Temiar Language
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Temiar Language
Temiar
Native toPeninsular Malaysia
Ethnicity25,000 (2008)[1]
Native speakers
28,000 (2016)[2][1]
Latin
Language codes
tea
Glottologtemi1246[3]

Temiar is a Central Aslian (Mon-Khmer) language spoken in Western Malaysia by the Temiar people. The Temiar are one of the most numerous Aslian-speaking peoples, numbering around 30,000 in 2017.[4] Etymologically, the word "Temiar" means "edge" or "side". This meaning reflects the way in which Temiars describe themselves as "people of the edge, outside, [i.e. jungle]."[5]

Phonology

Vowels

Oral vowels
Front Central Back
Close i i: ? ?: u u:
Close-mid e e: o o:
Open-mid ? ?: ? ?: ? ?:
Open a a:
Nasal vowels
Front Central Back
Close ? ?: : ? ?:
Mid : :
Open ã ã:

Consonants

Morphosyntax

Noun Phrase

The noun phrase is (pro)noun initial followed by modifiers and demonstratives or possessor pronouns. Pronouns may not be modified by another pronoun.[6] There are three allomorphic classes of pronouns (stressed unstressed, and bound). Stressed third person pronouns must occur with a demonstrative (and hence only occur as unstressed or as bound morphemes on the demonstrative (e.g. na-doh 'he-here' or ?un-tu:y 'they-elsewhere.'[6]

Stressed Pronouns
Person Singular Dual Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1 ye:? ?a:r ya:r :? kan?:?
2 ha:? kan b
Unstressed Pronouns
Person Singular Dual Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1 yeh ?ah yah h kan?h
2 hah kan b
3 h weh w?h ?un n
Bound Pronouns
Person Singular Dual Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1 ?i- ?a- ya- - kan?-

ki-

k?-

2 ha- ka- (b)-
3 na- - we- w?- ?un-

Verb Phrase

The verb phrase is ordered as sentential negation, auxiliary verb and main verb. The verb phrase precedes the subject.[6]

Further reading

  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 1999. "Temiar kinship terminology: a linguistic and formal analysis." Occasional Paper no. 1, Malaysian Academy of Social Sciences (AKASS), Penang: AKASS Heritage Paper Series.
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2011. "Deponent verbs and middle-voice nouns in Temiar." In: Sophana Srichampa & Paul Sidwell (eds), Austroasiatic Studies: Papers from ICAAL4 (=Mon-Khmer Studies, Special Issue no. 2), Canberra: Pacific Linguistics E-8, pp. 11-37. ISBN 9780858836419 (electronic document)
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2012. "The peculiar history of the ethnonym 'Temiar'." Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 27(2): 205-233. ISSN 0217-9520 (print), ISSN 1793-2858 (online) doi:10.1355/sj27-2a. JSTOR 43186934.
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2012. "The Temiar causative (and related features)." Mon-Khmer Studies 41: 32-45. ISSN 0147-5207 (online).
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2014. "Aesthetic elements in Temiar grammar." In: Jeffrey Williams (ed.), The Aesthetics of Grammar: Sound and Meaning in the Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 36-60. ISBN 9781107007123 (print, hard cover), ISBN 9781107496309 (eBook, 2013). doi:10.1017/CBO9781139030489.004
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2016. "A new outline of Temiar grammar, Part 1". dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3944.0403.

References

  1. ^ a b Temiar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Geoffery Benjamin, A new outline of Temiar grammar, Part 1
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Temiar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Benjamin, Geoffrey (November 2013). "Aesthetic elements in Temiar grammar". In Williams, Jeffrey P (ed.). The Aesthetics of Grammar. The Aesthetics of Grammar: Sound and Meaning in the Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. pp. 36-60. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139030489.004. ISBN 9781139030489. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Benjamin, Geoffrey (2012). "The Peculiar History of the Ethnonym "Temiar"". Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 27 (2): 205-233. doi:10.1355/sj27-2a.
  6. ^ a b c Benjamin, Geoffrey (1976). "An Outline of Temiar Grammar". Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (13): 129-187. ISSN 0078-3188. JSTOR 20019155.

External links


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