|The Chronicles of Narnia:|
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Andrew Adamson|
|Produced by||Mark Johnson|
|Based on||The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe|
by C. S. Lewis
|Music by||Harry Gregson-Williams|
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures|
|Box office||$745 million|
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a 2005 fantasy film co-written and directed by Andrew Adamson, based on the 1950 novel The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the first published and second chronological novel in C. S. Lewis's children's epic fantasy series, The Chronicles of Narnia. It was co-produced by Walden Media and Walt Disney Pictures and distributed by Buena Vista Pictures. William Moseley, Anna Popplewell, Skandar Keynes and Georgie Henley play Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy, four British children evacuated during the Blitz to the countryside, who find a wardrobe that leads to the fantasy world of Narnia. There they ally with the lion Aslan (voiced by Liam Neeson) against the forces of Jadis, the White Witch (Tilda Swinton).
The film was released on December 9, 2005, in both Europe and North America to positive reviews and was highly successful at the box office, grossing more than $745 million worldwide, making it 2005's third-most-successful film. It won the 2005 Academy Award for Best Makeup and various other awards. An extended edition was released on December 12, 2006, and was only made available on DVD until January 31, 2007, when it was discontinued. It was the best-selling DVD in North America in 2006 taking in $332.7 million that year.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was the first of a series of adaptations of C. S. Lewis's series, and was followed by Prince Caspian in 2008 and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader in 2010. The three films have grossed over $1.5 billion worldwide among them.
During World War II, the Pevensie children, Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy, are evacuated from a London suburb to Professor Digory Kirke's country home. Mrs. Macready, the strict housekeeper, explains he is unaccustomed to hosting children.
While the Pevensies play hide-and-seek, Lucy discovers a wardrobe and enters the fantasy world of Narnia. Seeing a lamppost, Lucy encounters a faun named Mr. Tumnus, who invites her to his home. He puts Lucy to sleep by playing a lullaby on his flute. When Lucy wakes up, she finds Tumnus grieving. He explains that Jadis, the White Witch, has cursed Narnia to eternal winter 100 years ago. If a human is encountered, they are to be brought to her. Tumnus cannot bring himself to kidnap Lucy, so he sends her home. When she returns to Professor Kirke's house, hardly any time has passed, and her siblings disbelieve her story.
One night, Edmund follows Lucy into the wardrobe, entering Narnia. While searching for Lucy, he meets the White Witch, who claims to be queen. She offers him Turkish Delight and the prospect of becoming king if he brings his siblings to her castle. After she departs, Edmund and Lucy meet again and return. Lucy tells Peter and Susan what happened, but Edmund lies, to Lucy's dismay. Professor Kirke suggests she is telling the truth, though they remain unconvinced.
While running away from Mrs. Macready after accidentally breaking a window, the four siblings retreat to the wardrobe and enter Narnia, Peter and Susan doing so for the first time. They briefly castigate Edmund for lying and force him to apologize to Lucy. Then, they discover that the Witch has taken Mr. Tumnus, and they meet a couple of anthropomorphic beavers, who tell them about Aslan. According to the beavers, Aslan intends to take control of Narnia from the Witch. The four must help Aslan; it has been prophesied that if two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve sit on the four thrones, the White Witch's reign will end.
Edmund sneaks off to visit the Witch. When he arrives at her castle, she is furious he has not delivered his siblings. The Witch sends wolves to track down the children and the beavers, who barely escape. Edmund is chained in the Witch's dungeon, where he meets Tumnus. The Witch demands Edmund reveal his siblings' location. After Tumnus claims that Edmund knows nothing, The Witch tells Mr. Tumnus that Edmund betrayed him, then turns Tumnus to stone.
While Peter, Lucy, Susan, and the beavers travel, they hide from what they believe to be the White Witch; it is really Father Christmas, a sign that the Witch's reign is ending. Father Christmas gives them weapons to defend themselves. Lucy receives a healing cordial that can heal any injury and a dagger to defend herself. Susan receives a magical horn that will summon help and a bow and quiver full of arrows. Peter receives a sword and a shield. After evading wolves led by Maugrim, the group reaches Aslan's camp. Aslan is revealed as a huge and noble lion, who promises to help Edmund. Later, two wolves ambush Lucy and Susan. When Peter intervenes, Maugrim attacks him, only to be killed. Some of Aslan's troops follow the other wolf to the witch's camp and rescue Edmund. Peter is knighted by Aslan.
The White Witch journeys to Aslan's camp and claims Edmund, but Aslan secretly offers to sacrifice himself instead. That night, as Lucy and Susan covertly watch, the White Witch fatally stabs Aslan, but breaks her word by sending an army to invade. Lucy and Susan send a message to the others, and Edmund persuades Peter to lead Aslan's army. In the morning, both armies clash violently, but Aslan is resurrected, citing magic beyond the Witch's understanding. Aslan takes Susan and Lucy to the Witch's castle, where he frees the prisoners she turned to stone. Edmund saves Peter from the Witch by destroying her wand, but she mortally wounds him in turn. As the Witch fights Peter, Aslan arrives with reinforcements. The Witch overpowers Peter, but Aslan kills her before she can finish off Peter. After Edmund is healed from an otherwise fatal wound by Lucy's cordial, the Pevensies are crowned King Peter the Magnificent, Queen Susan the Gentle, King Edmund the Just, and Queen Lucy the Valiant.
Fifteen years later, the Pevensie children, now young adults, chase a white stag through the forest. They encounter the lamppost Lucy saw earlier and suddenly tumble out of the wardrobe at the same time and day they left, becoming children again. Professor Kirke then finds the children, asking why they were in the wardrobe. In a mid-credits scene, Lucy later attempts to return to Narnia via the wardrobe, where Professor Kirke tells her he has tried for many years, and they will probably return to Narnia when they least expect it.
The radio-announcer that Peter listens to on the rainy day near the beginning of the film is played by Douglas Gresham, co-producer of the movie and C. S. Lewis's stepson. Keynes' voice broke during filming, so some of his voice track had to be re-looped by his sister Soumaya. Mr. Pevensie is only glimpsed in a photo which Edmund tries to retrieve during the bombing, which is of Sim-Evan Jones's father.
With the exception of Tilda Swinton, who was the first choice to play Jadis, the White Witch, casting was a long process. Beginning in 2002, Adamson went through 2,500 audition tapes, met 1,800 children and workshopped 400 before coming down to the final four actors for the Pevensies. Moseley and Popplewell came from the very start of casting, whilst Henley and Keynes were cast relatively late. Moseley was cast because casting director Pippa Hall remembered she cast him as an extra in Cider with Rosie (1998). He beat 3,000 boys to the role of Peter and quit school to learn all his lines.
Aslan's voice was a contention point. Brian Cox was originally cast in the role on December 9, 2004, but Adamson changed his mind.Liam Neeson sought out the role, and was announced as the voice on July 17, 2005.
During the early 1990s, producers Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy were planning a film version. They could not find a space in Britain to shoot the film during 1996, and their plans to set the film in modern times made Douglas Gresham oppose the film, in addition to his feeling that technology had yet to catch up.Perry Moore began negotiations with the C. S. Lewis estate in 2000. On December 7, 2001, Walden Media announced that they had acquired the rights to The Chronicles of Narnia.
The success of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone prompted the producers to feel they could make a faithful adaptation of the novel set in Britain. "Harry Potter came along, and all those cultural or geographical lines were broken," Mark Johnson explained. "When The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe was being developed at Paramount, the imperative was to set it in the U.S., and it just doesn't hold. [...] It's not the book."Guillermo del Toro turned down the offer to direct due to his commitment on Pan's Labyrinth. Following an Academy Award win for Shrek, director Andrew Adamson began adapting the source material with a 20-page treatment based on his memories of the book. As such the film begins with the Luftwaffe bombing and concludes with an enormous battle, although they do not take up as much time in the novel.
In the novel, the battle is not seen until Aslan, Susan, Lucy and their reinforcements arrive. This was changed in the movie because Adamson said he could vividly remember a huge battle, an example of how Lewis left a lot to the readers' imagination. Other small changes include the reason all four children come to Narnia, in that an accident breaks a window and forces them to hide. Tumnus also never meets Edmund until the end in the novel. Minor details were added to the Pevensies, such as their mother's name, Helen, being the actual first name of Georgie Henley's mother.Finchley as the home of the Pevensies was inspired by Anna Popplewell, who actually is from Finchley. Adamson also changed the circumstances in which Lucy first comes into Narnia. He felt it was more natural that she first see the wardrobe while looking for a hide-and-seek hiding place, rather than just chance upon it exploring the house. The film also hints at Professor Kirke's role in The Magician's Nephew, such as the engravings on the wardrobe, when it is a simple one in the novel, and the Professor's surprise and intrigue when Peter and Susan mention Lucy's discovery in the wardrobe. When Lewis wrote the novel, it was the first of the series and the back-story later outlined by the subsequent books in the series did not exist. Additionally in the novel, the father of the Pevensie children is in London with their mother, but in the film, their father is fighting in the war as Lucy states to Mr. Tumnus when they first meet in Narnia.
Weta Workshop head Richard Taylor cited Hieronymus Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights as an inspiration on the film. He felt Narnia had to be less dark and gritty than their depiction of Middle-earth in The Lord of the Rings because it is a new world. Many of Weta's creature designs were designed for digital creation, so when Howard Berger and KNB FX inherited the practical effects work, they had to spend three months retooling approved designs for animatronics. Berger's children would comment and advise upon his designs; they suggested the White Witch's hair be changed from black to blonde, which Berger concurred with as he realized Swinton's wig looked too Gothic.
Principal photography began in New Zealand on June 28, 2004, shooting in primarily chronological order. Adamson did this in order to naturally create a sense of mature development from his young actors, which mirrored their real-life development.Georgie Henley and Skandar Keynes were never shown the set before filming scenes of their characters entering Narnia, nor had Henley seen James McAvoy in his Mr. Tumnus costume before shooting their scenes together.
The filmmakers asked permission to bring in twelve reindeer to New Zealand to pull the White Witch's sled. The were denied by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, citing the potentially deadly Q fever from which the North American reindeer population suffers as the reason. However, ten wolves and wolf hybrids were allowed in for filming in Auckland. To replace the denied live reindeer Mark Rappaport's Creature Effects, Inc. created four animatronic reindeer that were used in shots where the deer were standing in place. The reindeer were designed with replaceable skins to get the most usage; brown for Father Christmas's and white for those of the White Witch.
The cast and crew spent their time in New Zealand in Auckland before moving in November to the South Island. Shooting locations in the South Island included Flock Hill in Canterbury, the area known as Elephant Rocks near Duntroon in North Otago, which was transformed into Aslan's camp. The castle scene was filmed in Purakaunui Bay, in the Catlins district, not far from the most southern point in New Zealand.
The film was edited by Jim May and Sim Evan-Jones. Jones states that he really liked the problem solving that one can do with editing. According to Sim, "The way you can just take stuff and sort it out and be the keeper of the story without having to interact with actors, crew and reign", is what fascinated him into the editing world.
Jim May had worked at several visual effects facilities--Boss Film, ILM and Sony Pictures Imageworks--and eventually, moved into feature editorial as the visual effects editor in the cutting room.
The soundtrack was composed by Harry Gregson-Williams. Gregson-Williams had previously worked with Adamson on Shrek (2001) and Shrek 2 (2004). In addition there are three original songs in the film; "Can't Take It In" by Imogen Heap, "Wunderkind" by Alanis Morissette and "Winter Light" by Tim Finn. Evanescence lead singer Amy Lee also wrote a song for the film, but it was not included in the soundtrack.
The soundtrack was recorded at Abbey Road Studios, London, England, and in Los Angeles, California. Gregson-Williams employed the 75-piece Hollywood Studio Symphony Orchestra, along with a 140-member choir (mostly members of The Bach Choir) and numerous other solo musicians such as electric violinist Hugh Marsh and vocalist Lisbeth Scott (at his Wavecrest Studio). He composed the original score and then spent late September through early November 2005 conducting the Hollywood Orchestra and overseeing the recording of the English choir. For "colour", he employed instruments used in ancient folk music, and to underscore critical dramatic moments, he added choral textures and, occasionally, a solo voice. The score includes instances of electronic music.
EMI also released a compilation soundtrack entitled Music Inspired by The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was released on September 2005. The album features songs by Contemporary Christian music artists, such as Bethany Dillon, Kutless, and Nichole Nordeman. It released "Waiting for the World to Fall" by Jars of Clay as a single. The album went on to win the Special Event Album of the Year at the GMA Music Awards.
On December 7, 2005, the film premiered in London, going on general release the following day. The film was released December 8, 2005, in the United Kingdom and December 9, 2005, in North America and the rest of Europe.
Worldwide, Narnia earned $745,013,115 marking it the 55th-highest-grossing film of all time worldwide. It had a worldwide opening of $107.1 million, marking Disney's fifth-largest opening worldwide (at the time it was the largest). It is the third-largest movie worldwide among those released in 2005 and it currently still remains the highest-grossing movie of the Narnia franchise worldwide, and separately in North America and overseas. Finally, it is also the most successful film of Walden Media worldwide.
The film opened with $23,006,856 in 3,616 theatres on its opening day (Friday, December 9, 2005), averaging $6,363 per location. The film took in a total of $65,556,312 on its opening weekend (December 9-11, 2005), the 24th-best opening weekend at the time (now 54th). It was also Disney's third-largest opening weekend at the time (now the 34th-largest) as well as the second-biggest December opening, behind The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. It is now fourth following the 2012 opening of The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, the 2007 release of I Am Legend, and the 2009 release of Avatar as well. Additionally, it made the third-largest opening weekend of 2005. It grossed $291,710,957 in total becoming the second-highest-grossing film of 2005 behind Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith. It surpassed the gross of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire by only $1.7 million, although the latter grossed $895.9 million worldwide, ahead of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. It is the highest-grossing film of the 2005 holiday period, the second-highest-grossing Christian film, the sixth-largest family-children's book adaptation, the ninth-highest-grossing fantasy-live-action film and the 10th-highest-grossing film overall in Disney company history. Finally, it is the largest film of Walden Media worldwide. Box Office Mojo estimates that the film sold over 45 million tickets in North America.
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 76% based on 218 reviews, with an average rating of 6.95/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "With first-rate special effects and compelling storytelling, this adaptation stays faithful to its source material and will please moviegoers of all ages." On Metacritic the film holds an average weighted score of 75 out of 100, based on 39 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".CinemaScore reported that audiences gave the film a rare "A+" grade.
Critic Roger Ebert also gave the film 3 out of 4 stars. Ebert and Roeper gave the movie "Two Thumbs Up". Movie critic Leonard Maltin gave the film 3 out of four stars, calling it, "an impressive and worthwhile family film," though he also said, "it does go on a bit and the special effects are extremely variable." Duane Dudak of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel gave the movie 3 out of 4 stars. Stuart Klawans of The Nation said, "All ticket buyers will get their money's worth." Elizabeth Weitzman of New York Daily News gave it 4 out of 4 stars and said: "A generation-spanning journey that feels both comfortingly familiar and excitingly original." Critic Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle listed it as the second best film of the year. Kit Bowen gave the film 3 out of 4 stars.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe won several awards including the Academy Award for Best Makeup; the BeliefNet Film Award for Best Spiritual film; the Movieguide Faith & Values Awards: Most Inspiring Movie of 2005 and Best Family Movie of 2005; and the CAMIE (Character and Morality In Entertainment) Award. Others include the British Academy Film Awards for Makeup and Hair and Orange Rising Star (James McAvoy); Outstanding Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media; the Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Performance by a Youth in a Lead or Supporting Role (Georgie Henley, Female); the Costume Designers Guild Award for Excellence in Fantasy Film (Isis Mussenden); and the Saturn Award for Costumes (Isis Mussenden) and Make-up (Howard Berger, Greg Nicotero, and Nikki Gooley).
Georgie Henley, in her performance as Lucy Pevensie, earned critical acclaim. She won several awards, including the Phoenix Film Critics Society award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and Best Performance by a Youth. She also won other awards either for Best Young Performance or Best Actress in a Leading Role.
The DVD for The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was released on April 4, 2006. It is available in a standard one-disc set (with separate full-screen and widescreen editions), and a deluxe widescreen two-disc boxed set with additional artwork and other materials from Disney and Walden Media. The DVD sold four million copies on its first day of release and overtook Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire to become the top-selling DVD in North America for 2006. As of December 2008 it has grossed $353.5 million in DVD sales, equivalent to 12,458,637 units sold.
Disney later issued a four-disc extended cut of the film on DVD. It was released on December 12, 2006, and was available commercially until January 31, 2007, after which Disney put the DVD on moratorium. The extended cut of the film runs approximately 150 minutes. The set includes all of the features previously released on the two-disc special edition. The two additional discs include a segment called "The Dreamer of Narnia", a previously unreleased feature-length film about C. S. Lewis, and additional production featurettes. Most of the extended footage, besides the extended battle sequence, is longer establishing shots of Narnia and footage of the Pevensies walking in Narnia.