Telugu Script
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Telugu script
?
Telugu in Suranna font.png
Type
LanguagesTelugu
Sanskrit
Gondi language
Time period
c. 1300 CE-present[1]
Parent systems
Sister systems
Kannada
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Telu, 340
Unicode alias
Telugu
U+0C00-U+0C7F
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

Telugu script (Telugu: ?, romanizedTelugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language. It gained prominence during the Eastern Chalukyas also known as Vengi Chalukya era. It shares extensive similarities with the Kannada script, as it has evolved from Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family. In 2008, Telugu language was given the status of Classical Languages of India, this status owes to its rich history and heritage.[6]

History

The Brahmi script used by Mauryan kings eventually reached the Krishna River delta and would give rise to the Bhattiprolu script found on an urn purported to contain Lord Buddha's relics.[7][8]Buddhism spread to East Asia from the nearby ports of Ghantasala and Masulipatnam (ancient Maisolos of Ptolemy and Masalia of Periplus).[9] The Bhattiprolu Brahmi script evolved into the Kadamba script by the 5th century, which in turn developed into the Telugu-Kannada script (or old Kannada script) after the 7th century.[10] The Telugu and Kannada scripts then separated by around 1300 C.E.[1][11][12] The Muslim historian and scholar Al-Biruni referred to both the Telugu language as well as its script as "Andhri".[13]

A new written standard emerged in Telugu during the second half of the 20th century.[14]

Vowels

Telugu uses eighteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels.

Independent With ? (bh) ISO IPA Independent With ? (bh) ISO IPA
? ? a /a/ ? ? /a:/
? i /i/ ? ? /i:/
? u /u/ ? ? /u:/
? r? /ru/ (syllabic r) ? r /ru:/
? l? /alu/ (syllabic l) ? l /alu:/
? e /e/ ? ? /e:/
? ai /aj/
? o /o/ ? ? /o:/
? au /aw/
? ?

The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the dotted circle) to form a consonant-vowel syllable (example: ka, kru, mo). ? does not have a diacritic form, because this vowel is already inherent in all of the consonants. The other diacritic vowels are added to consonants to change their pronunciation to that of the vowel.

Examples:

? + ? (?) -> /k?a/ + /i:/ -> /k?i:/
? + ? (?) -> /d?a/ + /u/ -> /d?u/

Consonants

Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA
? k /k/ ? kh /k?/ ? g /?/ ? gh // ? ? /?/
? ch /t?/ ? chh /t/ ? j /d?/ ? jh /d/ ? ñ /?/
? ? /?/ ? ?h // ? ? /?/ ? ?h // ? ? /?/
? t /t/ ? th /t?/ ? d /d/ ? dh /d?/ ? n /n/
? p /p/ ? ph /p?/ ? b /b/ ? bh /b?/ ? m /m/
? y /j/ ? r /?/ ? l /l/ ? v /?/ ? ? /?/
? ? /?/ ? ? /?/ ? s /s/ ? h /h/ ? ? /r/

Other diacritics

There are also several other diacritics used in the Telugu script. ? mutes the vowel of a consonant, so that only the consonant is pronounced. ? and ? nasalize the vowels or syllables to which they are attached. ? adds a voiceless breath after the vowel or syllable it is attached to.

Character ISO Character ISO Character ISO Character ISO
a? an? a? k

Examples:

? + ? -> [ka] + [?] -> [k]
? + ? -> [ka] + [n] -> [kan?]
? + ? -> [ka] + [m] -> [ka?]
? + ? -> [ka] + [h] -> [ka?]

Places of articulation

There are five classifications of passive articulations:

Kahya: Velar
T?lavya: Palatal
M?rdhanya: Retroflex
Dantya: Dental
?shtya: Labial

Apart from that, other places are combinations of the above five:

Dant?sthya: Labio-dental (E.g.: v)
Kantat?lavya: E.g.: Diphthong e
Kant?sthya: labial-velar (E.g.: Diphthong o)

There are three places of active articulation:

Jihv?m?lam: tongue root, for velar
Jihv?madhyam: tongue body, for palatal
Jihv?gram: tip of tongue, for cerebral and dental
Adha: lower lip, for labial

The attempt of articulation of consonants (Ucc?ra?a Prayatnam) is of two types,

B?hya Prayatnam: External effort
Spa: Plosive
?shat Spa: Approximant
?shat Sa?v?ta: Fricative
Abhyantara Prayatnam: Internal effort
Alpapr?nam: Unaspirated
Mah?pr?nam: Aspirated
?v?sa: Unvoiced
N?dam: Voiced

Articulation of consonants

Articulation of consonants is be logical combination of components in the two prayatnams. The below table gives a view upon articulation of consonants.

Telugu Vyanjana Ucch?rana Pattika[15]
Prayatna Niyam?val? Kanthya
(jihv?m?lam)
T?lavya
(jihv?madhyam)
M?rdhanya
(jihv?gram)
Dantya
(jihv?gram)
Dantya ?shtya
(adh?sta)
Spar?a, ?v?sa Alpapr?nam ka (?) ca (?) ?a (?) ta (?) -- pa (?)
Mah?pr?nam kha (?) cha (?) ?ha (?) tha (?) -- pha (?)
N?da Alpapr?nam ga (?) ja (?) ?a (?) da (?) -- ba (?)
Mah?pr?nam gha (?) jha (?) ?ha (?) dha (?) -- bha (?)
Anun?sikam N?dam, Alpapr?nam,

Dravam

Avy?hata ?a (?) ña (?) ?a (?) na (?) -- ma (?)
Antastha -- ya (?) ra (?)
(Lunthita)
la (?)
(P?r?vika)
va (?) --
man ?v?sa Mah?pram Visarga ?a (?) ?a (?) sa (?) -- --
N?dam ha (?) -- -- -- -- --

Consonant conjuncts

The Telugu script has generally regular conjuncts, with trailing consonants taking a subjoined form, often losing the tallakattu (the v-shaped headstroke). The following table shows all two-consonant and one three-consonant conjunct, but individual conjuncts may differ between fonts.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Consonant + vowel ligatures

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? No Vowel
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?

Numerals

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

NOTE: ?, ?, and ? are used also for ​, ​, ​, ​, etc. and ?, ?, and ? are also used for ​, ​, ​, ​, etc.[16]

Unicode

Telugu script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Telugu is U+0C00–U+0C7F:

Telugu[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0C0x
U+0C1x
U+0C2x
U+0C3x ి
U+0C4x
U+0C5x
U+0C6x
U+0C7x ౿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

In contrast to a syllabic script such as katakana, where one Unicode code point represents the glyph for one syllable, Telugu combines multiple code points to generate the glyph for one syllable, using complex font rendering rules.[17][18]

iOS character crash bug

On February 12, 2018 a bug in the iOS operating system was reported that caused iOS devices to crash if a particular Telugu character was displayed.[19][20] The character is a combination of the characters "?", "?", "?", "?" and The Zero-Width Non-Joiner character which looks combined like this "?". An incorrect handling of the Zero-Width Non-Joiner separator while combining the characters seems to be the cause of the Telugu bug.[21] Apple confirmed a fix for iOS 11.3 and macOS 10.13.4.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Indian Epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages, by Richard Solomon, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.41, ISBN 0-19-509984-2
  2. ^ Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography, R. Malatesha Joshi, Catherine McBride(2019),p.29
  3. ^ Salmon 1999, p. 35
  4. ^ "Evolution of Telugu Character Graphs". Retrieved .
  5. ^ http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/language/script/chart.jpg
  6. ^ "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 2008.
  7. ^ Antiquity of Telugu language and script: http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/stories/2007122054820600.htm
  8. ^ Ananda Buddha Vihara Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India-? ? ? ?
  10. ^ Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 381.
  11. ^ The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems by Florian Coulmas, p. 228
  12. ^ Murthy, K.N.; Rao, G.U. "4.5 Telugu Script" (PDF).
  13. ^ Al-biruni. English translation of 'Kitab-ul Hind'. New Delhi: National Book Trust.
  14. ^ "A sampler of the world's writing systems" (PDF). J. Marshall Unger Department of East Asian Languages & Literatures -The Ohio State University. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu", Page 127 (In Telugu).
  16. ^ N?g?rjuna Venna. "Telugu Measures and Arithmetic Marks" (PDF). JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3156. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ "Developing OpenType Fonts for Telugu Script". February 8, 2018.
  18. ^ "Unicode 4.0.0: South Asian Scripts" (PDF).
  19. ^ "rdar://37458268: iOS and Mac OS System can't render symbol and has crashed". www.openradar.me. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "If you receive this message on your iPhone, delete it immediately". The Independent. 2018-02-15. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "How to crash the iPhone with a telugu character". SerHack.me. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "Apple to Fix Telugu Character Bug Causing Devices to Crash in Minor iOS Update". Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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