Temple Name
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Temple Name
Temple name
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Vietnamese name
VietnameseMi?u hi?u
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja

Temple names are posthumous titles that were given to East Asian monarchs. The practice of honoring monarchs with temple names began during the Shang dynasty in China and had since been adopted by other dynastic regimes in the Sinosphere, with the notable exception of Japan. Temple names should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.

Among modern historians, referencing Chinese monarchs from the Tang to the Yuan dynasties, Korean rulers of the Goryeo (until AD 1274) and Joseon dynasties, and Vietnamese sovereigns from the to Later Lê dynasties (excluding the H? and Later Tr?n dynasties) by their temple names is a common practice.

Numerous individuals who did not rule as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to emperor or king by their descendants and honored with temple names; for example, Cao Cao was posthumously honored as an emperor and given the temple name Taizu by Cao Pi of the Cao Wei dynasty. Meanwhile, several individuals who were initially assigned temple names had their titles revoked, as was the case for Liu Zhi whose temple name Weizong was removed by Liu Xie of the Eastern Han dynasty. In other cases, numerous individuals were honored with more than one temple name, either due to intentional changes or they were given different titles by different monarchs; for instance, Zhu Di of the Ming dynasty was originally honored as Taizong by Zhu Gaochi, but his temple name was later changed to Chengzu by Zhu Houcong. There were also instances where individuals who ruled as sovereigns of a particular realm was accorded a temple name by another realm; this was the case for Borjigin Möngke, ruler of the Mongol Empire, who was later honored as Xianzong by Borjigin Kublai of the Yuan dynasty.

Etymology

The "temple" in "temple name" () refers to the grand temples () built by each dynasty for the purpose of ancestor worship. The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple.

History

Temple names trace their origins to the Shang dynasty of China. In earlier times, temple names were exclusively assigned to competent rulers after their passing.

The temple name system established during the Shang period utilized only four adjectives:

  • ? (tài; lit. "grand"): honored to dynastic founders;
  • ? (g?o; lit. "high"): honored to monarchs with great achievements;
  • ? (shì; lit. "eternal"): honored to rulers deemed worthy of eternal remembrance; and
  • ? (zh?ng; lit. "resurgent"): honored to sovereigns who revitalized their realm following a period of decline.

Chinese monarchs of the Zhou dynasty were given posthumous names but not temple names. During the Qin dynasty, the practice of assigning both temple names and posthumous names was abandoned. The Han dynasty reintroduced both titles, although temple names were assigned sporadically and remained more exclusive than posthumous names. It was also during the Han era that other adjectives aside from the four listed above began appearing in temple names. Numerous Han emperors had their temple names removed by Liu Xie in AD 190.

Initially, in deciding whether a monarch should be honored as "?" (z?; lit. "forefather") or "?" (z?ng; lit. "ancestor"), a principle was strictly adhered to: "?" was to be given to accomplished rulers while "?" was to be assigned to virtuous rulers. However, this principle was effectively abandoned during the Sixteen Kingdoms era with the ubiquitous usage of "?" by various non-Han Chinese regimes.

Temple names became widespread from the Tang dynasty onwards. Apart from the final ruler of a dynasty or monarchs who died prematurely, most Chinese monarchs were given temple names by their descendants.

The practice of honoring rulers with temple names had since been adopted by other dynastic regimes within the Sinosphere, including those based on the Korean Peninsula and in Vietnam. Japan, while having adopted both posthumous names and era names from China, did not assign temple names to its monarchs.

Structure

Most temple names consist of two Chinese characters, unlike the more elaborate posthumous names. In extremely rare cases, temple names could consist of three Chinese characters.

The first character is an adjective, chosen to reflect the circumstances of the monarch's reign. The vocabulary may overlap with that of the posthumous names' adjectives, but for one sovereign, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name.

The last character is either "?" or "?":

  • ? (z?; lit. "forefather"): implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. This character was also used for monarchs with great accomplishments. The equivalent in Korean is jo (?), and t? in Vietnamese.
  • ? (z?ng; lit. "ancestor"): used for all other monarchs. It is rendered as jong (?) in Korean, and tông in Vietnamese.

List of temple names with the suffix z?

Individuals who are known by more than one temple name have their personal name in English italicized.

Tàiz? ()

The temple name Tàiz? (//Thái T?) can be translated to mean "Grand Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Taizu of Shang
Zi Lü
1675-1646 BC Shang
Taizu of Han
Liu Bang
202-195 BC Western Han Liu Bang was referred to as "Gaozu" () in the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian; "Gaozu" is more commonly used when referencing this sovereign than his official temple name "Taizu".
Taizu of Cao Wei
?
Cao Cao
Did not rule as monarch Cao Wei Posthumously honored by the Cao Wei emperor Cao Pi.
Taizu of Eastern Wu
?
Sun Quan
AD 229-252 Eastern Wu
Taizu of Jin
Sima Zhao
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Western Jin emperor Sima Yan.
Taizu of Han Zhao
?
Liu Yuan
AD 304-310 Han Zhao Also honored as "Gaozu" ().
Taizu of Huan Chu
?
Huan Wen
Did not rule as monarch Huan Chu Posthumously honored by the Huan Chu emperor Huan Xuan.
Taizu of Later Zhao
?
Shi Hu
AD 334-349 Later Zhao
Taizu of Former Yan
?
Murong Huang
AD 337-348 Former Yan
Taizu of Former Liang
?
Zhang Gui
Did not rule as monarch Former Liang Posthumously honored by the Former Liang emperor Zhang Zuo.
Taizu of Former Qin
?
Fu Hong
Did not rule as monarch Former Qin Posthumously honored by the Former Qin emperor Fu Jian.
Taizu of Later Qin
?
Yao Chang
AD 384-393 Later Qin
Taizu of Later Liang
?
Lü Guang
AD 386-400 Later Liang
Taizu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Gui
AD 386-409 Northern Wei Also honored as "Liezu" ().
Taizu of Western Liang
?
Li Gao
AD 400-417 Western Liang
Taizu of Northern Liang
?
Juqu Mengxun
?
AD 401-433 Northern Liang
Taizu of Northern Yan
?
Feng Ba
AD 409-430 Northern Yan
Taizu of Western Qin
?
Qifu Chipan
?
AD 412-428 Western Qin
Taizu of Hu Xia
?
Liu Weichen
Did not rule as monarch Hu Xia Posthumously honored by the Hu Xia emperor Helian Bobo.
Taizu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Yulü
?
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Gui.
Taizu of Liu Song
?
Liu Yilong
AD 424-453 Liu Song Also honored as "Zhongzong" ().
Taizu of Southern Qi
?
Xiao Daocheng
AD 479-482 Southern Qi
Taizu of Liang
Xiao Shunzhi
Did not rule as monarch Liang Posthumously honored by the Liang emperor Xiao Yan.
Taizu of Chen
Chen Wenzan
Did not rule as monarch Chen Posthumously honored by the Chen emperor Chen Baxian.
Taizu of Northern Qi
?
Gao Huan
Did not rule as monarch Northern Qi Posthumously honored by the Northern Qi emperor Gao Yang. Also honored as "Gaozu" ().
Taizu of Northern Zhou
?
Yuwen Tai
Did not rule as monarch Northern Zhou Posthumously honored by the Northern Zhou emperor Yuwen Yu.
Taizu of Sui
Yang Zhong
Did not rule as monarch Sui Posthumously honored by the Sui emperor Yang Jian.
Taizu of Tang
Li Hu
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Yuan.
Taizu of Wu Zhou
?
Wu Shiyue
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Taizu of Later Liang
?
Zhu Wen
AD 907-912 Later Liang
Taizu of Wuyue
?
Qian Liu
AD 907-932 Wuyue
Taizu of Min
Wang Shenzhi
AD 909-925 Min
Taizu of Later Tang
?
Li Keyong
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Cunxu.
Taizu of Later Zhou
?
Guo Wei
AD 951-954 Later Zhou
Taizu of Yang Wu
?
Yang Xingmi
Did not rule as monarch Yang Wu Posthumously honored by the Yang Wu emperor Yang Pu.
Taizu of Southern Han
?
Liu Anren
Did not rule as monarch Southern Han Posthumously honored by the Southern Han emperor Liu Yan.
Taizu of Later Shu
?
Meng Yi
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang.
Taizu of Liao
Yelü Abaoji
AD 916-926 Liao
Taizu of Dali
?
Duan Siping
AD 937-944 Former Dali
Taizu of Song
Zhao Kuangyin
AD 960-976 Northern Song
Taizu of Western Xia
?
Li Jiqian
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia, Shun Posthumously honored by the Western Xia emperor Li Yuanhao. Also honored as "Wuzong" ().
Taizu of Jin
Wanyan Aguda
AD 1115-1123 Jin
Taizu of Yuan
Borjigin Temüjin
AD 1206-1227 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Temüjin ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Taizu" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Taizu of Ming Xia
?
Ming Yuzhen
AD 1362-1366 Ming Xia
Taizu of Ming
Zhu Yuanzhang
AD 1368-1398 Ming
Taizu of Shun
Li Jiqian
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia, Shun Posthumously honored by the Shun emperor Li Zicheng. Also honored as "Wuzong" ().
Taizu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Nurhaci
?·?
AD 1616-1626 (as Khan of Later Jin) Later Jin (de facto), Qing (honorary) Aisin Gioro Nurhaci ruled as Khan of Later Jin, but was subsequently honored as "Taizu" by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Hong Taiji.
Taizu of Wu Zhou
?
Wu Sangui
AD 1678 Wu Zhou
Taejo of Goryeo

?
Wang Geon

AD 918-943 Goryeo
Taejo of Joseon

?
Yi Dan

AD 1392-1398 Joseon
Lý Thái T?
Lý Công U?n
AD 1009-1028
Tr?n Thái T?
Tr?n Th?a
Did not rule as monarch Tr?n Posthumously honored by the Tr?n emperor Tr?n C?nh. Also honored as "Huy Tông" ().
Lê Thái T?
Lê L?i
AD 1428-1433 Primitive Lê
M?c Thái T?
M?c ng Dung
AD 1527-1529 M?c
Nguy?n Thái T?
Nguy?n Hoàng
AD 1558-1613 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Li?t T?" ().
Tây S?n Thái T?
?
Nguy?n Hu?
AD 1788-1792 Tây S?n

G?oz? ()

The temple name G?oz? (//Cao T?) can be translated to mean "High Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gaozu of Shang
Zi Hai
Did not rule as monarch Shang Posthumously honored by the Shang king Zi Lü.
Gaozu of Han
Liu Bang
202-195 BC Western Han Liu Bang was referred to as "Gaozu" in the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian; "Gaozu" is more commonly used when referencing this sovereign than his official temple name "Taizu" ().
Gaozu of Cao Wei
?
Cao Pi
AD 220-226 Cao Wei Also honored as "Shizu" ().
Gaozu of Jin
Sima Yi
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Sima Yan.
Gaozu of Han Zhao
?
Liu Yuan
AD 304-310 Han Zhao Also honored as "Taizu" ().
Gaozu of Former Yan
?
Murong Hui
Did not rule as monarch Former Yan Posthumously honored by the Former Yan emperor Murong Jun.
Gaozu of Later Zhao
?
Shi Le
AD 319-333 Later Zhao
Gaozu of Former Liang
?
Zhang Shi
Did not rule as monarch Former Liang Posthumously honored by the Former Liang emperor Zhang Zuo.
Gaozu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Shiyijian
AD 338-376 (as Prince of Dai) Dai (de facto), Northern Wei (honorary) Tuoba Shiyijian ruled as Prince of Dai, but was subsequently honored as "Gaozu" by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Gui.
Gaozu of Former Qin
?
Fu Jian
AD 351-355 Former Qin Also honored as "Shizu" () and "Shizong" ().
Gaozu of Western Qin
?
Qifu Gangui
?
AD 388-400, AD 409-412 Western Qin
Gaozu of Later Qin
?
Yao Xing
AD 394-416 Later Qin
Gaozu of Liu Song
?
Liu Yu
AD 420-422 Liu Song
Gaozu of Northern Wei
?
Yuan Hong
AD 471-499 Northern Wei
Gaozu of Liang
Xiao Yan
AD 502-549 Liang
Gaozu of Northern Qi
?
Gao Huan
Did not rule as monarch Northern Qi Posthumously honored by the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei. Also honored as "Taizu" ().
Gaozu of Chen
Chen Baxian
AD 557-559 Chen
Gaozu of Northern Zhou
?
Yuwen Yong
AD 561-578 Northern Zhou
Gaozu of Sui
Yang Jian
AD 581-604 Sui
Gaozu of Tang
Li Yuan
AD 618-626 Tang
Gaozu of Nanzhao
?
Meng Xinuluo
?
AD 649-674 Nanzhao
Gaozu of Former Shu
?
Wang Jian
AD 907-918 Former Shu
Gaozu of Southern Han
?
Liu Yan
AD 917-942 Southern Han
Gaozu of Yang Wu
?
Yang Longyan
Did not rule as monarch Yang Wu Posthumously honored by the Yang Wu emperor Yang Pu.
Gaozu of Later Shu
?
Meng Zhixiang
AD 934 Later Shu
Gaozu of Later Jin
?
Shi Jingtang
AD 936-942 Later Jin
Gaozu of Later Han
?
Liu Zhiyuan
AD 947-948 Later Han

Chéngz? ()

The temple name Chéngz? (//Thành T?) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Chengzu of Ming
Zhu Di
AD 1402-1424 Ming Also honored as "Taizong" ().
Tr?nh Thành T?
Tr?nh Tùng
AD 1572-1623 Tr?nh lords
Nguy?n Thành T?
Nguy?n Phúc Thì
AD 1847-1883 Nguy?n Also honored as "D?c Tông" ().

Chúnz? (/)

The temple name Chúnz? (///Thu?n T?) can be translated to mean "Refined Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Sunjo of Joseon

?
Yi Gong

AD 1800-1834 Joseon Also honored as "Sunjong" (/).

Chúnz? ()

The temple name Chúnz? (/Thu?n T?) can be translated to mean "Honorable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tr?nh Thu?n T?
Tr?nh V?nh
Did not rule as monarch Tr?nh lords Posthumously honored by the Tr?nh lord Tr?nh Sâm.

Dàiz? ()

The temple name Dàiz? (//i T?) can be translated to mean "Generational Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daizu of Southern Han
?
Liu Qian
Did not rule as monarch Southern Han Posthumously honored by the Southern Han emperor Liu Yan.

Dàshèngz? (/)

The temple name Dàshèngz? (///i Thánh T?) can be translated to mean "Great Sacred Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dashengzu of Tang
?
Li Er
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Longji.

Déz? ()

The temple name Déz? (//c T?) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dezu of Later Tang
?
Li Ni
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.
Dezu of Later Han
?
Liu Ang
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Dezu of Liao
Yelü Saladi
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Zongzhen.
Dezu of Ming
Zhu Bailiu
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.

Dùz? ()

The temple name Dùz? (//?oan T?) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dojo of Joseon

?
Yi Chun

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Bang-won.

G?oshàngz? ()

The temple name G?oshàngz? (//Cao Thng T?) can be translated to mean "Venerable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lê Cao Thng T?
?
Lê H?i
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê L?i.

Gu?ngz? ()

The temple name Gu?ngz? (//Quang T?) can be translated to mean "Radiant Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
M?c Quang T?
M?c Kính Khoan
AD 1623-1638 M?c

Guóz? (/)

The temple name Guóz? (///Qu?c T?) can be translated to mean "National Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gukjo of Goryeo

?
Gang Bo Yuk

Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Geon.

Hóngz? ()

The temple name Hóngz? (//Ho?ng T?) can be translated to mean "Majestic Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tr?nh Ho?ng T?
Tr?nh T?c
AD 1657-1682 Tr?nh lords
M?c Ho?ng T?
M?c Bình
Did not rule as monarch M?c Posthumously honored by the M?c emperor M?c ng Dung.

Húanz? ()

The temple name Húanz? (//Hoàn T?) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Hwanjo of Joseon

?
Yi Ja-chun

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Bang-won.

Huìz? ()

The temple name Huìz? (//Hu? T?) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huizu of Later Tang
?
Li Yu
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.

J?ngz? ()

The temple name J?ngz? (//C?nh T?) can be translated to mean "Admirable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzu of Jin
Wanyan Wugunai
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Jingzu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Giocangga
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.

Jìngz? ()

The temple name Jìngz? (//C?nh T?) can be translated to mean "Revered Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzu of Later Liang
?
Zhu Maolin
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.

Jìngz? ()

The temple name Jìngz? (//T?nh T?) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzu of Later Jin
?
Shi Jing
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang.

Lièz? ()

The temple name Lièz? (//Li?t T?) can be translated to mean "Ardent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Liezu of Shu Han
?
Liu Bei
AD 221-223 Shu Han
Liezu of Cao Wei
?
Cao Rui
AD 226-239 Cao Wei
Liezu of Former Yan
?
Murong Jun
AD 348-360 Former Yan
Liezu of Ran Wei
?
Ran Zhan
Did not rule as monarch Ran Wei Posthumously honored by the Ran Wei emperor Ran Min.
Liezu of Western Qin
?
Qifu Guoren
?
AD 385-388 Western Qin
Liezu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Gui
AD 386-409 Northern Wei Also honored as "Taizu" ().
Liezu of Later Yan
?
Murong Bao
AD 396-398 Later Yan Also honored as "Liezong" ().
Liezu of Southern Liang
?
Tufa Wugu
?
AD 397-399 Southern Liang
Liezu of Wu Zhou
?
Wu Jian
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Liezu of Yang Wu
?
Yang Wo
AD 905-908 Yang Wu Also honored as "Liezong" ().
Liezu of Southern Tang
?
Li Bian
AD 937-943 Southern Tang
Liezu of Later Liang
?
Zhu Cheng
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.
Liezu of Later Tang
?
Li Yan
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.
Liezu of Yuan
Borjigin Yesugei
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Nguy?n Li?t T?
Nguy?n Hoàng
AD 1558-1613 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Thái T?" ().
Yeoljo of Joseon

?
Yi Jong

AD 1623-1649 Joseon Also honored as "Injo" (/).

Mùz? ()

The temple name Mùz? (//M?c T?) can be translated to mean "Sombre Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Mokjo of Joseon

?
Yi An-sa

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Dan.
Tr?n M?c T?
Tr?n Kinh
Did not rule as monarch Tr?n Posthumously honored by the Tr?n emperor Tr?n Thuyên.
Tr?nh M?c T?
Tr?nh Li?u
Did not rule as monarch Tr?nh lords Posthumously honored by the Tr?nh lord Tr?nh Sâm.

Níngz? (/)

The temple name Níngz? (///Ninh T?) can be translated to mean "Amicable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tr?n Ninh T?
Tr?n Tây
Did not rule as monarch Tr?n Posthumously honored by the Tr?n emperor Tr?n Thuyên.

Qìngz? (/)

The temple name Qìngz? (///Khánh T?) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Qingzu of Later Zhou
?
Guo Jian
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.

Rénz? ()

The temple name Rénz? (//Nhân T?) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Renzu of Ming
Zhu Shizhen
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.
Injo of Joseon

?
Yi Jong

AD 1623-1649 Joseon Also honored as "Yeoljo" (/).

Ruìz? ()

The temple name Ruìz? (//Du? T?) can be translated to mean "Astute Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Ruizu of Wu Zhou
?
Personal name unknown Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Ruizu of Later Jin
?
Shi Yu
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang.
Tr?nh Du? T?
Tr?nh Bính
Did not rule as monarch Tr?nh lords Posthumously honored by the Tr?nh lord Tr?nh Sâm.

Shèngz? (/)

The temple name Shèngz? (///Thánh T?) can be translated to mean "Sagacious Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shengzu of Dachanghe
Zheng Maisi
AD 903-909 Dachanghe
Shengzu of Former Shu
?
Ji Jin
Did not rule as monarch Former Shu Posthumously honored by the Former Shu emperor Wang Yan.
Shengzu of Song
Zhao Xuanlang
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Heng.
Shengzu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Xuanye
AD 1661-1722 Qing
Seongjo of Silla

?
Kim Deokman

AD 632-647 Silla
Tr?nh Thánh T?
Tr?nh Sâm
AD 1767-1782 Tr?nh lords
Nguy?n Thánh T?
Nguy?n Phúc Ki?u
AD 1820-1841 Nguy?n

Shénz? ()

The temple name Shénz? (//Th?n T?) can be translated to mean "Spiritual Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Nguy?n Th?n T?
Nguy?n Phúc Lan
AD 1635-1648 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Th?n Tông" ().

Sh?z? ()

The temple name Sh?z? (//Th?y T?) can be translated to mean "First Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shizu of Xin
Yao Chonghua
2233-2184 BC (as Emperor of Yu) Yu (de facto), Xin (honorary) Yao Chonghua ruled as Emperor of Yu, but was subsequently honored as "Shizu" by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.
Shizu of Eastern Wu
?
Sun Jian
Did not rule as monarch Eastern Wu Posthumously honored by the Eastern Wu emperor Sun Quan.
Shizu of Cheng Han
?
Li Te
Did not rule as monarch Cheng Han Posthumously honored by the Cheng Han emperor Li Xiong.
Shizu of Later Qin
?
Yao Yizhong
Did not rule as monarch Later Qin Posthumously honored by the Later Qin emperor Yao Chang.
Shizu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Liwei
?
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Gui.
Shizu of Wu Zhou
?
Ji Chang
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Shizu of Jin
Wanyan Hanpu
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Sijo of Silla

?
Park Hyeokgeose
?
?
57 BC-AD 4 Silla

Shìz? ()

The temple name Shìz? (//Th? T?) can be translated to mean "Eternal Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shizu of Han
Liu Xiu
AD 25-57 Eastern Han
Shizu of Xin
Tian Jian
264-221 BC (as King of Qi) Qi (de facto), Xin (honorary) Tian Jian ruled as King of Qi, but was subsequently honored as "Shizu" by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.
Shizu of Cao Wei
?
Cao Pi
AD 220-226 Cao Wei Also honored as "Gaozu" ().
Shizu of Jin
Sima Yan
AD 266-290 Western Jin
Shizu of Former Liang
?
Zhang Jun
Did not rule as monarch Former Liang Posthumously honored by the Former Liang emperor Zhang Zuo.
Shizu of Former Qin
?
Fu Jian
AD 357-385 Former Qin Also honored as "Gaozu" () and "Shizong" ().
Shizu of Later Yan
?
Murong Chui
AD 384-396 Later Yan
Shizu of Hu Xia
?
Helian Bobo
?
AD 407-425 Hu Xia
Shizu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Tao
AD 423-452 Northern Wei
Shizu of Liu Song
?
Liu Jun
AD 453-464 Liu Song
Shizu of Southern Qi
?
Xiao Ze
AD 482-493 Southern Qi
Shizu of Liang
Xiao Yi
AD 552-555 Liang
Shizu of Chen
Chen Qian
AD 559-566 Chen
Shizu of Northern Qi
?
Gao Zhan
AD 561-565 Northern Qi
Shizu of Sui
Yang Guang
AD 604-618 Sui
Shizu of Tang
Li Bing
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Yuan.
Shizu of Later Shu
?
Meng Cha
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang.
Shizu of Northern Han
?
Liu Min
AD 951-954 Northern Han
Shizu of Jin
Wanyan Helibo
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan. Also honored as "Yuanzu" ().
Shizu of Yuan
Borjigin Kublai
AD 1260-1294 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire), AD 1271-1294 (as Emperor of Yuan) Mongol Empire, Yuan
Shizu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Fulin
AD 1643-1661 Qing
Sejo of Goryeo

?
Wang Ryung

Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Geon.
Sejo of Joseon

?
Yi Yu

AD 1455-1468 Joseon
Tr?nh Th? T?
Tr?nh Ki?m
AD 1545-1570 Tr?nh lords
Nguy?n Th? T?
Nguy?n Phúc Ánh
AD 1802-1820 Nguy?n

Shùnz? (/)

The temple name Shùnz? (///Thu?n T?) can be translated to mean "Obedient Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shunzu of Song
Zhao Ting
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin.

Sùz? (/)

The temple name Sùz? (///Túc T?) can be translated to mean "Solemn Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Suzu of Jin
Sima Shao
AD 323-325 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Suzong" ().
Suzu of Northern Wei
?
Yuan Xie
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Yuan Ziyou.
Suzu of Wu Zhou
?
Wu Juchang
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Suzu of Later Liang
?
Zhu An
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.
Suzu of Later Jin
?
Shi Bin
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang.
Suzu of Liao
Yelü Noulisi
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Yanxi.

Tàich?z? ()

The temple name Tàich?z? (//Thái S? T?) can be translated to mean "Grand Primordial Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Taichuzu of Xin
?
Gongsun Xuanyuan
?
Legendary Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (legendary), Xin (honorary) Gongsun Xuanyuan was a legendary ruler of China, but was subsequently honored as "Taichuzu" by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.

T?ngz? (/)

The temple name T?ngz? (///Th?ng T?) can be translated to mean "Commanding Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tongzu of Xin
Wei Wan
Did not rule as monarch Xin

Wángz? ()

The temple name Wángz? (//Vng T?) can be translated to mean "Sovereign Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wangzu of Xin
Tian An
Did not rule as monarch Xin Posthumously honored by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.

Wénz? ()

The temple name Wénz? (//V?n T?) can be translated to mean "Civil Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wenzu of Later Han
?
Liu Tuan
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Tr?nh V?n T?
Tr?nh Tráng
AD 1623-1657 Tr?nh lords
Munjo of Joseon

?
Yi Yeong

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Korean emperor Yi Hui. Also honored as "Igjong" (/).

Xi?nz? (/)

The temple name Xi?nz? (///Hi?n T?) can be translated to mean "Eminent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzu of Jin
Sima Yan
AD 325-342 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Xianzong" ().
Xianzu of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Hong
AD 465-471 Northern Wei
Xianzu of Northern Qi
?
Gao Yang
AD 550-559 Northern Qi Also honored as "Weizong" ().
Xianzu of Wu Zhou
?
Wu Hua
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Xianzu of Later Han
?
Liu Tian
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Xianzu of Later Shu
?
Meng Dao
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang. Also honored as "Xianzong" ().
Xianzu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Taksi
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Lê Hi?n T?
Lê ?inh
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê L?i.

Xiànz? (/)

The temple name Xiànz? (///Hi?n T?) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzu of Later Liang
?
Zhu Xin
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.
Xianzu of Later Jin
?
Shi Shaoyong
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang. Also honored as "Xianzu" ().
Nguy?n Hi?n T?
Nguy?n Phúc Miên Tông
?
AD 1841-1847 Nguy?n

Xiànz? (/)

The temple name Xiànz? (///Hi?n T?) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzu of Tang
Li Xi
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Zhi.
Xianzu of Later Tang
?
Li Guochang
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Cunxu.
Xianzu of Later Jin
?
Shi Shaoyong
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang. Also honored as "Xianzu" ().
Xianzu of Jin
Wanyan Suike
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.

X?ngz? (/)

The temple name X?ngz? (///H?ng T?) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xingzu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Fuman
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Tr?nh H?ng T?
Tr?nh Lâu
Did not rule as monarch Tr?nh lords Posthumously honored by the Tr?nh lord Tr?nh Sâm.
Nguy?n H?ng T?
Nguy?n Phúc Luân
Did not rule as monarch Nguy?n Posthumously honored by the Nguy?n emperor Nguy?n Phúc Ki?u.

Xìnz? ()

The temple name Xìnz? () can be translated to mean "Faithful Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xinzu of Later Zhou
?
Guo Jing
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.

X?z? ()

The temple name X?z? (//Hi T?) can be translated to mean "Glorious Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizu of Ming
Zhu Chuyi
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.

X?z? ()

The temple name X?z? (//Hy T?) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizu of Later Zhou
?
Guo Chen
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.
Xizu of Song
Zhao Tiao
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin.
Tr?nh Hy T?
Tr?nh Cng
AD 1709-1729 Tr?nh lords

Xu?nz? ()

The temple name Xu?nz? () is translated as "" in Korean and "Tuyên T?" in Vietnamese.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzu of Song
Zhao Hongyin
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin.
Seonjo of Joseon

?
Yi Yeon

AD 1567-1608 Joseon Also honored as "Seonjong" (/).
Lê Tuyên T?
Lê Khoáng
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê L?i.
Nguy?n Tuyên T?
Nguy?n Phúc Nguyên
AD 1613-1635 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Hi Tông" ().

Xuánz? ()

The temple name Xuánz? (//Huy?n T?) can be translated to mean "Profound Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzu of Liao
Yelü Yundeshi
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Zongzhen.

Yánz? (/)

The temple name Yánz? (///Nghiêm T?) can be translated to mean "Austere Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yanzu of Wu Zhou
?
Wu Keji
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.

Y?ngz? ()

The temple name Y?ngz? (//Anh T?) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yeongjo of Joseon

?
Yi Geum

AD 1724-1776 Joseon Also honored as "Yeongjong" (/).
M?c Anh T?
M?c M?u H?p
AD 1562-1592 M?c

Yìz? ()

The temple name Yìz? (//Ngh? T?) can be translated to mean "Persistent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Later Tang
?
Li Jiao
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.
Nguy?n Ngh? T?
Nguy?n Phúc T?n
AD 1648-1687 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Thái Tông" ().
Tr?nh Ngh? T?
Tr?nh Doanh
AD 1740-1767 Tr?nh lords

Yìz? ()

The temple name Yìz? (//Ý T?) can be translated to mean "Benign Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Tang
Li Tianxi
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Zhi.
Yizu of Later Tang
?
Zhuye Zhiyi
?
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Cunxu.
Yizu of Liao
Yelü Salade
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Yanxi.
Yizu of Ming
Zhu Sijiu
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.
Uijo of Goryeo

?
Wang Je-geon

Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Geon.

Yìz? ()

The temple name Yìz? (//D?c T?) can be translated to mean "Soaring Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Later Han
?
Liu Zhuan
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Yizu of Song
Zhao Jing
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Heng.
Igjo of Joseon

?
Yi Haeng-li

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Bang-won.
M?c D?c T?
M?c Cao
Did not rule as monarch M?c Posthumously honored by the M?c emperor M?c ng Dung.

Yìz? (/)

The temple name Yìz? (///Ngh?a T?) can be translated to mean "Righteous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Southern Tang
?
Xu Wen
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Yizu of Later Zhou
?
Guo Yun
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.

Yu?nz? (/)

The temple name Yu?nz? (///Uyên T?) can be translated to mean "Erudite Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tr?nh Uyên T?
Tr?nh K?
Did not rule as monarch Tr?nh lords Posthumously honored by the Tr?nh lord Tr?nh Sâm.

Yuánz? ()

The temple name Yuánz? (//Nguyên T?) can be translated to mean "Primal Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yuanzu of Jin
Wanyan Helibo
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Liang. Also honored as "Shizu" ().
Tr?n Nguyên T?
Tr?n Lý
Did not rule as monarch Tr?n Posthumously honored by the Tr?n emperor Tr?n C?nh.

Yùz? ()

The temple name Yùz? (//D? T?) can be translated to mean "Affluent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tr?nh D? T?
Tr?nh Giang
AD 1729-1740 Tr?nh lords
M?c D? T?
M?c Thúy
Did not rule as monarch M?c Posthumously honored by the M?c emperor M?c ng Dung.

Zh?oz? ()

The temple name Zh?oz? (//Chiêu T?) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhaozu of Jin
Wanyan Shilu
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Tr?nh Chiêu T?
Tr?nh C?n
AD 1682-1709 Tr?nh lords
M?c Chiêu T?
M?c H?ch
Did not rule as monarch M?c Posthumously honored by the M?c emperor M?c ng Dung.

Zhàoz? ()

The temple name Zhàoz? (//Tri?u T?) can be translated to mean "Original Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhaozu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Mengtemu
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Tr?nh Tri?u T?
Tr?nh Lan
Did not rule as monarch Tr?nh lords Posthumously honored by the Tr?nh lord Tr?nh Sâm.
Nguy?n Tri?u T?
Nguy?n Kim
Did not rule as monarch Nguy?n Posthumously honored by the Nguy?n emperor Nguy?n Phúc Ánh.

Zhèngz? ()

The temple name Zhèngz? (//Chính T?) can be translated to mean "Upstanding Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjo of Joseon

?
Yi San

AD 1776-1800 Joseon Also honored as "Jeongjong" (/).

Zhu?ngz? (/)

The temple name Zhu?ngz? (///Trang T?) can be translated to mean "Dignified Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jangjo of Joseon

?
Yi Seon

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Korean emperor Yi Hui.

List of temple names with the suffix z?ng

Individuals who are known by more than one temple name have their personal name in English italicized.

A?z?ng ()

The temple name A?z?ng (//Ai Tông) can be translated to mean "Lamentable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Aizong of Jin
Wanyan Shouxu
?
AD 1224-1234 Jin Also honored as "Yizong" ().

?nz?ng ()

The temple name ?nz?ng (//An Tông) can be translated to mean "Pacific Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Anzong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Yousong
AD 1644-1645 Southern Ming Also honored as "Zhizong" ().
Anjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ug

Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Sun.

Chéngz?ng ()

The temple name Chéngz?ng (//Thành Tông) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Chengzong of Wuyue
?
Qian Hongzuo
AD 941-947 Wuyue
Chengzong of Southern Tang
?
Li Chao
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Chengzong of Yuan
Borjigin Temür
AD 1294-1307 Yuan
Chengzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Dorgon
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Seongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ci

AD 981-997 Goryeo
Seongjong of Joseon

?
Yi Hyeol

AD 1469-1494 Joseon

Chóngz?ng ()

The temple name Chóngz?ng (//Sùng Tông) can be translated to mean "Lofty Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Chongzong of Western Xia
?
Li Qianshun
AD 1086-1139 Western Xia

Chúnz?ng (/)

The temple name Chúnz?ng (///Thu?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Refined Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Sunjong of Joseon

?
Yi Gong

AD 1800-1834 Joseon Also honored as "Sunjo" (/).
Sunjong of Korea
?
Yi Cheok
AD 1907-1910 Korean Empire
Lê Thu?n Tông
Lê Duy Tng
AD 1732-1735 Revival Lê

Dàiz?ng ()

The temple name Dàiz?ng (//i Tông) can be translated to mean "Generational Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daizong of Tang
Li Yu
AD 762-779 Tang Also honored as "Shizong" ().
Daizong of Ming
Zhu Qiyu
AD 1449-1457 Ming
M?c i Tông
M?c Kính Cung
AD 1592-1625 M?c

Dàiz?ng ()

The temple name Dàiz?ng (//i Tông) can be translated to mean "Esteemed Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daejong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ug

Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Ci.

Dàoz?ng ()

The temple name Dàoz?ng (//o Tông) can be translated to mean "Principled Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daozong of Liao
Yelü Hongji
?
AD 1055-1101 Liao

Déz?ng ()

The temple name Déz?ng (//c Tông) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dezong of Tang
Li Kuo
AD 779-805 Tang
Dezong of Jin
Wanyan Zonggan
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Liang.
Dezong of Western Liao
?
Yelü Dashi
?
AD 1124-1143 Western Liao
Dezong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Zaitian
AD 1875-1908 Qing
Deokjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Heum

AD 1031-1034 Goryeo
Deokjong of Joseon

?
Yi Jang

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Hyeol.
Lê c Tông
Lê Tân
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Y.

Dìngz?ng ()

The temple name Dìngz?ng (//nh Tông) can be translated to mean "Resolute Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dingzong of Southern Tang
?
Li Ke
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Dingzong of Yuan
Borjigin Güyük
AD 1246-1248 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Güyük ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Dingzong" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Jeongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Yo

AD 945-949 Goryeo
Jeongjong of Joseon

?
Yi Gyeong

AD 1398-1400 Joseon

Du?nz?ng ()

The temple name Du?nz?ng (//?oan Tông) can be translated to mean "Noble Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Duanzong of Song
Zhao Shi
AD 1276-1278 Southern Song
Danjong of Joseon

?
Yi Hong-wi

AD 1452-1455 Joseon

Dùz?ng ()

The temple name Dùz?ng (// Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Duzong of Song
Zhao Qi
AD 1264-1274 Southern Song

G?oz?ng ()

The temple name G?oz?ng (//Cao Tông) can be translated to mean "High Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gaozong of Shang
Zi Zhao
1250-1192 BC Shang
Gaozong of Han
Liu Shi
48-33 BC Western Han
Gaozong of Western Yan
?
Murong Chong
AD 384-386 Western Yan
Gaozong of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Jun
AD 452-465 Northern Wei
Gaozong of Southern Qi
?
Xiao Luan
AD 494-498 Southern Qi
Gaozong of Liang
Xiao Gang
AD 549-551 Liang Also honored as "Taizong" ().
Gaozong of Liang
Xiao Tong
Did not rule as monarch Liang Posthumously honored by the Western Liang emperor Xiao Cha.
Gaozong of Chen
Chen Xu
AD 569-582 Chen
Gaozong of Tang
Li Zhi
AD 649-683 Tang
Gaozong of Song
Zhao Gou
AD 1127-1129 Southern Song
Gaozong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Hongli
AD 1735-1796 Qing
Gojong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ceol

AD 1213-1259 Goryeo
Gojong of Korea
?
Yi Hui

AD 1863-1897 (as King of Joseon), AD 1897-1907 (as Emperor of the Korean Empire) Joseon, Korean Empire
Lý Cao Tông
Lý Long Cán
AD 1175-1210

G?ngz?ng ()

The temple name G?ngz?ng (//Cung Tông) can be translated to mean "Reverent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gongzong of Han
Liu Hu
AD 106-125 Eastern Han
Gongzong of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Huang
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Jun.
Gongzong of Ming
Zhu Changxun
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Southern Ming emperor Zhu Youlang.
Gongzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Puyi
AD 1908-1912, AD 1917 Qing Also honored as "Xianzong" ().
Nguy?n Cung Tông
Nguy?n Phúc ?ng Chân
?
AD 1883 Nguy?n

Gu?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Gu?ngz?ng (//Quang Tông) can be translated to mean "Radiant Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Guangzong of Song
Zhao Dun
AD 1189-1194 Southern Song
Guangzong of Ming
Zhu Changluo
AD 1620 Ming
Gwangjong of Goryeo

?
Wang So

AD 949-975 Goryeo

Hóngz?ng ()

The temple name Hóngz?ng (//Ho?ng Tông) can be translated to mean "Majestic Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Nguy?n Ho?ng Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Tu?n
AD 1916-1925 Nguy?n

Huáiz?ng (/)

The temple name Huáiz?ng (///Hoài Tông) can be translated to mean "Yearned Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huaizong of Ming
Zhu Youjian
AD 1627-1644 Ming Also honored as "Sizong" (), "Weizong" (), and "Yizong" ().

Huánz?ng ()

The temple name Huánz?ng (//Hoàn Tông) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huanzong of Western Xia
?
Li Chunyou
AD 1193-1206 Western Xia

Hu?z?ng ()

The temple name Hu?z?ng (//Huy Tông) can be translated to mean "Exemplary Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huizong of Song
Zhao Ji
AD 1100-1126 Northern Song
Huizong of Jin
Wanyan Zongjun
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Tr?n Huy Tông
Tr?n Th?a
Did not rule as monarch Tr?n Posthumously honored by the Tr?n emperor Tr?n C?nh. Also honored as "Thái T?" ().

Huìz?ng ()

The temple name Huìz?ng (//Hu? Tông) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huizong of Min
Wang Yanjun
AD 926-935 Min Also honored as "Taizong" ().
Huizong of Southern Tang
?
Li Zhi
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Huizong of Western Xia
?
Li Bingchang
AD 1193-1206 Western Xia
Huizong of Yuan
Borjigin Toghon Temür
AD 1333-1368 (as Emperor of Yuan), AD 1368-1370 (as Emperor of Northern Yuan) Yuan, Northern Yuan
Huizong of Ming
Zhu Yunwen
AD 1398-1402 Ming Also honored as "Shenzong" ().
Hyejong of Goryeo

?
Wang Mu

AD 943-945 Goryeo
Lý Hu? Tông
Lý S?m
AD 1210-1224

Ji?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Ji?nz?ng (///Gi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Modest Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Nguy?n Gi?n Tông
Nguy?n Phúc H?o
AD 1883-1884 Nguy?n

Ji?z?ng ()

The temple name Ji?z?ng (//Gia Tông) can be translated to mean "Exalted Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lê Gia Tông
Lê Duy C?i
AD 1672-1675 Revival Lê

J?ngz?ng ()

The temple name J?ngz?ng (//C?nh Tông) can be translated to mean "Admirable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzong of Tang
Li Zhu
AD 904-907 Tang
Jingzong of Min
Wang Xi
AD 939-944 Min
Jingzong of Liao
Yelü Xian
AD 969-982 Liao
Jingzong of Western Xia
?
Li Yuanhao
AD 1038-1048 Western Xia
Jingzong of Dali
?
Duan Zhengxing
AD 1147-1171 Later Dali
Gyeongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ju

AD 975-981 Goryeo
Gyeongjong of Joseon

?
Yi Yun

AD 1720-1724 Joseon
M?c C?nh Tông
M?c Toàn
AD 1592-1593 M?c
Nguy?n C?nh Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Bi?n
AD 1885-1889 Nguy?n

Jìngz?ng ()

The temple name Jìngz?ng (//Kính Tông) can be translated to mean "Revered Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzong of Han
Liu Bao
AD 125-144 Eastern Han
Jingzong of Northern Wei
?
Yuan Ziyou
AD 528-531 Northern Wei
Jingzong of Tang
Li Zhan
AD 824-827 Tang
Lê Kính Tông
Lê Duy Tân
AD 1599-1619 Revival Lê

Jìngz?ng ()

The temple name Jìngz?ng (//T?nh Tông) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Hyeong

AD 1034-1046 Goryeo

K?ngz?ng ()

The temple name K?ngz?ng (//Khang Tông) can be translated to mean "Harmonious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Kangzong of Min
Wang Chang
AD 935-939 Min
Kangzong of Jin
Wanyan Wuyashu
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Gangjong of Goryeo

?
Wang O

AD 1211-1213 Goryeo

Lièz?ng ()

The temple name Lièz?ng (//Li?t Tông) can be translated to mean "Ardent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Liezong of Han Zhao
?
Liu Cong
AD 310-318 Han Zhao
Liezong of Jin
Sima Yao
AD 372-396 Eastern Jin
Liezong of Later Yan
?
Murong Bao
AD 396-398 Later Yan Also honored as "Liezu" ().
Liezong of Yang Wu
?
Yang Wo
AD 905-908 Yang Wu Also honored as "Liezu" ().
Liezong of Southern Han
?
Liu Yin
Did not rule as monarch Southern Han Posthumously honored by the Southern Han emperor Liu Yan.

L?z?ng ()

The temple name L?z?ng (//Lý Tông) can be translated to mean "Enlightened Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lizong of Song
Zhao Yun
AD 1224-1264 Southern Song

L?z?ng (/)

The temple name L?z?ng (///L? Tông) can be translated to mean "August Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lizong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Changying
Did not rule as monarch Southern Ming Posthumously honored by the Southern Ming emperor Zhu Youlang.

Míngz?ng ()

The temple name Míngz?ng (//Minh Tông) can be translated to mean "Brilliant Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Mingzong of Later Tang
?
Li Siyuan
AD 926-933 Later Tang
Mingzong of Yuan
Borjigin Kusala
AD 1329 Yuan
Myeongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ho

AD 1170-1197 Goryeo
Myeongjong of Joseon

?
Yi Hwan

AD 1545-1567 Joseon
Tr?n Minh Tông
Tr?n M?nh
AD 1314-1329 Tr?n
Lê Minh Tông
Lê Sùng
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Y.
M?c Minh Tông
M?c Kính V?
AD 1638-1677 M?c

M?nz?ng (/)

The temple name M?nz?ng (//M?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Solicitous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Minzong of Jin
Wanyan Dan
AD 1135-1150 Jin Also honored as "Xizong" ().
M?c M?n Tông
M?c Kính Ch?
AD 1592-1593 M?c

M?nz?ng ()

The temple name M?nz?ng (//M?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Dejected Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Minjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Song

AD 997-1009 Goryeo Also honored as "Mokjong" (/).

Mùz?ng ()

The temple name Mùz?ng (//M?c Tông) can be translated to mean "Sombre Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Muzong of Han
Liu Zhao
AD 88-106 Eastern Han
Muzong of Tang
Li Heng
AD 820-824 Tang
Muzong of Liao
Yelü Jing
AD 951-969 Liao
Muzong of Jin
Wanyan Yingge
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Sheng.
Muzong of Ming
Zhu Zaiji
AD 1567-1572 Ming
Muzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Zaichun
AD 1861-1875 Qing
Mokjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Song

AD 997-1009 Goryeo Also honored as "Minjong" (/).

Níngz?ng (/)

The temple name Níngz?ng (///Ninh Tông) can be translated to mean "Amicable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Ningzong of Song
Zhao Kuo
AD 1194-1224 Southern Song
Ningzong of Yuan
Borjigin Irinchibal
?·?
AD 1332 Yuan

Qìngz?ng (/)

The temple name Qìngz?ng (///Khánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Qingzong of Southern Tang
?
Li Rong
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.

Q?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Q?nz?ng (///Khâm Tông) can be translated to mean "Laudable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Qinzong of Song
Zhao Huan
AD 1126-1127 Northern Song

Rénz?ng ()

The temple name Rénz?ng (//Nhân Tông) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Renzong of Shu Han
?
Liu Shan
AD 223-263 Shu Han
Renzong of Song
Zhao Zhen
AD 1022-1063 Northern Song
Renzong of Western Xia
?
Li Renxiao
AD 1139-1193 Western Xia
Renzong of Western Liao
?
Yelü Yilie
?
AD 1150-1163 Western Liao
Renzong of Yuan
Borjigin Ayurbarwada
?·?
AD 1311-1320 Yuan
Renzong of Ming
Zhu Gaochi
AD 1424-1425 Ming
Renzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Yongyan
AD 1796-1820 Qing
Injong of Goryeo

?
Wang Hae

AD 1122-1146 Goryeo
Injong of Joseon

?
Yi Ho

AD 1544-1545 Joseon
Lý Nhân Tông
Lý Càn c
AD 1072-1127
Tr?n Nhân Tông
Tr?n Khâm
AD 1278-1293 Tr?n
Lê Nhân Tông
Lê Bang C?
AD 1442-1459 Primitive Lê

Ruìz?ng ()

The temple name Ruìz?ng (//Du? Tông) can be translated to mean "Astute Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Ruizong of Tang
Li Dan
AD 684-690, AD 710-712 Tang
Ruizong of Northern Han
?
Liu Jun
AD 954-968 Northern Han
Ruizong of Jin
Wanyan Zongyao
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Yong.
Ruizong of Yuan
Borjigin Tolui
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Ruizong of Ming
Zhu Youyuan
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Houcong.
Yejong of Goryeo

?
Wang U

AD 1105-1122 Goryeo
Yejong of Joseon

?
Yi Gwang

AD 1468-1469 Joseon
Tr?n Du? Tông
Tr?n Kính
AD 1373-1377 Tr?n
Nguy?n Du? Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Thu?n
AD 1765-1776 Nguy?n lords

Shàoz?ng (/)

The temple name Shàoz?ng (///Thi?u Tông) can be translated to mean "Perpetual Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shaozong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Yujian
AD 1645-1646 Southern Ming

Shèngz?ng (/)

The temple name Shèngz?ng (///Thánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Sagacious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shengzong of Liao
Yelü Longxu
?
AD 982-1031 Liao
Lý Thánh Tông
Lý Nh?t Tôn
AD 1054-1072
Tr?n Thánh Tông
Tr?n Ho?ng
AD 1258-1278 Tr?n
Lê Thánh Tông
Lê T? Thành
AD 1460-1497 Primitive Lê

Shénz?ng ()

The temple name Shénz?ng (//Th?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Spiritual Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shenzong of Song
Zhao Xu
AD 1067-1085 Northern Song
Shenzong of Dali
?
Duan Zhixiang
AD 1205-1238 Later Dali
Shenzong of Western Xia
?
Li Zunxu
AD 1211-1223 Western Xia
Shenzong of Ming
Zhu Yunwen
AD 1398-1402 Ming Also honored as "Huizong" ().
Shenzong of Ming
Zhu Yijun
AD 1572-1620 Ming
Sinjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Tak

AD 1197-1204 Goryeo
Lý Th?n Tông
Lý Dng Hoán
AD 1128-1138
Lê Th?n Tông
Lê Duy K?
AD 1619-1643, AD 1649-1662 Revival Lê
Nguy?n Th?n Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Lan
AD 1635-1648 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Th?n T?" ().

Shìz?ng ()

The temple name Shìz?ng (//Th? Tông) can be translated to mean "Eternal Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shizong of Han
Liu Che
141-87 BC Western Han
Shizong of Jin
Sima Shi
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Western Jin emperor Sima Yan.
Shizong of Later Zhao
?
Shi Zhouhezhu
?
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhao Posthumously honored by the Later Zhao emperor Shi Le.
Shizong of Former Qin
?
Fu Jian
AD 351-355 Former Qin Also honored as "Gaozu" () and "Shizu" ().
Shizong of Former Liang
?
Zhang Chonghua
AD 346-353 Former Liang
Shizong of Southern Yan
?
Murong De
AD 398-405 Southern Yan
Shizong of Southern Qi
?
Xiao Zhangmao
Did not rule as monarch Southern Qi Posthumously honored by the Southern Qi emperor Xiao Zhaoye.
Shizong of Northern Wei
?
Yuan Ke
AD 499-515 Northern Wei
Shizong of Northern Qi
?
Gao Cheng
Did not rule as monarch Northern Qi Posthumously honored by the Northern Qi emperor Gao Yang.
Shizong of Northern Zhou
?
Yuwen Yu
AD 557-560 Northern Zhou
Shizong of Western Liang
?
Xiao Kui
AD 562-585 Western Liang
Shizong of Sui
Yang Zhao
Did not rule as monarch Sui Posthumously honored by the Sui emperor Yang Tong.
Shizong of Nanzhao
?
Meng Luoshengyan
?
Did not rule as monarch Nanzhao Posthumously honored by the Nanzhao king Meng Piluoge.
Shizong of Tang
Li Yu
AD 762-779 Tang Also honored as "Daizong" ().
Shizong of Wuyue
?
Qian Yuanguan
AD 932-941 Wuyue
Shizong of Liao
Yelü Ruan
AD 940-947 (as King of Dongdan), AD 947-951 (as Emperor of Liao) Dongdan, Liao
Shizong of Later Zhou
?
Chai Rong
AD 954-959 Later Zhou
Shizong of Jin
Wanyan Yong
AD 1161-1189 Jin
Shizong of Tianwan
?
Xu Shouhui
AD 1351-1360 Tianwan
Shizong of Ming
Zhu Houcong
AD 1521-1567 Ming
Shizong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Yinzhen
AD 1709-1722 Qing
Sejong of Joseon

?
Yi Do

AD 1418-1450 Joseon
Lê Th? Tông
Lê Duy ?àm
AD 1573-1599 Revival Lê
Nguy?n Th? Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Khoát
AD 1738-1765 Nguy?n lords

Shùnz?ng (/)

The temple name Shùnz?ng (///Thu?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Obedient Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shunzong of Tang
Li Song
AD 805 Tang
Shunzong of Liao
Yelü Jun
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Yanxi.
Shunzong of Yuan
Borjigin Darmabala
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Khayishan.
Sunjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Hun

AD 1083 Goryeo
Tr?n Thu?n Tông
Tr?n Ngung
AD 1388-1398 Tr?n

S?z?ng ()

The temple name S?z?ng (//T? Tông) can be translated to mean "Pensive Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Sizong of Ming
Zhu Youjian
AD 1627-1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (), "Weizong" (), and "Yizong" ().

Sùz?ng (/)

The temple name Sùz?ng (///Túc Tông) can be translated to mean "Solemn Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Suzong of Han
Liu Da
AD 75-88 Eastern Han
Suzong of Jin
Sima Shao
AD 323-325 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Suzu" ().
Suzong of Western Yan
?
Murong Hong
AD 384 Western Yan
Suzong of Northern Wei
?
Yuan Xu
AD 515-528 Northern Wei
Suzong of Northern Qi
?
Gao Yan
AD 535-561 Northern Qi
Suzong of Tang
Li Heng
AD 756-762 Tang
Suzong of Jin
Wanyan Pocishu
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Sukjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Ong

AD 1095-1105 Goryeo
Sukjong of Joseon

?
Yi Sun

AD 1674-1720 Joseon
Lê Túc Tông
Lê Kính Ph?
AD 1504 Primitive Lê
Nguy?n Túc Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Chú
AD 1725-1738 Nguy?n lords

Tàiz?ng ()

The temple name Tàiz?ng (//Thái Tông) can be translated to mean "Grand Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Taizong of Shang
Zi Zhi
1580-1557 BC Shang
Taizong of Han
Liu Heng
180-157 BC Western Han
Taizong of Cheng Han
?
Li Xiong
AD 304-334 Cheng Han
Taizong of Former Liang
?
Zhang Mao
AD 320-324 Former Liang
Taizong of Jin
Sima Yu
AD 372 Eastern Jin
Taizong of Former Qin
?
Fu Deng
AD 386-394 Former Qin
Taizong of Later Zhao
?
Shi Koumi
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhao
Taizong of Northern Wei
?
Tuoba Si
AD 409-423 Northern Wei
Taizong of Liu Song
?
Liu Yu
AD 465-472 Liu Song
Taizong of Liang
Xiao Gang
AD 549-551 Liang Also honored as "Gaozong" ().
Taizong of Tang
Li Shimin
AD 626-649 Tang
Taizong of Nanzhao
?
Meng Shengluopi
?
Did not rule as monarch Nanzhao Posthumously honored by the Nanzhao king Meng Piluoge.
Taizong of Min
Wang Yanjun
AD 926-935 Min Also honored as "Huizong" ().
Taizong of Liao
Yelü Deguang
?
AD 927-947 Liao
Taizong of Song
Zhao Jiong
AD 976-997 Northern Song
Taizong of Western Xia
?
Li Deming
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia Posthumously honored by the Western Xia emperor Li Yuanhao.
Taizong of Jin
Wanyan Sheng
AD 1123-1135 Jin
Taizong of Yuan
Borjigin Ögedei
AD 1229-1241 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Ögedei ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Taizong" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Taizong of Ming
Zhu Di
AD 1402-1424 Ming Also honored as "Chengzu" ().
Taizong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Hong Taiji
AD 1626-1636 (as Khan of Later Jin), AD 1636-1643 (as Emperor of Qing) Later Jin, Qing
Taejong of Silla

?
Kim Chun-chu

AD 654-661 Silla
Taejong of Joseon

?
Yi Bang-won

AD 1400-1418 Joseon
Lý Thái Tông
Lý Ph?t Mã
AD 1028-1054
Tr?n Thái Tông
Tr?n C?nh
AD 1226-1258 Tr?n
Lê Thái Tông
Lê Nguyên Long
AD 1433-1442 Primitive Lê
M?c Thái Tông
M?c ng Doanh
AD 1529-1540 M?c
Nguy?n Thái Tông
Nguy?n Phúc T?n
AD 1648-1687 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Ngh? T?" ().

T?ngz?ng (/)

The temple name T?ngz?ng (///Th?ng Tông) can be translated to mean "Commanding Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tongzong of Han
Liu Ao
33-7 BC Western Han

Wénz?ng ()

The temple name Wénz?ng (//V?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Civil Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wenzong of Tang
Li Ang
AD 827-840 Tang
Wenzong of Yuan
Borjigin Tugh Temür
?·?
AD 1328-1329, AD 1329-1332 Yuan
Wenzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Yizhu
AD 1850-1861 Qing
Munjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Hui

AD 1046-1083 Goryeo
Munjong of Joseon

?
Yi Hyang

AD 1450-1452 Joseon

W?iz?ng ()

The temple name W?iz?ng (//Uy Tông) can be translated to mean "Mighty Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Weizong of Han
Liu Zhi
AD 146-168 Eastern Han
Weizong of Northern Qi
?
Gao Yang
AD 550-559 Northern Qi Also honored as "Xianzu" ().
Weizong of Ming
Zhu Youjian
AD 1627-1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (), "Sizong" (), and "Yizong" ().

W?z?ng ()

The temple name W?z?ng (//V? Tông) can be translated to mean "Martial Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wuzong of Tang
Li Chan
AD 840-846 Tang
Wuzong of Western Xia
?
Li Jiqian
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia, Shun Posthumously honored by the Tangut leader Li Deming. Also honored as "Taizu" ().
Wuzong of Yuan
Borjigin Khayishan
AD 1307-1311 Yuan
Wuzong of Ming
Zhu Houzhao
AD 1505-1521 Ming

Xi?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Xi?ngz?ng (//Tng Tông) can be translated to mean "Assisted Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xiangzong of Tang
Li Ye
AD 888-900 Tang Also honored as "Zhaozong" ().
Xiangzong of Western Xia
?
Li Anquan
AD 1206-1211 Western Xia

Xi?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Xi?nz?ng (///Hi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Eminent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzong of Han
Liu Zhuang
AD 58-75 Eastern Han
Xianzong of Jin
Sima Yan
AD 325-342 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Xianzu" ().
Xianzong of Later Shu
?
Meng Dao
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang. Also honored as "Xianzu" ().
Xianzong of Jin
Wanyan Yungong
?
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Jing.
Xianzong of Yuan
Borjigin Gammala
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Yesün Temür.
Hyeonjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Sun

AD 1010-1031 Goryeo
Hyeonjong of Joseon

?
Yi Yeon

AD 1659-1674 Joseon
Lê Hi?n Tông
Lê Duy Diêu
AD 1740-1786 Revival Lê
Nguy?n Hi?n Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Chu
AD 1691-1725 Nguy?n lords

Xiànz?ng (/)

The temple name Xiànz?ng (///Hi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzong of Tang
Li Chun
AD 805-820 Tang
Xianzong of Dali
?
Duan Yu
AD 1108-1147 Later Dali
Xianzong of Yuan
Borjigin Möngke
AD 1251-1259 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Möngke ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Xianzong" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Xianzong of Ming
Zhu Jianru
AD 1464-1487 Ming
Xianzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Puyi
AD 1908-1912, AD 1917 Qing Also honored as "Gongzong" ().
Heonjong of Joseon

?
Yi Hwan

AD 1834-1849 Joseon
Tr?n Hi?n Tông
Tr?n Vng
AD 1329-1341 Tr?n
Lê Hi?n Tông
Lê T?ng
AD 1497-1504 Primitive Lê
M?c Hi?n Tông
M?c Phúc H?i
AD 1540-1546 M?c

Xiànz?ng (/)

The temple name Xiànz?ng (///Hi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzong of Western Xia
?
Li Dewang
AD 1223-1226 Western Xia
Heonjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Uk

AD 1094-1095 Goryeo

Xiàoz?ng ()

The temple name Xiàoz?ng (//Hi?u Tông) can be translated to mean "Filial Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xiaozong of Jin
Sima Dan
AD 344-361 Eastern Jin
Xiaozong of Song
Zhao Shen
AD 1162-1189 Southern Song
Xiaozong of Ming
Zhu Youcheng
AD 1487-1505 Ming
Hyojong of Joseon

?
Yi Ho

AD 1649-1659 Joseon
Lê Hi?u Tông
Lê Duy Khoáng
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Revival Lê emperor Lê Duy Bang.

X?ngz?ng (/)

The temple name X?ngz?ng (///H?ng Tông) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xingzong of Liao
Yelü Zongzhen
?
AD 1031-1055 Liao
Xingzong of Dali
?
Duan Silian
AD 1044-1075 Former Dali
Xingzong of Ming
Zhu Biao
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yunwen.

X?z?ng ()

The temple name X?z?ng (//Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Glorious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizong of Jin
Wanyan Dan
AD 1135-1150 Jin
Huijong of Goryeo

?
Wang Yeong

AD 1204-1211 Goryeo Also honored as "Jeongjong" (/).
Nguy?n Hy Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Nguyên
AD 1613-1635 Nguy?n lords Also honored as "Tuyên T?" ().
Lê Hy Tông
Lê Duy Cáp
AD 1675-1705 Revival Lê

X?z?ng ()

The temple name X?z?ng (//Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizong of Tang
Li Xuan
AD 873-888 Tang

X?z?ng ()

The temple name X?z?ng (//Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Coruscating Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizong of Ming
Zhu Youjiao
AD 1620-1627 Ming

Xu?nz?ng ()

The temple name Xu?nz?ng () is translated as "" in Korean and "Tuyên Tông" in Vietnamese.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzong of Tang
Li Chen
AD 846-859 Tang
Xuanzong of Northern Liao
?
Yelü Chun
AD 1122 Northern Liao
Xuanzong of Dali
?
Duan Zhixing
AD 1172-1200 Later Dali
Xuanzong of Jin
Wanyan Xun
AD 1213-1224 Jin
Xuanzong of Ming
Zhu Zhanji
AD 1425-1435 Ming
Xuanzong of Qing
Aisin Gioro Minning
AD 1820-1850 Qing
Seonjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Un

AD 1083-1094 Goryeo
Seonjong of Joseon

?
Yi Yeon

AD 1567-1608 Joseon Also honored as "Seonjo" (/).
M?c Tuyên Tông
M?c Phúc Nguyên
AD 1546-1561 M?c

Xuánz?ng ()

The temple name Xuánz?ng (//Huy?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Profound Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzong of Tang
Li Longji
AD 713-756 Tang
Lê Huy?n Tông
Lê Duy V?
AD 1662-1671 Revival Lê

Y?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Y?ngz?ng (//Anh Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yingzong of Song
Zhao Shu
AD 1063-1067 Northern Song
Yingzong of Dali
?
Duan Zhilian
AD 1201-1204 Later Dali
Yingzong of Yuan
Borjigin Shidibala
?·?
AD 1320-1323 Yuan
Yingzong of Ming
Zhu Qizhen
AD 1435-1449, AD 1457-1464 Ming
Yeongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Chang

AD 1269 Goryeo
Yeongjong of Joseon

?
Yi Geum

AD 1724-1776 Joseon Also honored as "Yeongjo" (/).
Lý Anh Tông
Lý Thiên T?
AD 1138-1175
Tr?n Anh Tông
Tr?n Thuyên
AD 1293-1314 Tr?n
Lê Anh Tông
Lê Duy Bang
AD 1556-1573 Revival Lê
Nguy?n Anh Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Tr?n
AD 1687-1691 Nguy?n lords

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng (//Ngh? Tông) can be translated to mean "Persistent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Western Xia
?
Li Liangzuo
AD 1048-1068 Western Xia
Yizong of Ming
Zhu Youjian
AD 1627-1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (), "Sizong" (), and "Weizong" ().
Uijong of Goryeo

?
Wang Hyeon

AD 1146-1170 Goryeo

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng (//Ý Tông) can be translated to mean "Benign Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Tang
Li Cui
AD 859-873 Tang
Lê Ý Tông
Lê Duy Th?n
AD 1735-1740 Revival Lê

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng (//D?c Tông) can be translated to mean "Soaring Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Igjong of Joseon

?
Yi Yeong

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Hwan. Also honored as "Munjo" (/).
Nguy?n D?c Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Thì
AD 1847-1883 Nguy?n Also honored as "Thành T?" ().

Yìz?ng (/)

The temple name Yìz?ng (///Ngh?a Tông) can be translated to mean "Righteous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Tang
Li Hong
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Xian.
Yizong of Liao
Yelü Bei
AD 926-930 (as King of Dongdan) Dongdan (de facto), Liao (honorary) Yelü Bei ruled as King of Dongdan, but was subsequently honored as "Yizong" by the Liao emperor Yelü Zongzhen.
Yizong of Jin
Wanyan Shouxu
?
AD 1224-1234 Jin Also honored as "Aizong" ().

Yìz?ng (/)

The temple name Yìz?ng (///Ngh? Tông) can be translated to mean "Competent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tr?n Ngh? Tông
Tr?n Ph?
AD 1370-1372 Tr?n

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng (//Ích Tông) can be translated to mean "Flourishing Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Northern Yuan
?
Borjigin Tögüs Temür
AD 1378-1388 Northern Yuan

Yòuz?ng ()

The temple name Yòuz?ng (//H?u Tông) can be translated to mean "Blessed Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lê H?u Tông
Lê Duy V?
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Revival Lê emperor Lê Duy K?.

Yuánz?ng ()

The temple name Yuánz?ng (//Nguyên Tông) can be translated to mean "Primal Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yuanzong of Southern Tang
?
Li Jing
AD 943-961 Southern Tang
Wonjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Sik

AD 1260-1269, AD 1269-1274 Goryeo
Wonjong of Joseon

?
Yi Bu

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Jong.

Yùz?ng ()

The temple name Yùz?ng (//D? Tông) can be translated to mean "Affluent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yuzong of Yuan
Borjigin Zhenjin
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Temür.
Tr?n D? Tông
Tr?n H?o
AD 1341-1369 Tr?n
Lê D? Tông
Lê Duy ng
AD 1705-1729 Revival Lê

Zh?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?ngz?ng (//Chng Tông) can be translated to mean "Decorous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhangzong of Jin
Wanyan Jing
AD 1189-1208 Jin

Zh?oz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?oz?ng (//Chiêu Tông) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhaozong of Tang
Li Ye
AD 888-900 Tang Also honored as "Xiangzong" ().
Zhaozong of Jin
Wanyan Chenglin
?
AD 1234 Jin
Zhaozong of Northern Yuan
?
Borjigin Ayushiridara
AD 1370-1378 Northern Yuan Also honored as "Zhezong" ().
Zhaozong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Youlang
AD 1646-1662 Southern Ming
Lê Chiêu Tông
Lê Y
AD 1516-1522 Primitive Lê

Zhèngz?ng ()

The temple name Zhèngz?ng (//Chính Tông) can be translated to mean "Upstanding Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjong of Joseon

?
Yi San

AD 1776-1800 Joseon Also honored as "Jeongjo" (/).

Zh?nz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?nz?ng (//Chân Tông) can be translated to mean "Sterling Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhenzong of Song
Zhao Heng
AD 997-1022 Northern Song
Jinjong of Joseon

?
Yi Haeng

Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi San.
Lê Chân Tông
Lê Duy H?u
AD 1643-1649 Revival Lê

Zh?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Zh?nz?ng (///Trinh Tông) can be translated to mean "Steadfast Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjong of Goryeo

?
Wang Yeong

AD 1204-1211 Goryeo Also honored as "Huijong" (/).

Zhéz?ng ()

The temple name Zhéz?ng (//Tri?t Tông) can be translated to mean "Sapient Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhezong of Song
Zhao Xu
AD 1085-1100 Northern Song
Zhezong of Northern Yuan
?
Borjigin Ayushiridara
AD 1370-1378 Northern Yuan Also honored as "Zhaozong" ().
Cheoljong of Joseon

?
Yi Byeon

AD 1849-1864 Joseon

Zhìz?ng (/)

The temple name Zhìz?ng (///Ch?t Tông) can be translated to mean "Spartan Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhizong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Yousong
AD 1644-1645 Southern Ming Also honored as "Anzong" ().

Zh?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?ngz?ng (//Trung Tông) can be translated to mean "Resurgent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhongzong of Shang
Zi Mi
1535-1460 BC Shang
Zhongzong of Shang
Zi Teng
1372-1353 BC Shang
Zhongzong of Han
Liu Xun
74-49 BC Western Han
Zhongzong of Jin
Sima Rui
AD 318-323 Eastern Jin
Zhongzong of Cheng Han
?
Li Shou
AD 338-343 Cheng Han
Zhongzong of Later Yan
?
Murong Sheng
AD 398-401 Later Yan
Zhongzong of Liu Song
?
Liu Yilong
AD 424-453 Liu Song Also honored as "Taizu" ().
Zhongzong of Western Liang
?
Xiao Cha
AD 555-562 Western Liang
Zhongzong of Tang
Li Xian
AD 684, AD 705-710 Tang
Zhongzong of Southern Han
?
Liu Sheng
AD 943-958 Southern Han
Zhongzong of Dali
?
Duan Zhengchun
AD 1096-1108 Later Dali
Jungjong of Joseon

?
Yi Yeok

AD 1506-1544 Joseon
Ti?n Lê Trung Tông
?
Lê Long Vi?t
AD 1005 Early Lê
Lê Trung Tông
Lê Huyên
AD 1548-1556 Revival Lê

Zhu?ngz?ng (/)

The temple name Zhu?ngz?ng (///Trang Tông) can be translated to mean "Dignified Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhuangzong of Later Tang
?
Li Cunxu
AD 923-926 Later Tang
Lê Trang Tông
Lê Ninh
AD 1533-1548 Revival Lê

List of temple names with limited recognition

This list contains individuals whose temple names were derived from unverified or uncertain sources and are not widely recognized by academia. Nonetheless, referencing these individuals by their unofficial temple names is common in non-academic sources.[1]

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty
Shizu of Shang
Zi Xie
Did not rule as monarch Shang
Kuizong of Shang
Zi Zhugui
Did not rule as monarch Shang
Shizu of Shang
Zi Xun
c. 1300 BC Shang
Shizong of Shang
Zi Zai
1204-1171 BC Shang
Jiazong of Shang
Zi Xian
1171-1167 BC Shang
Kangzu of Shang
Zi Xiao
1167-1159 BC Shang
Wuzu of Shang
Zi Qu
1159-1124 BC Shang
Shizu of Han
Liu Tuan
Did not rule as monarch Han
Shenzong of Han
Liu Fuling
87-74 BC Western Han
Yanzong of Han
Liu Xuan
AD 23-25 Han
Changzong of Han
Liu Penzi
AD 25-27 Han
Dezong of Jin
Sima Zhong
AD 290-301, AD 301-307 Western Jin
Renzu of Jin
Sima Chi
AD 307-311 Western Jin
Aizong of Jin
Sima Ye
AD 313-316 Western Jin
Xiangzong of Han Zhao
?
Liu Yao
AD 318-329 Han Zhao
Yanzong of Jin
Sima Yue
AD 342-344 Eastern Jin
Yingzong of Former Liang
?
Zhang Yaoling
AD 353-354 Former Liang
Ningzong of Jin
Sima Pi
AD 361-365 Eastern Jin
Yuzong of Jin
Sima Yi
AD 365-372 Eastern Jin
Liezong of Former Qin
?
Fu Pi
AD 385-386 Former Qin
Kangzong of Western Yan
?
Murong Yong
AD 386-394 Western Yan
Weizong of Zhai Wei
?
Zhai Liao
AD 388-391 Zhai Wei
Chengzong of Jin
Sima Dezong
?
AD 396-419 Eastern Jin
Yingzong of Later Liang
?
Lü Zuan
AD 400-401 Later Liang
Qizong of Jin
Sima Dewen
?
AD 419-420 Eastern Jin
Taizong of Dali
?
Duan Siliang
AD 946-951 Former Dali
Shenzong of Former Liang
?
Zhang Tianxi
AD 964-976 Former Liang
Gongzong of Liao
Yelü Yanxi
?
AD 1101-1125 Liao
Xizu of Yuan
Borjigin Bodonchar
?·?
Did not rule as monarch Yuan
Xuanzu of Yuan
Borjigin Khabul
AD 1130-1148 (as Khan of Khamag Mongol) Khamag Mongol (de facto), Yuan (honorary)
Muzong of Yuan
Borjigin Jochi
Did not rule as monarch Yuan
Xiangzong of Western Liao
?
Yelü Zhilugu
AD 1177-1211 Western Liao
Shengzong of Yuan
Borjigin Chagatai
AD 1226-1242 (as Khan of the Chagatai Khanate) Chagatai Khanate (de facto), Yuan (honorary)
Fazong of Song
Zhao Xian
AD 1274-1276 Southern Song
Gongzong of Song
Huaizong of Song
Zhao Bing
AD 1278-1279 Southern Song
Jinzong of Yuan
Borjigin Yesün Temür
AD 1323-1328 Yuan
Gaozu of Chen Han
?
Chen Youliang
AD 1360-1363 Chen Han
Gongzong of Northern Yuan
?
Borjigin Yesüder
?·?
AD 1388-1392 Northern Yuan
Kangzong of Northern Yuan
?
Borjigin Elbeg
?·?
AD 1393-1399 Northern Yuan
Minzong of Northern Yuan
?
Borjigin Gün Temür
?·?
AD 1400-1402 Northern Yuan
Shunzong of Ming
Zhu Cilang
Did not rule as monarch Ming
Yizong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Yihai
Did not rule as monarch Southern Ming
Wenzong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Yuyue
AD 1646-1647 Southern Ming
Pingzong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Benli
AD 1646-1664 Southern Ming
Jingzong of Southern Ming
?
Zhu Changqing
AD 1648-1649 Southern Ming
Shizu of Qing
Aisin Gioro Buk?ri Yong?on
Did not rule as monarch Qing
Aejong of Joseon

?
Yi Gu

Did not rule as monarch Joseon
Nguy?n Hi?n Tông
Nguy?n Phúc Minh
AD 1884-1885 Nguy?n

See also

References


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