The Establishment
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The Establishment

Eton College in England has educated nineteen UK prime ministers.

The Establishment is a dominant group or élite that holds power or authority in a nation or in an organisation. It may comprise a closed social group which selects its own members, or specific entrenched élite structures, either in government or in specific institutions.

The American Sociological Association states that the term is often used by those protesting a small group that dominates a larger organisation. For example, in 1968, a group of academics formed the "Sociology Liberation Movement" (SLM) in order to repudiate the leadership of the American Sociological Association itself, which the SLM referred to as the "Establishment in American sociology".[1]

In fact, one can refer to any relatively small class or group of people that can exercise control as The Establishment. Conversely, in the jargon of sociology, anyone who does not belong to The Establishment may be labelled an "outsider"[2][3] (as opposed to an "insider").

Anti-authoritarian and anti-establishment ideologies tend to paint establishments as illegitimate.

United Kingdom

The term is most often used in the United Kingdom.[] In different contexts it may include politicians, civil servants, legal representatives, academics, clergy in the Church of England, financiers, industrialists, governors e.g. Bank of England, BBC etc. The term in this sense is sometimes mistakenly believed to have been coined by the British journalist Henry Fairlie, who in September 1955 in the London magazine The Spectator defined that network of prominent, well-connected people as "the Establishment", explaining:

By the Establishment, I do not only mean the centres of official power--though they are certainly part of it--but rather the whole matrix of official and social relations within which power is exercised. The exercise of power in the United Kingdom (more specifically, in England) cannot be understood unless it is recognized that it is exercised socially.[4]

Following that, the term the Establishment was quickly picked up in newspapers and magazines all over London, making Fairlie famous. However, the term had been used by Ralph Waldo Emerson in a similar fashion, a century earlier.[5] Nevertheless, the Oxford English Dictionary would cite Fairlie's column as its locus classicus.

However, author and professor Carroll Quigley of Georgetown University, in his book The Anglo-American Establishment,[6][7] used the term much more specifically than did Fairlie. In that book (copyright date 1981),[8] (according to an out-of-print edition):

Quigley exposes the secret society's (sic) established in London in 1891, by Cecil Rhodes. Quigley explains how these men worked in union to begin their society to control the world. He explains how all the wars from that time were deliberately created to control the economies of all the nations.

That society was established by Cecil Rhodes in 1891 and, following Rhodes' death in 1902, was carried on by Alfred Milner, which society, Quigley refers to as the Milner Group, but sometimes referred to as the Round Table movement. That group, with significant American input, would, following the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, establish and control the Royal Institute for International Affairs, later to become known as Chatham House.

Much more generally, this use of the word, Establishment, may have been influenced by the British term, established church, for the official Church of England. The term was then found useful in discussing the power elites in many other countries. The English word is now used as a loanword in many other languages.

Australia

The term, establishment is often used in Australia to refer both to the main political parties and also to the powers behind those parties. In the book, Anti-political Establishment Parties: A Comparative Analysis by Amir Abedi (2004),[9] Amir Abedi refers to the Labor Party and the Coalition Parties (the Liberal Party and the National/Country Party) as the establishment parties.

Canada

The original Canadian Establishment began as a mix between the British and U.S. models, combining political appointments and business acumen. The Family Compact is the first identifiable Canadian Establishment in Anglophone Canada. In francophone Canada, the local leaders of the Catholic Church also played a major role.

The journalist Peter C. Newman defined the modern "Canadian Establishment" in his 1975 book The Canadian Establishment. It catalogued the richest individuals and families living in Canada at the time. All of the specific people he identified were prominent business leaders, especially in the media and in public transit. Newman reports that several of these old families have maintained their importance into the 21st century.

According to Anglo-American journalist Peter Brimelow, Newman's establishment was overshadowed by a new class. His book The Patriot Game "makes a swinging attack on the political, bureaucratic, and academic establishment whose entire well-being rests on the promotion of Canadian nationalism. [He] identifies the federal Liberal party as the selfish and thoughtless inventor of this modern activity of creating a Canadian identity, he argues that it is now a pervasive disease throughout Canada's national political and cultural elite."[10]

Ireland

The term "Official Ireland" is commonly used in the Republic of Ireland to denote the media, cultural and religious establishment.

Hong Kong and Macau

The term is also used in politics of Hong Kong and Macau, where political parties, community groups, chambers of commerce, trade unions and individuals who are cooperative with and loyal to the Communist Party of China and the post-handover Hong Kong Government are labelled (most often self-labelled) "pro-Beijing" or "pro-establishment". The term first appeared in 2004.[]

Pakistan

"The Establishment in Pakistan" is the terminology used in Pakistan to describe the deep state cooperative federation of the Pakistan Armed Forces and the Pakistani intelligence community.[11] Involved in numerous successful military coups in Pakistan, the Pakistan Army army has directly ruled for nearly half of its nation's existence since Pakistan's creation in 1947, and rest of the times the army has had veto power over the civilian rule.[12] The Establishment was behind the 1953-54 Constitutional Coup,[13][14]1958 Pakistani coup d'état.[15]1977 coup,[16][17][18] and 1999 Pakistani coup d'état,[19] The army has been involved in enforcing martial law against the elected governments in claiming to restore law and order in the country by dismissing the legislative branch, the Parliament, four times in past decades, and has wider commercial, foreign, and political interests in the country, facing allegations of acting as state within a state.[20][21][22][23][24] The Establishment's mainly consists of the country's high-ranking military officers who also control the collaborating senior civil servants, members of the Judiciary, the most important financiers and industrialists and the media moguls. The Establishment in Pakistan considers the key and elite decision makers in country's public policy, ranging from the use of the intelligence services, national security, foreign and domestic policies including the state policy of sponsoring terrorism.


Role of military dictatorships in entrenching The Establishment

The Establishment in Pakistan, which has ruled Pakistan through direct military dictatorship as well as through control over the powerless civilian governments, is responsible for its strategic policy of state sponsorship of terrorism by Pakistan. FATF, USA, EU, India and many other inter-government organisations and nations have described Pakistan as the state sponshor of terrorism, and several former and serving Prime Ministers as well as the top army general have admitted to this fact.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] In July 2019, reigning Prime Mminister of Pakistan Imran Khan on his official visit to the United States admitted the presence of 30000-40000 armed terrorists in the country and that the previous governments were hiding this truth particularly from the US in the past.[28] In 2018, former Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif admitted that the Pakistani government played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attack.[33] Former Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf, a military dictator who took over the power by military coup, conceded that his forces trained militant groups to fight India in Indian-administered Kashmir.[32] He confessed that the government ?turned a blind eye? because it wanted to force India to enter into negotiations, as well as raise the issue internationally.[32] He also said Pakistani spies in the Inter-Services Intelligence directorate (ISI) cultivated the Taliban after 2001 because Karzai's government was dominated by non-Pashtuns, who are the country's largest ethnic group, and by officials who were thought to favour India.[34]


State sponsorship of terrorism and consequent greylisting by FATF

As a consequence of Pakistani Establishment's state policy of sponsorship of terrorism, Pakistan is currently on the Grey list of FATF for terrorism financing and state sponsorship of terrorism by Pakistan and The Establishment as a state policy.[35] In October 2019, FATF warned Pakistan that it had failed to fully implement a UN Security Council resolution against Hafiz Saeed and other UN-designated terrorists, as well as terrorist organisations like Jaish-e-Mohammed and the Lashkar-e-Taiba.[31] The U.S. Country Reports on Terrorism describes Pakistan as a "Terrorist safe haven" where terrorists are able to organize, plan, raise funds, communicate, recruit, train, transit, and operate in relative security because of inadequate governance capacity, political will, or both.[26][27] Pakistan's tribal region along its border with Afghanistan has been described as a safe haven for terrorists by western media and the United States Defense Secretary.[29][30][36] In 2019, US issued series of official statements asking Pakistan to immediately end support and safe haven to all terrorist groups.[37] A report by Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution states that Pakistan was "the world's most active sponsor of terrorist groups... aiding these groups that pose a direct threat to the United States. Pakistan's active participation has caused thousands of deaths in the region; all these years Pakistan has been supportive to several terrorist groups despite several stern warnings from the international community."[25] Pakistani government's top leaders and Pakistan Army's top leaders are often seen in public sharing stage with the UN and US designaed terrorists.[38]


Suppression of nalist movements, forced disappearances and extra-judicial killings

The Establishment is dominated by the people of its largest ethinic group, Punjabi Muslims. The Establishment is responsible for the thousands of, a fact acknowledged by the Pakistani authorities.[39] and described as epidemic by Human Rights Watch (HRW),[40]forced appearances, extrajudicial killings and targeted killings of its own citizens specially against the civilian nationalists of non-Punjabi nationalities such as Baloch,[41]Sindhi,[42][43][44][45][46]Pashtun,[47][48][49] through direct involvement of militray and ISI as well as also often using Islamist militants to undertake these activities.[50][51][52][53][54][55] In July 2011, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan issued a report on illegal disappearances in Balochistan which identified ISI and Frontier Corps as the perpetrators.[56] The Establishment in Pakistan is responsible for the ongoing forced disappearance in Pakistan, a form of kidnapping, torturing and extra-judicial killing its own citizens without any judicial due process. After the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, forced disappearance in Pakistan began during the rule of military dictator General Pervez Musharraf (1999 to 2008).[57] After Musharaf resigned in August 2008, he was charged with various human rights violations.[58] During Musharraf's tenure, many people were forcibly taken away by Govt agencies.[58][59][60]


Institutionalised persecution of minorities

It also engages in the institutionalised persecution of minorities in Pakistan, specially Ahmadiya, Shias and Hazara after the Islamization of Pakistan by the military dictator General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq who took over the power through military coup.


Ethnic cleansing of Hindus and Bengali Muslims in East Pakistan

The Establishment is also responsible for the ethnic cleansing of Hindus and nationalist Bengali Muslims of East Pakistan, killing 30 million and raping 1 million women.


Against Baloch

The Pakistani state was using Islamist militants to crush Balochi separatists.[61] Academics and journalists in the United States have been approached by Inter-Services Intelligence spies, who threatened them not to speak about the insurgency in Balochistan, as well as human rights abuses by the Pakistani Army, or else their families\ would be harmed.[62] According to journalist Ahmed Rashid writing in 2014, estimates of the number of disappeared in Balochistan "are between hundreds and several thousand."[52]The Frontier Corps (FC), Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency[63] and other groups have been accused of "a decade-long campaign" of "pick up and dump" in which "Baloch nationalists, militants or even innocent bystanders are picked up, disappeared, tortured, mutilated and then killed".[55] Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency has been accused of massive human rights abuses in Balochistan by Human Rights Watch, with the enforced disappearance of hundreds of nationalists and activists. In 2008 alone, an estimated 1102 people were disappeared from the region.[63] There have also been reports of torture.[64] An increasing number of bodies are being found on roadsides, having been shot in the head.[65] In July 2011, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan issued a report on illegal disappearances in Balochistan which identified ISI and Frontier Corps as the perpetrators. According to journalist Malik Siraj Akbar, as of May 2015, "dozens of people are losing their lives every day" in "extra judicial killings committed by the Pakistani security forces" in the province of Balochistan.[56]


Against Sindhi

In October 2011, Asian Human Rights Commission issued an appeal on information it had received that the Sindh University authorities allegedly used law enforcement agencies for disappearances of students in Sindh province.[66] In a 2012 statement issued by Asian Human Rights Commission, it said that: "In Sindh province more than 100 nationalists were abducted and disappeared after 9/11, many were extra judicially killed and their tortured and bullet riddled bodies were dumped on the streets." It further added that: "Alone, from JSMM 13 people are still missing. Its former leader, Mr. Muzzafar Bhutto was two times abducted and kept in military torture cells where he succumbed to his injuries during the second time detention."[67][68]


Against Pashtun

The Pashtun Protection Movement has accused the Pakistan Army of "a campaign of intimidation that includes extrajudicial killings and thousands of disappearances and detentions."[47][48] Pashtuns who have advocated for human rights for their ethnic group have been attacked and murdered.[49]

Due to the Pakistani Establishment's policies, terrorism poses a significant threat to Pakistan itself. According to the government of Pakistan, the direct and indirect economic costs of terrorism from 2000-2010 total $68 billion.[69] According to the Pakistan's Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi being on the FATF grey list is causing economy of Pakistan to lose at least US$10 billion every year and even IMF's US$6 billion bail out loan to Pakistan remains at the risk of being blocked.[35] The damage will be much more if it is downgraded to the FATF blacklist.[70]

United States

The United States lacks titled nobility unlike Commonwealth countries. However there are various prominent American families that have held disproportionate wealth and wielded disproportionate political power not too dissimilar to that of titled nobility. Many of these families often have ties to older East Coast cities such as Boston, New York City, Philadelphia and Newport, Rhode Island. One such group of interconnected elite families is the Boston Brahmins. Many in the East Coast establishment have ties to Ivy League colleges and to prep schools in New England and the Northeast.

See also

References

  1. ^ Barcan, Alan (1993). Sociological theory and educational reality. p. 150.
  2. ^ Elias, Norbert; Scotson, John L (1965). The Established and the Outsiders. OCLC 655412048.[page needed]
  3. ^ Elias, Norbert; Martins, Herminio; Whitley, Richard (1982). Scientific Establishments and Hierarchies. Dordrecht: Reidel. p. 40. ISBN 978-90-277-1322-3. Those who are outsiders, in relation to a given establishment, as a rule, have on their part resources needed by the establishments' members [...]. Established and outsiders, in other words, have specific functions for each other. No established-outsider relationship is likely to maintain itself for long without some reciprocity of dependence. [...] Members of an establishment usually are very careful to maintain and, if possible, to increase the high dependence ratio of their outsider groups and thus the power differentials between these and themselves.
  4. ^ Fairlie, Henry (23 September 1955). "Political Commentary". The Spectator.
  5. ^ Fairlie, Henry (19 October 1968). "Evolution of a Term". The New Yorker.
  6. ^ "The Anglo-American Establishment" (PDF). Carrollquigley.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-05-03. Retrieved .
  7. ^ The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1 (hardcover and paperback). Reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0 (paperback). Full text.
  8. ^ Anglo-American Establishment (9780945001010): Quigley Carroll: Books. Amazon.com. ISBN 0945001010.
  9. ^ "Anti-political Establishment Parties: A Comparative Analysis - Amir Abedi - Google Buku". Books.google.co.id. Archived from the original on 2016-12-25. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Stewart, Gordon (4 June 1988). "The Patriot Game: National Dreams & Political Realities by Peter Brimelow (review)". The Canadian Historical Review. 69 (2): 273-274 – via Project MUSE.
  11. ^ Haqqani, Husain (2005). Pakistan : between mosque and military (1. print. ed.). Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 978-0870032141.
  12. ^ Pakistan Extends Powerful Army Chief's Term, Wall Street Journal, 19 Aug 2019.
  13. ^ Pakistan Constitutional Beginnings PAKISTAN - A Country Study
  14. ^ declassified US Intelligence.
  15. ^ declassified US Intelligence.
  16. ^ Hyman, Anthony; Ghayur, Muhammed; Kaushik, Naresh (1989). Pakistan, Zia and After--. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 30. ISBN 81-7017-253-5. Operation Fair Play went ahead ... as the clock struck midnight [on 4 July 1977] ... [Later,] General Zia [told Bhutto] that Bhutto along with other political leaders of both the ruling and opposition parties would be taken into what he called 'protective custody'.
  17. ^ Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. (2005). Prospects for Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1. Zia-ul-Haq, however, chose not to abrogate the 1973 Constitution. Rather, Zia's government suspended the operation of the Constitution and governed directly, through the promulgation of martial law regulations ... Between 1977 and 1981 Pakistan did not have legislative institutions.
  18. ^ Cohen, Stephen P. (2004). The idea of Pakistan (1. paperback ed.). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815715021.
  19. ^ Hassan Abbas (2005). Pakistan's drift into extremism: Allah, the army, and America's war on terror. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 16-40. ISBN 978-0-7656-1496-4.
  20. ^ Javid, Hassan (23 November 2014). "COVER STORY: The Army & Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan". DAWN.COM. Dawn Newspapers. Dawn Newspapers. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  21. ^ Aqil, Shah (1973). The army and democracy : military politics in Pakistan. ISBN 9780674728936.
  22. ^ Haqqani, Husain (2005). Pakistan between mosque and military. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 0870032852.
  23. ^ Aziz, Mazhar (2007). Military Control in Pakistan: The Parallel State. Routledge. ISBN 9781134074099. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ Chengappa, Bidanda M. (2004). Pakistan, Islamisation, Army and Foreign Policy. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788176485487.
  25. ^ a b Daniel L. Byman. "The Changing Nature of State Sponsorship of Terrorism" (PDF). Brookings.edu. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ a b "Chapter 5: Terrorist Safe Havens (Update to 7120 Report)". United States Department of State. 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  27. ^ a b "Country Reports on Terrorism 2016". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 2017-07-20. Retrieved .
  28. ^ a b "30,000-40,000 terrorists still present in Pak: Imran Khan". Rediff. Retrieved .
  29. ^ a b "Leon Panetta: U.S. "reaching the limits of our patience" with Pakistan terror safe havens". Cbsnews.com. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  30. ^ a b "A safe haven for terrorists". Economist. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 2012.
  31. ^ a b ""Biggest Pressure" On Pak From Anti-Terror Watchdog FATF". Retrieved .
  32. ^ a b c "SPIEGEL Interview with Pervez Musharraf: 'Pakistan is Always Seen as the Rogue' - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2012.
  33. ^ Farmer, Ben (24 September 2019). "Pakistan trained al-Qaeda, says Imran Khan". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2019. Pakistan's security apparatus has in the past angrily rejected politicians linking it to militancy. Nawaz Sharif, the former prime minister, faced treason charges last year after an interview where he suggested the Pakistani state played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attack that killed 166 people.
  34. ^ Boone, Jon (13 February 2015). "Musharraf: Pakistan and India's backing for 'proxies' in Afghanistan must stop". The Guardian.
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  36. ^ Dean Nelson in New Delhi (7 December 2010). "Nicolas Sarkozy launches attack on Pakistan over terrorist safe havens". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2015.
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  38. ^ "Pak govt leaders caught sharing stage with US-designated". Retrieved .
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  41. ^ Walsh, Declan (28 July 2011). "Pakistan's military accused of escalating draconian campaign in Balochistan". The Guardian.
  42. ^ "Congressman Sherman Condemns Assault on Families of Disappeared Persons during Hunger-Strike in Sindh, Pakistan". 21 May 2018.
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  46. ^ "Sindh University authorities use law enforcement agencies for disappearances of students". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 2017.
  47. ^ a b Gannon, Kathy (28 April 2018). "Pashtun rights group accuses Pakistan army of abuses". Associated Press. A Pakistani human rights group that has accused the military of widespread abuses as it battles Islamist militants in Pakistan's rugged border region with neighboring Afghanistan has emerged as a force among the country's Pashtun minority, drawing tens of thousands to rallies to protest what it contends is a campaign of intimidation that includes extrajudicial killings and thousands of disappearances and detentions.
  48. ^ a b Gannon, Kathy (28 April 2018). "Pashtun rights group accuses Pakistan army of abuses". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2019.
  49. ^ a b Khan, Omer Farooq (5 June 2018). "10 Pashtun protesters killed in Pakistan, activists blame military - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019.
  50. ^ Akbar, Malik Siraj (19 July 2018). "In Balochistan, Dying Hopes for Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019. Increasing attacks by the Islamic State in Balochistan are connected to Pakistan's failed strategy of encouraging and using Islamist militants to crush Baloch rebels and separatists.
  51. ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Schmitt, Eric; Savage, Charlie (23 July 2011). "Pakistan Spies on Its Diaspora, Spreading Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019. Several Pakistani journalists and scholars in the United States interviewed over the past week said that they were approached regularly by Pakistani officials, some of whom openly identified themselves as ISI officials. The journalists and scholars said the officials caution them against speaking out on politically delicate subjects like the indigenous insurgency in Baluchistan or accusations of human rights abuses by Pakistani soldiers. The verbal pressure is often accompanied by veiled warnings about the welfare of family members in Pakistan, they said.
  52. ^ a b Rashid, Ahmed (22 February 2014). "Balochistan: The untold story of Pakistan's other war". BBC News. Retrieved 2015.
  53. ^ Tarabella, Marc (23 June 2015). "EU cannot ignore dire human rights situation in Balochistan". The Parliament Magazine. Retrieved 2015.
  54. ^ Dwivedi, Manan (2009). South Asia Security. Delhi: Gyan Publishing House. pp. 103-4. ISBN 978-81-7835-759-1. Retrieved 2015.
  55. ^ a b Rashid, Ahmed (22 February 2014). "Balochistan: The untold story of Pakistan's other war". BBC News. Retrieved 2015.
  56. ^ a b Akbar, Malik Siraj (17 May 2015). "Betrayal in Balochistan". The World Post. Retrieved 2015. In Pakistan, everyone says they have incontrovertible evidence about India's involvement in destabilizing Balochistan. They only won't share the evidence with you because they insist that when evidence is already too evident then why should one make the evident, evident?
  57. ^ ""We Can Torture, Kill, or Keep You for Years"". Human Rights Watch. 28 July 2011.
  58. ^ a b Shayne R. Burnham (28 September 2008). "Musharraf Faces Charges of Human Rights Violations". Impunity Watch.
  59. ^ "Pakistan". Freedom House. 2007.
  60. ^ Irene Khan (30 August 2008). "Where are the disappeared?". Dawn.
  61. ^ Akbar, Malik Siraj (19 July 2018). "In Balochistan, Dying Hopes for Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019. Increasing attacks by the Islamic State in Balochistan are connected to Pakistan's failed strategy of encouraging and using Islamist militants to crush Baloch rebels and separatists.
  62. ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Schmitt, Eric; Savage, Charlie (23 July 2011). "Pakistan Spies on Its Diaspora, Spreading Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019. Several Pakistani journalists and scholars in the United States interviewed over the past week said that they were approached regularly by Pakistani officials, some of whom openly identified themselves as ISI officials. The journalists and scholars said the officials caution them against speaking out on politically delicate subjects like the indigenous insurgency in Baluchistan or accusations of human rights abuses by Pakistani soldiers. The verbal pressure is often accompanied by veiled warnings about the welfare of family members in Pakistan, they said.
  63. ^ a b Jackson, Richard (2011). Terrorism: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. Chapter 9. ISBN 978-0-230-22117-8.
  64. ^ "Pakistan: Security Forces 'Disappear' Opponents in Balochistan". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved .
  65. ^ Walsh, Declan (28 July 2011). "Pakistan's military accused of escalating draconian campaign in Balochistan". The Guardian. London.
  66. ^ "Sindh University authorities use law enforcement agencies for disappearances of students". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 2017.
  67. ^ "PAKISTAN: The intelligence agencies target nationalists groups to cover up the activities of Taliban in Sindh province and their inefficiency". Asian Human Rights Commission. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 2017.
  68. ^ "Police finds bodies of two Sindhi nationalists". Express Tribune. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 2017. Another member of JSMM, Muzaffar Bhutto, who had been missing since the previous one and a half years, was killed in Jamshoro in May, 2012.
  69. ^ Why they get Pakistan wrong| Mohsin Hamid| NYRoB 29 September 2011
  70. ^ "Pakistan". Freedom House. 2007.

Further reading

  • Burch Jr, Philip H. (1983). "The American establishment: Its historical development and major economic components". Research in political economy. 6: 83-156.
  • Campbell, Fergus. The Irish Establishment 1879-1914 (2009)
  • Dogan, Mattéi, Elite configurations at the apex of power (2003)
  • Hennessy, Peter. The great and the good: an inquiry into the British establishment (Policy Studies Institute, 1986)
  • Jones, Owen. The Establishment - and how they get away with it (Penguin, 2015)
  • Rovere, Richard. The American establishment and other reports, opinions, and speculations (1962)
  • Silk, Leonard Solomon and Mark Silk. American Establishment (1980)
  • Valentine, C. The British Establishment, 1760-1784: An Eighteenth-Century Biographical Dictionary (University of Oklahoma Press, 1970)

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