Template:Harvard Citation Documentation
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Template:Harvard Citation Documentation

The Harv family of templates are used for creating short-cites (or "short citations"), typically used within tags, that link to the full citation (with the full bibliographic details) for a source. This enables a source to be cited multiple times, with each short-cite having an in-source specification (such as a page number) and any other details or comments pertinent to that specific instance.

The sfn--"shortened footnote"--templates create notes (footnotes) containing harv templates, removing the need to use tags around Harv-style reference notation. This functionality can eliminate the need to replicate notes with "named-refs" (the "<ref name= ...>" construct).

Note that the use (or even non-use) of these templates is an element of citation "style", and adding or removing them in articles with an established style should be consistent with that style. See WP:CITEVAR. Also note that inline use of these templates, i.e. use of {{harv}} without tags around it, was deprecated in September 2020.

Usage

Default mode

In its default mode, {{{1}}} generates an "author-date" style short-cite from the following parameters:

<ref>{{{{{1}}} | <last1*> | <last2> | <last3> | <last4> | <year*> | p= <page> | loc= <location> }}</ref>

with

- <last1>-<last4> - positional parameters; names of one to four authors; <last1> required
- <year> - required; four-digit year; may have a lowercase disambiguation letter
- - specific page referenced in the source
- - comma-separated list of individual pages and / or range(s) of pages referenced in the source
- - in-source location when and are inappropriate; may be used to supplement and ; information such as a section or figure number.

{{{1}}} follows the standard convention that a list of four author names is reduced to the name of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others"). Where two or more short-cites have the same author(s) and year, but refer to different citations, a lowercase letter can be appended to <year> to disambiguate them. (E.g.: <ref>{{{{{1}}} | Smith | 2000a}}; {{{{{1}}} | Smith | 2000b}}</ref>).

To link to a full citation, the author(s) and year must match those used in the cite or citation template. The {{citation}} template and the Citation Style 1 {{cite xxx}} family of templates automatically generate the proper "author-date" anchor.

This template is most commonly placed inside a note (that is, between tags). Additional information, comments, and even other short-cites can be placed in the same note, before the closing tag.

Alternate mode

While {{{1}}} requires an initial string of text, there is no requirement that it be a "proper" name. This permits some useful alternatives in the following form:

<ref>{{{{{1}}} | <identifying text*> | <year*> | p= <page> | loc= <location> }}</ref>

Example: newspapers

When citing newspaper articles the name of the newspaper is often considered more important than the actual authors (which often are not identified), and it is also conventional bibliographic practice that newspaper articles are listed chronologically under the name of the newspaper. Also, for daily or weekly publications a more precise date is usually required. In such cases a valid short-cite might be:

Los Angeles Times, July 4, 2019.

This is generated with the following template:

{{harvnb|''Los Angeles Times'', July 4,|2019}}.

The anchor for the link is given to the {{citation}} or the {{cite xxx}} template using a {{harvid}} template in a parameter. In this case that would look like:

The harvid template should be given exactly the same identifying text and year as used in the {{{1}}} template.

Example: multi-volume works

The Assessment Reviews of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consist of multiple reports with many independently authored (and therefore separately cited) chapters. In such cases, where "Smith et al. 2014" could refer to either chapter 11 ("Human Health") in the report of Working Group II in the fifth review, or to chapter 11 ("Agriculture") in the report of Working Group III in the fifth review, the "author-date" form is inadequate; an indexed form of short-cite, such as

IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch11 2014, p. 741, FAQ 11.1.

is more meaningful, and handier to use and keep track of. This is generated with:

{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch11|2014|p= 741|loc= FAQ 11.1}}.

For both {citation} and {cite} templates the anchor is specified with:

Other examples

Examples of other ways to use Harv templates can be seen at Global Warming.

Placing the template in the body of the article

<ref>{{{{{1}}} | last name(s) of author(s) | year | p=page number or pp=page range or loc=other location}}</ref>

Last names of editors can be used, if no authors are given, as author names are given precedence.

If more than four authors, truncate the list to the first four.

In the references section (or in an earlier footnote):

{{cite book or cite journal, etc | ... other appropriate parameters ... }}

or

{{citation | ... other appropriate parameters ... }}

Parameters

Up to four authors can be given as parameters. (If there are more than four authors, only the first four should be listed. See § Large numbers of authors, below.) The last required parameter is the year of publication.

(All these examples have links which operate. Click on highlighted text.)

Markup Renders as
{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|Jones|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|Jones|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|Jones|Brown|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|Jones|Brown|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|2005|p=25}}

The optional parameters , and can be used to indicate the location in the source. All of the Harvard citation templates use the same parameters to indicate page numbers or other locations in the text. For single pages, use ; for multiple pages (such as ranges), use . Use of for multiple pages or for single pages can cause cite errors.

Markup Renders as
{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|p=25}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|pp=25-26}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|pp=25-26}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|loc=chpt. 3}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|loc=chpt. 3}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|loc=section 7}}

{{{{{1}}}|Smith|2005|loc=section 7}}

The optional parameter is used to specify the reference value that links the short citation to the full citation. This parameter is usually not necessary, and it is more common to use {{sfnRef}} or {{harvid}} in the reference section. If you specify , no hyperlink is created. Note that if one does not want the link, it is always possible to simply use plain text instead of the template. (Not available in {{sfn}} and similar templates.)

Aliases

The parameters , , and exist as aliases for , , and , respectively.

Author-date citation templates

There are several templates used to create short citations; they differ in the use and placement of parentheses, in the separator before the page or location, and in whether a terminal full stop (period) is present:

In-text templates
Templates Aliases Example
{{Harvard citation no brackets}} {{harvnb}} Smith 2006, p. 25
{{Harvard citation}} {{harv}} (Smith 2006, p. 25)
{{Harvard citation text}} {{harvtxt}} Smith (2006, p. 25)
{{Harvcoltxt}} Smith (2006:25)
{{Harvcol}} (Smith 2006:25)
{{Harvcolnb}} Smith 2006:25
{{Harvard citations}} ({{harvs}}) John Smith (2006, 2007) (and many other forms).
{{Harvp}} Smith (2006), p. 25
{{Shortened footnote template}} {{sfn}} Article text.[1]
  1. ^ Smith 2006, p. 25.
{{Sfnp}} Article text.[1]
  1. ^ Smith (2006), p. 25.
{{Sfnm}} Article text.[1]
{{Sfnmp}} Article text.[1]

Full citations can be created manually or by templates:

All of these templates have the same parameters and basic functionality. This page describes all of them except the parameters of {{sfnm}} and {{harvs}}; please see their documentation pages. Editors editing one of these templates are requested to make parallel changes to the other versions.

Applications in the body of the article

Harvard citation: {{harv}}

Template {{harv}} creates a parenthetical reference with a link to the full citation in the references section at the bottom of the article.

Markup Renders as
Article text.<ref>{{harv|Smith|2006|p=25}}</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | title = Smith's book
 | year = 2006
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ (Smith 2006, p. 25)
References
  • Smith, John (2006). Smith's book.

Shortened footnote: {{sfn}} or {{harvnb}}

Template {{harvnb}} inside a span can be used to create a shortened footnote that is linked to the full citation at the bottom of the article. Template {{sfn}} (without the use of ) has the same effect, automatically adds a period (full stop) after the page number, and combines identical footnotes automatically.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=25}}
More article text.{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=25}}
Still more article text.{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=26}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | year = 2007
 | title = Smith's Book
}}

Article text.[1] More article text.[1] Still more article text.[2]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Smith 2007, p. 25.
  2. ^ Smith 2007, p. 26.
References
  • Smith, John (2007). Smith's Book.
Article text.<ref name=Smith2008p25>{{harvnb|Smith|2008|p=25}}.</ref>
More article text.<ref name=Smith2008p25/>
Still more article text.<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2008|p=26}}.</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | year = 2008
 | title = Smith's Book
}}

Article text.[1] More article text.[1] Still more article text.[2]


Notes
  1. ^ a b Smith 2008, p. 25.
  2. ^ Smith 2008, p. 26.
References
  • Smith, John (2008). Smith's Book.

In text attribution: {{harvtxt}}

Template {{harvtxt}} can be used to link an in-text attribution to the full citation at the bottom of the page.

Markup Renders as
According to {{harvtxt|Smith|2009|p=25}} ...

==References==
* {{citation
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | year = 2009
 | title = Smith's Book
}}

According to Smith (2009, p. 25) ...

References
  • Smith, John (2009), Smith's Book

Bundled citation: {{harvnb}} or {{sfnm}}

Template {{harvnb}} can be used to bundle citations. {{sfnm}} also produces bundled citations.

Markup Renders as
Article text ({{harvnb|Smith|2010|p=25}}; {{harvnb|Jones|2010}}).

Article text (Smith 2010, p. 25; Jones 2010).

Article text.<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2010|p=25}}; {{harvnb|Jones|2010}}</ref>

Article text.[1]

Notes
Article text.{{sfnm|la1=Smith|y1=2010|p1=25|la2=Jones|y2=2010}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
==References==
* {{cite book | last = Smith | first = John ... Smith's book }}
* {{cite book | last = Jones | first = Mary ... Jones' book }}
References
  • Smith, John (2010). Smith's book.
  • Jones, Mary (2010). Jones' book.

Note that {{sfn}} is inappropriate for bundled citations; use {{harvnb}} or {{sfnm}}.

More exotic Harvard citations: {{harvid}} or {{harvs}}

More exotic Harvard citations can be constructed using the {{harvs}} template, such as multiple papers by the same author, using both the first and last names, links to articles about the author, and others. Any kind of unusual link can also be constructed using the idiom [[#{{harvid|parameters}}|link name]]. ({{citeref}} is a wrapper for {{harvid}} making it easier to consistently create such internal links in small superscript[n] or plain-text label styles.)

Markup Renders as
The theory was developed by {{harvs|txt|first=F. J.|last=Murray|author1-link=F. J. Murray|first2=J.|last2=von Neumann|author2-link=John von Neumann|year=1936|year2=1937|year3=1943}}.

The theory was developed by F. J. Murray and J. von Neumann (1936, 1937, 1943).

The theory was developed by [[F. J. Murray]] and [[John von Neumann|J. von Neumann]] ([[#{{harvid|Murray|von Neumann|1936}}|1936]],[[#{{harvid|Murray|von Neumann|1937}}|1937]],[[#{{harvid|Murray|von Neumann|1943}}|1943]]).

The theory was developed by F. J. Murray and J. von Neumann (1936, 1937, 1943).

== References ==
* {{citation | last1 = Murray | first1 = F. J. | year = 1936 | ...}}
* {{citation | last1 = Murray | first1 = F. J. | year = 1937 | ...}}
* {{citation | last1 = Murray | first1 = F. J. | year = 1943 | ...}}
References
  • Murray, F. J.; von Neumann, John (1936), Mathematics Paper
  • Murray, F. J.; von Neumann, John (1937), Another Mathematics Paper
  • Murray, F. J.; von Neumann, John (1943), Yet Another Mathematics Paper

Some articles use this idiom [[#CITEREFid | link name ]]. See notes on implementation details below.

Variations

Using colon format: {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}}, {{harvcoltxt}}

Templates {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}}, and {{harvcoltxt}} use a colon to indicate the page number(s) or location.

Markup Renders as
{{harvcol|Smith|2011|p=25}}

(Smith 2011:25)

{{harvcolnb|Smith|2011|p=25}}
{{harvcoltxt|Smith|2011|p=25}}
{{harvcol|Smith|2011|p=25-26}}

(Smith 2011:25-26)

{{harvcol|Smith|2011|loc=chpt. 3}}

(Smith 2011:chpt. 3)

Parentheses around the year: {{sfnp}} and {{harvp}}

Template {{sfnp}} puts parentheses around the year. Compare the two examples.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfnp|Smith|2011}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

Article text.[1]

Notes

Similarly, in order to mimic Citation Style 1 citations, template {{harvp}} puts parentheses around the year.

Markup Renders as
{{harvp|Smith|2011|p=25}}

Smith (2011), p. 25

Additional comments or quotes:

The parameter can be used to add quotes or additional comments. Note that this effect can also be achieved using {{harvnb}}, if done as shown in the last example. The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year, and location.

Markup Renders as
Some information.{{sfn|Smith|2011|p=2|ps=: "A quote verifying the information."}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

Some information.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 2: "A quote verifying the information."
"A quote in a secondary source."{{sfn|Smith|2011|p=2|ps=, quoted in {{harvtxt|Jones|2010|p=343}}}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

"A quote in a secondary source."[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 2, quoted in Jones (2010, p. 343)
Some information.<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2011|p=2}}: "A quote verifying the information."</ref>
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

Some information.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 2: "A quote verifying the information."

Nota bene: two or more templates with the same authors, same year, and same page, but different will result in a Cite error: Invalid tag; name... message. This message happens because the reference names that creates will be the same, but the content between the tag and the tag will be different. A workaround is to convert one or some of the templates to {{harvnb}} wrapped in tags.

Two or more templates with the same authors and same year, but different will also result in a Cite error: Invalid tag; name... message. A workaround is to add } to one of the templates, which makes them different from a technical standpoint but the same when rendered.

No closing period:

Using in {{sfn}} removes the final period. Compare the two examples. Suppressing the default period (full stop) ensures consistency with Citation style 2, as produced by {{Citation}}, which does not use a trailing period (full stop) when rendering full citations. The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year, and location. will also suppress terminal punctuation. Follow-on editors who encounter 'empty' parameters can't know if a previous editor intended to leave that parameter blank. Using the keyword none is a positive indication of the previous editor's intent.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011|ps=none}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}

Article text.[1]

Notes

Adding a URL for the page or location

If a specific link to the page or section is available, a URL can be added to the location or page number.

Markup Renders as
{{harv|Smith|2011|loc=[http://en.wikipedia.org chpt 3]}}
{{harv|Smith|2011|loc=[http://en.wikipedia.org &sect;7]}}
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011|p=[http://en.wikipedia.org 3]}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book | last = Smith | year = 2011 | title = Smith's
other book }}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 3.
References
  • Smith (2011). Smith's other book.

Possible issues

Wikilink to citation does not work

If an article is using this template, and nothing happens when you click on the highlighted wikilink from a Harvard style citation to a full citation at the bottom of the page, there are several possible solutions. If:

  1. The correct citation does not appear at the bottom of the article. Solution: Find the source (it may be copied from an article on a similar subject), and check that it verifies the text. If the source can't be found, tag the citation with {{citation not found}}.
  2. The correct citation appears at the bottom of the article, and
    1. The Harvard citation uses a template (such as {{sfn}} or {{harv}}):
      1. The citation uses a template from the list at Citation Style 1:
        1. The name is spelled or capitalized differently here than in the citation. Solution: check the source for the correct spelling, and use the same spelling, spacing, and capitalization in both the short and full citations.
        2. The year is different here than the citation. Solution: check the source for the correct year, and use the same year in both the short and full citations.
        3. The template has a field and no field, but the format of the field is unusual. Solution: Try to fix the date. If the link still does not work, add to the citation template. (It's okay if it has both.)
        4. The citation does not have an author's, or an editor's, last name (authors take precedence over editors). Solution: check that is set correctly (see below).
      2. The citation uses a Citation Style Vancouver template. Solution: check that is set correctly (see below).
      3. The citation uses a template that does not support (See popflock.com Resource: Citation templates and reference anchors). Solution: Consider modifying the template to support . Alternatively, an anchor can be created using {{wikicite|id={{harvid|args}}|reference={{citation}}}}.
      4. The full citation does not use a template:
        1. It has no wikicode to create an anchor. Solution: If {{cite *}} citation templates are used liberally throughout the article, then reformat the full citation with the appropriate {{cite *}} template (and set the appropriately, if necessary). Otherwise consult with local editors on the talk page about how to proceed. Either add {{cite *}} templates and {{harv}} templates, or remove all templates, depending on what local editors prefer. A few articles use {{wikicite}} to create an anchor as an alternative to standard templates.
        2. It uses a span to create an anchor. Solution: remove the cite span (these are deprecated) and proceed following the recommendation immediately above.
        3. It uses {{wikicite}}. Solution: Check that the text in matches the text in {{wikicite}}.
    2. If the Harvard citation uses a handwritten wikilink, such as [[#Reference-Smith2006|Smith (2006)]]:
      1. The citation uses a citation template which supports (See popflock.com Resource: Citation templates and reference anchors). Solution: Check that is set to a matching id.
      2. Otherwise, check that the reference has {{wikicite|ref=id|reference=citation}} with a matching id.

Templates that have broken wikilinks using these templates are added to the category Category:All articles with broken links to citations.

More than one work in a year

Where there is a need to cite more than one work by the same author published in the same year, the standard way to disambiguate such works is to add a letter suffix after the year element of the template (e.g. and ). Make sure to add the disambiguation letter to the matching full citation, (e.g. {{cite book|...|last=Smith|year=2006b}}).

Templates that use Module:Citation/CS1

When is used with {{citation}} or Citation Style 1 templates, a year-suffix letter may be added to for all accepted date formats except year-initial numeric (YYYY-MM-DD). It is not necessary to include both and . If both are included, is used for the CITEREF anchor to be compliant with legacy citations.

: simple year only dates
or : month or season and year dates
or : full dates
or : month or season ranges and year dates
: circa year dates
or : year ranges
: no date (n.d.)
: not supported, the template must use
Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1993a|p=25}}
More text.{{sfn|Smith|1993b|p=32}}

==Notes==
{{reflist |close=1}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
|last=Smith
|first=Karen
|date=January 1993a
|title=Smith's first paper
|journal=Important Journal
}}
* {{cite journal
|last=Smith
|first=Karen
|date=Spring-Summer 1993b
|title=Smith's second paper
|journal=Another Important Journal
}}

Article text.[1] More text.[2]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1993a, p. 25.
  2. ^ Smith 1993b, p. 32.
References
  • Smith, Karen (January 1993a). "Smith's first paper". Important Journal.
  • Smith, Karen (Spring-Summer 1993b). "Smith's second paper". Another Important Journal.

More than one author with the same last name

The above solution to add a letter suffix after the year element also works for multiple authors with the same last name. For example, both Richard Bushman and Claudia Lauper Bushman published books in 2006. To differentiate between the two books, the first one can be given the year "2006a" and the second one "2006b".

Large numbers of authors

Only the first four authors are required by the template. Listing more is not supported. It is also possible to use the in the citation template, which allows a more concise citation in the article text.

Markup Renders as
Article text.<ref>{{harv|Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|1994|p=25}}</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith
| last2 = Jones
| last3 = Brown
| last4 = Black
| last5 = Davis
| last6 = Martinez
| last7 = Hsu
| year= 1994
| title= Scientific paper written by
many scientists
| journal = Important Journal
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ (Smith et al. 1994, p. 25)
References
  • Smith; Jones; Brown; Black; Davis; Martinez; Hsu (1994). "Scientific paper written by many scientists". Important Journal.
Article text.<ref>{{harv|Smith et al.|1995|p=25}}</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith
| last2 = Jones
| last3 = Brown
| last4 = Black
| last5 = Davis
| last6 = Martinez
| last7 = Hsu
| year= 1995
| title= Another paper by many scientists
| journal = Important Journal
| ref = {{harvid|Smith et al.|1995}}
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ (Smith et al. 1995, p. 25)
References
  • Smith; Jones; Brown; Black; Davis; Martinez; Hsu (1995). "Another paper by many scientists". Important Journal.

No author name in citation template

Some sources do not have a single author with a last name, such as a magazine article or a report from a government institution. There is no consensus (in popflock.com resource or among citation styles) about how to format author-date citations for works that do not have a specific author. Several choices are:

  1. For a newspaper or periodical, you may use the name of the paper and the date.
  2. For a publication by an institution, use either:
    1. The initials of the institution
    2. The name of the institution
  3. Alternatively, some style guides recommend using the title of the article.
  4. Other style guides recommend using "Anonymous" or "Anon."

An article should adopt one of these styles consistently. Using in the citation template can handle these cases.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn |BGI|1996|p=429}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
| title = Important Book
| year = 1996
| publisher = Big Government Institution
| ref = {{harvid|BGI|1996}}
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ BGI 1996, p. 429.
References
  • Important Book. Big Government Institution. 1996.
Article text.{{sfn |''Popular Magazine''|1996|p=29}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite magazine
| magazine = Popular Magazine
| title = An Article by an Anonymous Author
| year = 1996
| ref = {{harvid|Popular Magazine|1996}}
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
References
  • "An Article by an Anonymous Author". Popular Magazine. 1996.

Citation has and no

Either the or of a citation template can be matched--the template logic can extract the year from a full date. If the date parameter is not a full date, then the extraction will fail. If the link does not seem to work, it also possible to set both and parameters. The template will display the date and use the year for the anchor. These two examples show a year being successfully extracted from full date.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1997|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| date = 11 May 1997
| title = Smith's 1997 paper
| journal= Important Journal
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1997, p. 101.
References
  • Smith, Karen (11 May 1997). "Smith's 1997 paper". Important Journal.
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1998|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| date = May 1998
| title = Smith's 1998 paper
| journal= Important Journal
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1998, p. 101.
References
  • Smith, Karen (May 1998). "Smith's 1998 paper". Important Journal.

Citation template does not support

The Citation Style Vancouver family of templates use parameter to create an anchor for the Harvard citation templates. This must be set to a concatenation of the parameters passed to the Harvard citation template.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1999|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{vcite book
| author = Smith K
| year = 1999
| title = Smith's 1999 Book
| harvid = Smith1999
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1999, p. 101.
References
  • Smith K. Smith's 1999 Book. 1999.
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2000|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite thesis
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| date = May 2000
| title = Smith's Thesis
| ref = {{harvid|Smith|2000}}
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2000, p. 101.
References
  • Smith, Karen (May 2000). Smith's Thesis (Thesis).

Citation format does not support anchors: {{wikicite}}

In a few very rare cases, it may be impossible for the citation templates to create an anchor. Either (1) the citation is formatted with a template that does not support the parameter or (2) the source can't be described using our citation templates at all. In these cases, it is possible to use {{wikicite}} to make the anchor. (As of November 2010, there are only approximately 100 articles that require this technique.) It is also possible that (3) local editors would prefer not to use citation templates. In this case, it is important to discuss what the local editors would like to do about the bad links. It is always possible to simply remove {{harv}} or {{sfn}}, leaving plain text without links.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn |Big Government Agency|1999}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{wikicite
 | reference = {{cite report
 | title=Important Government Report
 | publisher=Big Government Agency
 | year=1999
 }}
 | ref = {{harvid|Big Government Agency|1999}}
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
References
  • Important Government Report (Report). Big Government Agency. 1999.
Article text.{{sfn |A particularly unusual citation}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{wikicite
| reference = A source that can't be described
using our citation templates at all.
| ref = {{harvid|A particularly unusual citation}}
}}

Article text.[1]

Notes
References
  • A source that can't be described using our citation templates at all.

It is also possible to use to achieve the same effect, but this may not be compatible with HTML 5.

Citation has multiple authors and no date

The templates assume that the last unnamed parameter is the year. Where there are multiple authors and no year, the template will form a correct link but will display the last author as if it were a year. To force the displayed text to show all authors as names, the following workaround may be used:

Markup Renders as
Article text.<ref>[[#{{harvid|Lane|Singh}}|Lane & Singh]]</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{citation
  | last = Lane
  | first = Kieran
  | last2 = Singh
  | first2 = Karun
  | title = Richard Watts
  | work = Richard Watts Charities
  | url = http://www.richardwatts.org.uk/richardwatts1.html
  | accessdate = 21 June 2012
  }}

Article text.[1]

Notes
References
  • Lane, Kieran; Singh, Karun, "Richard Watts", Richard Watts Charities, retrieved 2012

Recommended style

The recommended Harvard referencing style potentially uses all four templates. Each automatically generates a hypertext link based on the name(s) and date. Here is an example

Markup Renders as
Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves {{Harv|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}}; yet {{Harvtxt|Einstein|1915}} presented essential equations with notable brevity. The essential ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor ({{Harvnb|Einstein|1915|p = 844}}; {{Harvnb|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973|p = 41}}).

== References ==
*{{Citation
 | last = Misner
 | first = Charles W.
 | last2 = Thorne
 | first2 = Kip S.
 | first3 = John Archibald
 | last3 = Wheeler
 | title = Gravitation
 | publisher = W. H. Freeman
 | location = San Francisco
 | date = September 1973
 | isbn = 0-7167-0344-0
}}
*{{Citation
 | last = Einstein
 | first = Albert
 | title = Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation
 | trans-title = The Field Equations of Gravitation
 | journal = Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften
 | pages = 844-847
 | year = 1915
}}

Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves (Misner, Thorne & Wheeler 1973); yet Einstein (1915) presented essential equations with notable brevity. The two ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor (Einstein 1915, p. 844; Misner, Thorne & Wheeler 1973, p. 41).

References
  • Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (September 1973), Gravitation, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 0-7167-0344-0
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" [The Field Equations of Gravitation], Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844-847

In short:

  1. For a single work with no author in the text (the most common case), use {{Harv}}.
  2. For a single work with the author named in the text, use {{Harvtxt}}.
  3. For multiple works at the same point, use explicit parentheses and {{Harvnb}} separated by semicolons.
  4. For anything more complicated use {{Harvs}}.

Implementation notes

These templates use two elements: a wikilink in the body of the article, and an anchor in the reference section of the article. Clicking on the wikilink repositions the page at the anchor.

Citation template anchor

The most common citation templates are Citation Style 1 or Citation Style 2. By default, Module:Citation/CS1 and {{Citation/core}} create an anchor followed by the concatenation of the following parameters:

  • last or last1 or surname or surname1 or author or author1 or authors,
  • last2 or surname2 or author2,
  • last3 or surname3 or author3,
  • last4 or surname4 or author4,
  • editor-last or editor-surname or editor1-last or editor1-surname or editor or editors,
  • editor2-last or editor2-surname,
  • editor3-last or editor3-surname,
  • editor4-last or editor4-surname,
  • year.

CS1 templates and {{Citation}} set as the default.

This covers the most common templates. Information about all of the templates is available at popflock.com Resource: Citation templates and reference anchors.

Use of the date parameter in place of the year parameter in citation templates is preferred when full dates are known.

Harvard citation wikilink

The Harvard citation templates create a wikilink to the anchor. For example {{Harv|Smith|2006|p=25}} produces the link #CITEREFSmith2006 and {{Citation|last=Smith|first=John|date=27 January 2006|title=My Life}} produces the anchor CITEREFSmith2006.

Using CITEREF directly

A few articles create a custom ID using CITEREF, either in place of the Harvard citation template (e.g. [[#CITEREFSmith2006|(2006)]]) or as a value for in the citation template. A custom ID must follow these rules:

  • Names are case-sensitive. Please do not use raNdOM capitalization.
  • Names must not be purely numeric; the software will accept something like ":1" (which is punctuation plus a number), but it will ignore "1" (purely numeric).
  • Names should have semantic value, so that they can be more easily distinguished from each other by human editors who are looking at the wikitext. This means that ref names like "Nguyen 2010" are preferred to names like ":1".
  • Names must be unique. You may not use the same name to define different groups or footnotes.
  • Please consider keeping reference names simple and restricted to the standard English alphabet and numerals. Failing that, if spaces are used, the following technical restrictions become relevant:
    • Quotation marks are preferred but optional if the only characters used are letters A-Z, a-z, digits 0-9, and the symbols !$%&*,-.:;<@[]^_`{|}~. That is, all printable ASCII characters except #"'/=>?\.
    • Inclusion of any other characters, including spaces, requires that the reference name be enclosed in quotes; for example, name="John Smith".
    • The quote marks must be the standard, straight, double quotation marks ("); curly or other quotes will be parsed as part of the reference name.
    • Quote-enclosed reference names may not include a less-than sign (<) or a double straight quote symbol ("). These may be escaped with &lt; and &quot;, respectively.
  • If CITEREF is used, then spaces in the field must be replaced with underscores
  • You may optionally provide reference names even when the reference name is not required. This makes later re-use of the sourced reference easier.

Examples:

Where cite_name is a name such as the publisher.

To avoid the sometimes difficult to remember syntax for links to CITEREF anchors, {{citeref}} can be used to create internal wikilinks with either small superscript-style labels (like this[n]) or plain free-text labels to such anchors. It can be used inside of other citations.

{{sfn}}'s ref name

Template {{sfn}} creates a named footnote, so that identical footnotes are combined automatically. The footnote name begins with FOOTNOTE followed by a concatenation of the arguments to {{sfn}}. E.g.: this template call {{sfn|Smith|2006|p=26}} should have exactly the same functionality as which, in turn, has the same functionality as .

The ref name becomes more complicated when the page (p) parameter includes a URL, e.g. {{sfn|Joyce|1903|p=213}}, which, once defined, can be called by . The "p=" and the characters |,:,.,/,?,=; are therefore stripped out of the URL.

The call to {{harvnb}} has been subst'ed for quicker load times.


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Template:Harvard_citation_documentation
 



 



 
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