10] Tally had crossed paths with Harris many times, with his interest in adapting The Silence of the Lambs originating from receiving an advance copy of the book from Harris.[11] When Tally was about halfway through with the first draft, Hackman withdrew from the project and financing fell through. However, Orion Pictures co-founder Mike Medavoy assured Tally to keep writing as the studio took care of financing and searched for a replacement director.[12] As a result, Orion Pictures sought director Jonathan Demme to helm the project. With the screenplay not yet completed, Demme signed on after reading the novel.[13] From there, the project quickly took off, as Tally explained, "[Demme] read my first draft not long after it was finished, and we met, then I was just startled by the speed of things. We met in May 1989 and were shooting in November. I don't remember any big revisions."[14]


Jodie Foster was interested in playing the role of Clarice Starling immediately after reading the novel. However, in spite of the fact that Foster had just won an Academy Award for her performance in The Accused (1988), Demme was not convinced that she was right for the role.[15][16] Having just collaborated on Married to the Mob (1988), Demme's first choice for the role of Starling was Michelle Pfeiffer, who turned it down, later saying, "It was a difficult decision, but I got nervous about the subject matter."[17] He then approached Meg Ryan, who turned it down as well for its gruesome themes, and then Laura Dern, of whom the studio was skeptical as not being a bankable choice.[18] As a result, Foster was awarded the role due to her passion towards the character.[19]

For the role of Dr. Hannibal Lecter, Demme originally approached Sean Connery. After Connery turned it down, Anthony Hopkins was offered the role based on his performance in The Elephant Man (1980).[20] Other actors considered for the role included Al Pacino,[21]Robert De Niro,[21]Dustin Hoffman,[21]Derek Jacobi[22] and Daniel Day-Lewis.[22] The mask Hopkins wore became an iconic symbol of the film. It was created by Ed Cubberly, of Frenchtown, New Jersey, who had made numerous masks for NHL goalies.[23]

Gene Hackman was originally cast to play Jack Crawford, the Agent-in-Charge of the Behavioral Science Unit of the FBI in Quantico, Virginia, but he found the script "too violent."[21]Scott Glenn was then cast in the role. In preparation for the role, Glenn met with John E. Douglas. Douglas gave Glenn a tour of the Quantico facility and also played for him an audio tape containing various recordings that serial killers Lawrence Bittaker and Roy Norris had made of themselves raping and torturing a 16-year-old girl.[24][25] According to Douglas, Glenn wept as he listened to the recordings, and even changed his liberal stance on the death penalty.[26]


Principal photography on The Silence of the Lambs began on November 15, 1989, and wrapped on March 1, 1990.[27] Filming primarily took place in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with some scenes shot in nearby northern West Virginia.[28] The Victorian home in Perryopolis, Pennsylvania used as Buffalo Bill's home in the film went up for sale in August 2015 for $300,000.[29] The home sat on the market for nearly a year, before finally selling for $195,000.[30][31] The exterior of the Western Center near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania served as the setting for Baltimore State Hospital for the Criminally Insane.[32] In what was a rare act of cooperation at the time, the FBI allowed scenes to be filmed at the FBI Academy in Quantico; some FBI staff members even acted in bit parts.[33][34]


Professional ratings
Review scores
Allmusic4/5 stars
Filmtracks.com3/5 stars

The musical score for The Silence of the Lambs was composed by Howard Shore, who would also go on to collaborate with Demme on Philadelphia. Recorded in Munich during the latter half of the summer of 1990, the score was performed by the Munich Symphony Orchestra.[35] "I tried to write in a way that goes right into the fabric of the movie," explained Shore on his approach. "I tried to make the music just fit in. When you watch the movie you are not aware of the music. You get your feelings from all elements simultaneously, lighting, cinematography, costumes, acting, music. Jonathan Demme was very specific about the music."[36] The music editor was Suzana Peric.[37][38] A soundtrack album was released by MCA Records on February 5, 1991.[39] Music from the film was later used in the trailers for its 2001 sequel, Hannibal.[40]


Box office

The Silence of the Lambs was released on February 14, 1991, grossing $14 million during its opening weekend. At the time it closed on October 10, 1991, the film had grossed $131 million domestically with a total worldwide gross of $273 million.[41] It was the fifth-highest-grossing film of 1991 worldwide.[42]

The film opened at the Odeon Leicester Square in London in June 1991 and grossed £290,936 in its opening week, which distributor Rank claimed was a world record opening week from one theatre.[43] The following week it expanded to 281 screens and grossed £4,260,472 for the week, a UK record.[44]

Home media

The film was released on VHS in October, 1991 by Orion Home Video[45] and on DVD on March 6, 2001 by MGM Home Entertainment.[46] The Criterion Collection, which had released the film on LaserDisc in 1994, released a DVD special edition in 1998, and later a Blu-Ray edition in 2018.[47]


Critical response

Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins' performances garnered widespread critical acclaim and won them the Academy Awards for Best Actress and Best Actor, respectively.

The Silence of the Lambs was a sleeper hit that gradually gained widespread success and critical acclaim.[48] Foster, Hopkins, and Levine garnered much acclaim for their performances. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 96% of 101 film critics have given the film a positive review, with an average rating of 8.87/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Director Jonathan Demme's smart, taut thriller teeters on the edge between psychological study and all-out horror, and benefits greatly from stellar performances by Anthony Hopkins and Jodie Foster."[49]Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a weighted average score of 85 out of 100, based on 19 reviews from mainstream critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[50] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A-" on an A+ to F scale.[51]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, specifically mentioned the "terrifying qualities" of Hannibal Lecter.[52] Ebert later added the film to his list of The Great Movies, recognizing the film as a "horror masterpiece" alongside such classics as Nosferatu, Psycho, and Halloween.[53] However, the film is also notable for being one of two multi-Academy Award winners (the other being Unforgiven) to get a bad review from Ebert's colleague, Gene Siskel. Writing for Chicago Tribune, Siskel said, "Foster's character, who is appealing, is dwarfed by the monsters she is after. I'd rather see her work on another case."[54]


The Silence of the Lambs was criticized by members of the LGBT community for its portrayal of Buffalo Bill as bisexual and transgender, although Bill's sexual orientation is not stated and Lecter expressly states Bill is "not really transsexual". Demme responded that Buffalo Bill "wasn't a gay character. He was a tormented man who hated himself and wished he was a woman because that would have made him as far away from himself as he possibly could be." Demme added that he "came to realize that there is a tremendous absence of positive gay characters in movies".[55] Much of the criticism was made towards Foster, who critics alleged was a lesbian.[56][full ]

In a 1992 interview with Playboy magazine, the feminist and women's rights advocate Betty Friedan stated: "I thought it was absolutely outrageous that The Silence of the Lambs won four [sic] Oscars. [...] I'm not saying that the movie shouldn't have been shown. I'm not denying the movie was an artistic triumph, but it was about the evisceration, the skinning alive of women. That is what I find offensive. Not the Playboy centerfold."[57]


Academy Awards record
Best Picture, Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt, Ronald M. Bozman
Best Director, Jonathan Demme
Best Actor, Anthony Hopkins
Best Actress, Jodie Foster
Best Adapted Screenplay, Ted Tally
Golden Globe Awards record
Best Actress, Jodie Foster
British Academy Film Awards record
Best Actor, Anthony Hopkins
Best Actress, Jodie Foster

The film won the Big Five Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Demme), Best Actor (Hopkins), Best Actress (Foster), and Best Adapted Screenplay (Ted Tally), making it only the third film in history to accomplish that feat.[58] It was also nominated for Best Sound (Tom Fleischman and Christopher Newman) and Best Film Editing, but lost to Terminator 2: Judgment Day and JFK, respectively.[59]

Other awards include Best Film by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, CHI Awards and PEO Awards. Demme won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 41st Berlin International Film Festival[60] and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director. The film was nominated for the Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association. It was also nominated for the British Academy Film Award for Best Film. Screenwriter Ted Tally received an Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay. The film was awarded Best Horror Film of the Year during the 2nd Horror Hall of Fame telecast, with Vincent Price presenting the award to the film's executive producer Gary Goetzman.[61]

In 1998, the film was listed as one of the 100 greatest films in the past 100 years by the American Film Institute.[62] In 2006, at the Key Art Awards, the original poster for The Silence of the Lambs was named best film poster "of the past 35 years".[63]The Silence of the Lambs placed seventh on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments for Lecter's escape scene. The American Film Institute named Hannibal Lecter (as portrayed by Hopkins) the number one film villain of all time[64] and Clarice Starling (as portrayed by Foster) the sixth-greatest film hero of all time.[64] In 2011, ABC aired a prime-time special, Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time, that counted down the best films chosen by fans based on results of a poll conducted by ABC and People magazine. The Silence of the Lambs was selected as the best suspense/thriller and Dr. Hannibal Lecter was selected as the fourth-greatest film character.

The film and its characters have appeared in the following AFI "100 Years" lists:

In 2015, Entertainment Weeklys 25th anniversary year, it included The Silence of the Lambs in its list of the 25 best movies made since the magazine's beginning.[65]


According to the Guardian, before The Silence of the Lambs, "films portraying psychopathic killers tended to be cheap and nasty gore-fests" such as Friday the 13th, Halloween and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, or grindhouse films such as Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer. Serial killers had been "claw-handed bogeymen with melty faces and rubber masks. By contrast, Lecter was highly intelligent with impeccable manners," and played by an actor with "impeccable credentials".[66]

When The Silence of the Lambs was rereleased in the UK in 2017, the British Board of Film Classification reclassified it from an 18 to a 15 certificate. Silence of the Lambs producer Ex Saxon said audiences had become desensitised and that the film had become less shocking.[66] However, the BBFC's Craig Lapper felt that audiences had instead become used to procedural crime dramas with serial killers as dramatic tropes, and suggested that The Silence of the Lambs had created interest in these themes.[66]

See also


  1. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 2013.
  2. ^ a b "The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ "Top 10 Psychological Horror Movies - Alternative Reel". Alternative Reel. Alternative Reel. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  4. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ Durkan, Deirdre (March 1, 2018). "'Jaws' to 'Get Out': The Only 6 Horror Films Ever Nominated for Oscar's Best Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Valence Media. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time - #400-301". Empire Online. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ "Silence of the Lambs added to U.S. film archive". London, England: BBC. December 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  8. ^ Tiech, John (June 20, 2012). Pittsburgh Film History: On Set in the Steel City. Stroud, Gloucestershire: The History Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-60949-709-5. Retrieved 2014.
  9. ^ Bernstein, Jill (February 8, 2001). "How Ridley Scott's Hannibal came to be made". The Guardian. London, England: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 2014.
  10. ^ Medavoy, Mike (June 25, 2013). You're Only as Good as Your Next One: 100 Great Films, 100 Good Films, and 100 for Which I Should Be Shot (Reprint ed.). New York City: Atria Books. p. 183. ISBN 9781439118139. Retrieved 2014.
  11. ^ Konow, David (October 2, 2012). Reel Terror: The Scary, Bloody, Gory, Hundred-Year History of Classic Horror Films. London, England: St. Martin's Press. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-312-66883-9. Retrieved 2014.
  12. ^ Engel, Joel (February 12, 2013). Screenwriters on Screen-Writing: The Best in the Business Discuss Their Craft (Kindle ed.). New York City: Hyperion Books. ISBN 9781401305574. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ Kapsis, Robert E. (December 19, 2008). Jonathan Demme: Interviews (Conversations With Filmmakers Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. pp. 71-75. ISBN 978-1-60473-118-7. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ Scott, Kevin Conroy (April 28, 2006). Screenwriters' Masterclass: Screenwriters Discuss their Greatest Films. New York City: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780571261581. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ "The Total Film Interview - Jodie Foster". Total Film. Bath, England: Future Publishing. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ Davis, Cindy (February 27, 2012). "Mindhole Blowers: 20 Facts About The Silence of the Lambs That Might Make You Crave a Nice Chianti". Pajiba. Retrieved 2014.
  17. ^ The Barbara Walters Special, American Broadcast Company, 1992
  18. ^ Davis, Cindy (April 2, 2015). "'Silence Of The Lambs' director admits he didn't want to cast Jodie Foster". NME. London, England: TI Media. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ Maslin, Janet (February 19, 1991). "How to Film a Gory Story With Restraint". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ Odam, Matthew (October 26, 2013). "AFF panel wrap: Jonathan Demme in conversation with Paul Thomas Anderson". Austin American-Statesman. Austin, Texas: Cox Media Group. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d White, Peter (November 6, 2017). "Jodie Foster Lifts The Lid On 'The Silence Of The Lambs' At BFI - Q&A". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 2017.
  22. ^ a b Lang, Brent (September 11, 2013). "Derek Jacobi, Daniel Day-Lewis Almost Played Hannibal Lecter in 'Silence of the Lambs'". The Wrap. Los Angeles, California: The Wrap News, Inc. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ "Ed Cubberly - Hannibal Lechter Masks". Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ Newton, Michael. "Lawrence Bittaker & Roy Norris: Killing Time". Crime Library. Atlanta, Georgia: TruTV. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  25. ^ Kessler, Ronald (October 1, 1993). The FBI. New York City: Pocket Books. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-671-78657-1. Retrieved 2014. scott glenn John Douglas.
  26. ^ Douglas, John E.; Olshaker, Mark (October 31, 1995). Mindhunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit. New York City: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80376-0. Retrieved 2014.
  27. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs (1991) - Miscellaneous Notes". Leonard Maltin's Classic Movie Guide. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2014.
  28. ^ "City lands good share of movies". The Vindicator. December 10, 1995. Retrieved 2011.
  29. ^ "'Silence of the Lambs' Takes Revenge on This Week's Most Popular Homes". News. Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ Rogers, Katie (January 13, 2016). "'Silence of the Lambs' House Can't Find a Buyer". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. Retrieved 2020.
  31. ^ Zap, Claudine (July 9, 2016). "'Silence of the Lambs' House Finally Sells". News. Retrieved 2020.
  32. ^ Kirsch, Tom. "Western Center - Abandoned Photography". Opacity. Retrieved 2014.
  33. ^ Edwards, Carl N. (January 2, 2001). Responsibilities and Dispensations: Behavior, Science, & American Justice. Dover, Massachusetts: Four Oaks Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-9705128-8-8. Retrieved 2014.
  34. ^ Lurie, Rod (June 1991). "Dr. Lecter Will See You Now". Empire Magazine. London, England: Bauer Media. Retrieved 2014.
  35. ^ "Howard Shore - The Silence Of The Lambs (The Original Motion Picture Score)". Discogs. Zink Media, Inc. Retrieved 2014.
  36. ^ Büdinger, Matthias; Luc Van de Ven (1991). "Howard Shore on The Silence of the Lambs". Soundtrack Magazine. 10 (37). Archived from the original on November 23, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  37. ^ "Suzana Peric". NYU Steinhardt. Retrieved 2020.
  39. ^ "Filmtracks: The Silence of the Lambs (Howard Shore)". November 24, 2009. Retrieved 2014.
  40. ^ "Trailer Music: Hannibal (2001)". Autotelics, LLC. Retrieved 2014.
  41. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs". Box Office Mojo.
  42. ^ "1991 Yearly Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2012.
  43. ^ Coopman, Jeremy (June 10, 1991). "'Lambs' Loud In U.K. Bow". Variety. p. 43.
  44. ^ Pitman, Jack (June 17, 1991). "'Lambs' Record $6.9 Mil". Variety. p. 38.
  45. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs Company Credits". Retrieved 2020.
  46. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs". Archived from the original on September 6, 2002. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs :: Criterion Forum". Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ Collins, Jim (1992). Film Theory Goes to the Movies. London, England: Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-415-90576-3.
  49. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Rotten Tomatoes. San Francisco, California: Fandango Media. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ "The Silence of the Lambs Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2018.
  51. ^ "CinemaScore".
  52. ^ Ebert, Roger (February 14, 1991). "The Silence of the Lambs Movie Review (1991)". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. Retrieved 2014.
  53. ^ Ebert, Roger (February 18, 2001). "The Great Movies: The Silence of the Lambs (1991)". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. Retrieved 2014 – via
  54. ^ Siskel, Gene (February 15, 1991). "Jodie Foster Appealing, But Not 'Silence Of The Lambs'". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois: Tribune Company. Retrieved 2014.
  55. ^ Schmalz, Jeffrey (February 28, 1993). "From Visions of Paradise to Hell on Earth". The New York Times.
  56. ^ Hollinger 2012, pp. 46-47
  57. ^ "Interview of Friedan" by David Sheff, Playboy, September 1992, pp. 51-54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 149; reprinted in full in Interviews with Betty Friedan, Janann Sherman, ed. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2002, ISBN 1-57806-480-5.
  58. ^ Pristin, Terry (March 31, 1992). "'Silence of the Lambs' Sweeps 5 Major Oscars". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved 2014.
  59. ^ "The 64th Academy Awards (1992) Nominees and Winners". Retrieved 2011.
  60. ^ "Berlinale: 1991 Prize Winners". Retrieved 2011.
  61. ^ 2nd Annual Horror Hall of Fame Telecast, 1991
  62. ^ AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies Accessed March 14, 2007. Archived March 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ "'Sin City' place to be at Key Art Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. October 9, 2006. Retrieved October 7, 2007
  64. ^ a b AFI 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Accessed March 14, 2007. Archived March 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ "EW's 25 Best Movies in 25 Years". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2015.
  66. ^ a b c Clarke, Cath (October 13, 2017). "An old friend for dinner ... why we're not scared of Hannibal Lecter any more". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020.

External links

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Music Scenes