Coordinates: Gibeah (; Hebrew: ? Giv'a) is one of several place names appearing in several books of the Hebrew Bible. In one instance, it is generally identified with Tell el-F?l (Arabic for "mound of fava beans"), a hill in the northern reaches of modern Jerusalem, on the outskirts of the Pisgat Ze'ev and Shuafat neighborhoods. However, this identification was challenged by Israel Finkelstein in 2011. In another instance, Conder identifies the Palestinian village of Jab'a with the biblical town of Gibeah, mentioned in Joshua 15:57, although this later identification places Gibeah to the south of Jerusalem.
Gibeah may be a variation of the Hebrew word meaning "hill". Other names include Gibeah of God ( ?; see ), Gibeah of Benjamin ( ) for it is in the territory of the Tribe of Benjamin , and Gibeah of Saul ( ?), where biblical King Saul lived .
Gibeah is believed to be located along the Central Benjamin Plateau, 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Jerusalem along the watershed ridge at 2,754 feet (839 m) above sea level. According to Josephus, there was a certain Gabao situated 50 stadia from Jerusalem, as one ascended by Bethoron, and which is thought by some scholars to be the modern el-Jib, 5 or 6 miles northwest of Jerusalem. Elsewhere, Josephus places a certain village by the name of Gibeon forty stadia distant from Jerusalem.
The site was first excavated in 1868 by Charles Warren, while C.R. Conder described the remains in 1874. William F. Albright led his first excavation from 1922 to 1923, and returned for a second season in 1923. His work was published in 1960. P.W. Lapp conducted a six-week salvage excavation in 1964. According to Kenneth Kitchen, "Upon this strategic point was found an Iron I occupation replaced (at an interval) by a fortress ("I"), subsequently refurbished ("II"), and then later in disuse. The oldest level may reflect the Gibeah of . The excavations by Albright, checked by Lapp, would favor the view that it was Saul who built the first fortress, later repaired by him or David. The first fort (quadrangular) had at least one rectangular corner-tower at its southwest angle; it may have had others at the other corners, but no traces were detected."