The town hall of Tarbes
|Canton||Chief town of 5 cantons|
|o Mayor (From 2001)||Gérard Trémège (PR)|
|15.33 km2 (5.92 sq mi)|
|o Density||2,700/km2 (7,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||284-326 m (932-1,070 ft) |
(avg. 304 m or 997 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Tarbes (French pronunciation: [ta?b]; Gascon: Tarba) is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France. It is the capital of Bigorre. It has been a commune since 1790. It was known as Turba or Tarba in Roman times. Tarbes is part of the historical region of Gascony.
Formerly of strong industrial tradition, Tarbes today tries to diversify its activities, particularly in aeronautics and high tech around the different zones of activities which are increasing. The recent development of Tarbais beans and other regional specialties also shows a willingness to develop the agri-food industry thus justifying its nickname of "market town". Its 42,888 inhabitants are called Tarbaises and the Tarbais.
Tarbes is a Pre-Pyrenees town within the rich agricultural plain of the river Adour, 155 kilometres (96 miles) southwest of Toulouse, 144 kilometres (89 miles) to the east of Bayonne, 70 kilometres (43 miles) southwest of Auch and 20 kilometres (12 miles) northeast of Lourdes. Tarbes is 1 hr 30 mins from the Atlantic Ocean, 2 hrs 50 mins from the Languedoc coast and 35 minutes from the nearest ski resorts. It is located at an average elevation of 304 metres (997 feet).
To the south of Tarbes, along with the pilgrimage town of Lourdes, is the border with Spain. The Pyrenees mountains, lying along the border between France and Spain, can be seen from the town.
Tarbes features an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), with relatively hot summers, mild winters and abundant rainfall. Tarbes benefits from its privileged location in the area of the Adour, a milder microclimate than at Lourdes, from a higher altitude, and somewhat less rainy than in Pau, and sunnier. Summers are warm and often stormy, while spring is rainy and cool and autumn is mild and sunny. Winter, meanwhile, is less rigorous but can still hold some surprises. The lowest temperature was recorded in January 1985 with a temperature under shelter of -17.9 °C (-0.2 °F). Conversely, there was a maximum temperature of 39 °C (102 °F) in August 2003.
|Paris||1,630 hrs/yr||642 millimetres (25.3 in)/yr||15 days/yr||19 days/yr||13 days/yr|
|Nice||2,694 hrs/yr||767 millimetres (30.2 in)/yr||1 day/yr||31 days/yr||1 day/yr|
|Toulouse||2,010 hrs/yr||656 millimetres (25.8 in)/yr||7 days/yr||26 days/yr||44 days/yr|
|Pau||1,850 hrs/yr||1,069 millimetres (42.1 in)/yr||6 days/yr||27 days/yr||42 days/yr|
|Tarbes||1,940 hrs/yr||975 millimetres (38.4 in)/yr||9 days/yr||29 days/yr||31 days/yr|
|National average||1,973 hrs/yr||770 millimetres (30 in)/yr||14 days/yr||22 days/yr||40 days/yr|
|Climate data for Tarbes, France (altitude 360m, 1981-2010) (Source: Météo-France, Infoclimat.fr)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.6
|Average high °C (°F)||10.3
|Average low °C (°F)||1.0
|Record low °C (°F)||-17.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||95.0
|Average precipitation days||10.6||9.4||10.2||12.5||13.1||9.5||7.1||8.5||8.6||10.6||10.0||10.3||120.3|
|Average snowy days||2.2||2.1||1.7||0.6||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.9||1.7||9.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81||78||76||77||78||78||77||79||78||81||82||82||78.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||118.3||129.2||169.2||170.2||189.1||197.9||204.9||206.0||189.8||150.6||117.5||108.7||1,951.2|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961-1990)|
Legend holds that the Queen of Ethiopia, Tarbis, proposed her love to Moses and that he refused. Inconsolable, she decided to leave her throne and hide her disappointment. After many wanderings, she arrived in Bigorre and built her home on the Adour to found the town of Tarbes, and its sister, on the banks of the Gave de Pau, arose as Lourdes.
In the 3rd century BC, the foundations of Tarbes began to emerge, based on the testimonies of the exhumed remains which had been buried. By need for salt trade, merchants who were likely Aquitanians travelled across the Pyrenean foothills. To continue their journey, they had to use a ford in order to cross the Adour which descended from the mountain. It was more prudent to split the loads to cross the ford as a result of which a pause was necessary. The bottom of the valley was dominated by a sandy emergence which prompted people to settle there.
Then, Tarba experienced a Roman colonisation and acquired ancient villas and large agricultural estates, found particularly in the Ormeau quarter. The existence of craft has been verified by the remains of the workshops of potters and weavers. The urban core, meanwhile, assumed the administrative functions and would have had an early Christian church in the 4th century.
In the 5th and 6th centuries, as a result of the barbarian invasions which swept in successive waves, the city shrank around the castrum, of which a remnant remains in the rear courtyard of the prefecture.
In about 840 AD, the Vikings led a devastating raid following which the Bishop of Bigorre reported that the city Bigorre was beginning with the cathedral, named with originality, la Sède.
At the end of the 12th century, the count of Bigorre settled in his castle of Tarbes, resulting with the court of justice being in his suite. Then, the capital of Bigorre received a Royal Seneschal.
Two noble houses were founded in the 13th century, outside the walls, one the convent of the Cordeliers near Carrère Longue, the other being that of the Carmelites in the vicinity of the Bourg Crabé.
At the end of the medieval centuries, the city was composed of six separate fortified towns, juxtaposed and aligned on an east-west axis, where the original core was ordered around the cathedral. There were thus la Sède, Carrère, Maubourguet and Bourg Vieux flanked to the east of the Count's castle, with Bourg Neuf and Bourg Crabé each surrounded by their own walls.
During the Wars of Religion, in 1569, the troops of Jeanne d'Albret burned the cathedral, the convents and other churches as well as the bishopric. Despite the strategic destruction to try to defend Bourg Vieux, the inhabitants were massacred.
In the 17th century, after the plague and the problems of housing people of war, Tarbes ensured its revival with the reconstruction of the Episcopal Palace in 1652 (today the office of the prefecture), the foundation of a third hospital in 1690 and two new convents (Capuchins and Ursulines). Irrigation of the land and the water power used by the craftsmen were produced by the system of canals derived from the Adour.
The 18th century announced a growth of the population, and the development of agriculture, crafts and trade. The town expanded and new quarters appeared (such as the current Rue Maréchal-Foch). Then, the Constituent Assembly, which included Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac (Deputy of Bigorre to the Estates-General), decided to undertake administrative reform and Tarbes benefitted by becoming capital of the department of the Hautes-Pyrénées.
From 1800, Tarbes became the chef-lieu and headquarters of a prefecture (an increase of its administrative role and its functions). In 1806, Napoleon I re-established the National Stud of Tarbes and Tarbes gave birth to the Anglo-Arabian horse breed. In 1859, Tarbes was connected to Paris by rail.
In the 19th century, various legacies enrich the public spaces of Tarbes. In 1853, Placide Massey bequeathed to the city the eponymous garden, still unfinished. In 1877, a donation by the former Mayor Antoine Brauhauban was responsible for the construction of an imposing hall which bore his name (this building was destroyed in 1970 to establish outdoor parking). The end of the 19th century still saw the construction of the two fountains of Place Marcadieu, a legacy of the benefactor Félicitée Duvignau.
After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, General Verchère de Reffye transformed the experimental workshop of Meudon (transferred by train to Tarbes) construction of an artillery workshop (called an arsenal by the people of Tarbes). Thus, Tarbes became an industrial and working-class town but also asserted its military vocation by the construction of the Larrey, Soult and Reffye quarters.
During World War I, Tarbes intensified its production of artillery by virtue of its geographical position in the back country. Marshal Foch, Commander-in-Chief of all allied armies, was born in Tarbes in 1851.
After the return of peace, the industry diversified and there was an expansion of the population. Tarbes remained a city of strong military character.
Today, Tarbes has also become a university city and the main activities are now within the tertiary sector (services). In addition to its privileged geographical situation, less than an hour from the Pyrenees mountains, two hours from the Atlantic Ocean and three hours from the Mediterranean via the La Pyrénéenne autoroute, the city offers a certain lifestyle and boasts a cultural life which is packed with clubs and sport.
Being farther away from Toulouse than other cities of Midi-Pyrénées, Tarbes may appear to display greater economic independence. Also it often occupies the second place in the regional urban hierarchy. It maintains close relations with Aquitaine and, in particular, with Pau, a nearby town of the Pre-Pyrenees.
Tarbes is the second industrial city of the region. this is particularly illustrated in the field of railway construction and aeronautics with the presence of nearby companies such as Alstom and Daher. Daher-Socata manufactures business and tourism aircraft there, including the TBM 850 and TB 20. Its headquarters and its main industrial site are located on the outskirts of the Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrénées Airport in the canton of Ossun, south of Grand Tarbes, where its facilities are spread over 53 hectares (130 acres), of which 80,000 square metres (860,000 sq ft) are covered surfaces. At the end of 2006, its strength stood at more than 1,050 people.
Ossun, a neighbouring commune of the agglomeration, is also home to TARMAC, a company dedicated to the dismantling of aircraft for which it was necessary to construct an imposing building. The platform is, again, installed on the Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrénées airport area, and revolves around the three complementary activities of storage, maintenance and deconstruction. Boostec, based in Bazet, collaborated with EADS-Astrium to build the Herschel space telescope, launched on 14 May 2009.
In addition to the Aerospace Valley involving DeciElec, Socata/Daher, Pearl and Tarmac, Tarbes is developing several business parks.
Tarbes also houses the second University centre of the Midi-Pyrénées with a University Institute of technology (IUT) and National School of Engineers of Tarbes (ENIT) having more than 5,000 students.
The Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrénées Airport is still the second of the Midi-Pyrénées. Also in the town centre, the Rex Hotel, a designer hotel addressing a rather affluent clientele, and the arrival of brands such as H&M and new places of leisure (CGR, etc.) seem to attest to the attractiveness of the town.
Often presented as a "market town", Tarbes is home to important halls and market squares, allowing opportunities for local agriculture. Symbol of the local food industry, a Cooperative of tarbais beans including emerged at the heart of the Bastillac zone.
The small Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrénées Airport is situated 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the town centre. This airport is served by HOP! which provides three daily and two weekend air services to Paris-Orly. Jetairfly, which ensures a connection of two flights a week during the summer.Ryanair serves London Stansted, Dublin, Lisbon and Milan Bergamo, with two and three flights a week, respectively.Meridiana connects to Rome and finally Air Nostrum (Iberia Regional) offers two flights per week to Madrid Barajas. The airport also offers seasonal charter flights to and from the largest European cities.
The Gare de Tarbes railway station offers direct connections with Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Bayonne and several regional destinations.
The TGV makes several times per day the junction with the Paris-Montparnasse station with a journey of six hours. It also allows connection to Bordeaux in three hours. This offer is complemented by that of the TER and Intercités for important exchanges with Toulouse, Pau and the Basque coast. These provide further connections, without another change of train, with Lyon, Irun and also Geneva.
Movements are facilitated by a boulevard circling the town. The recent development of the different centres of activity around Tarbes has promoted the creation of the southwest ring road which should extend to the north towards the D935 (Route de Bordeaux) and the N21 (Route d'Auch). A southern bypass is also projected between Tarbes-east to the Juillan interchange and the airport. Finally, a ring road is under consideration, which would connect Séméac to Orleix.
The new portion of dual-carriageway of the N21 which opened in December 2012 between Tarbes and Lourdes aims to promote economic and tourism links between the Bigorre capital and second city of the department, as well as to Argelès-Gazost already connected a Marian estate by a dual-carriageway section.
The communes of Grand Tarbes are served by a bus network called Alezan. An electric shuttle for the town centre. Finally, it is possible to rent cycles in the Place du Foirail, under the Vél'en Ville system.
Tarbes is the capital of the Hautes-Pyrénées department and concentrates various utilities including the court of grand instance, a branch of the Bank of France, the Chamber of Commerce and local industry, the Chamber of skilled crafts, crafts and Services.
The municipal history of Tarbes under the Fifth Republic was marked by several waves.
In the elections of 1959, the outgoing Socialist mayor, Marcel Billières, was a victim of the resilience of the Communist Party but especially also the shift to the right, which managed to seize the city hall with the election of Paul Boyrie. He was comfortably re-elected in 1965 (58.4%) and 1971 (55.2%). However, his sudden death a few weeks before the 1977 elections caused confusion in the ranks of the outgoing majority.
In this election, the Communist Paul Chastellain prevailed in the first round (50.6%), at the head of a list of union of the left. He was reelected in 1983 with 54.8% against Jean Journé (UDF-RPR), but took ill with a heart attack during the count. Raymond Erracarret (FCP) was elected mayor by the municipal council. The new councillor regained his chair in 1989 with 54.1% against Jean Journé (UDF-RPR), then with a reduced majority (51.3%) in 1995, against Gérard Trémège (UDF-RPR).
2001 then marked a brand new change: Gérard Trémège, after a merger of the lists of DL-UDF and RPR, became mayor with 50.1% of the vote (26 votes in advance). He was re-elected on 17 March 2008 under the UMP-Radical Party label "Valoisien" this time with 54.3% (1,705 votes ahead of Jean Glavany) and again on 23 March 2014, this time in the first round with 52.95% of the votes.
|March 2001||In progress||Gérard Trémège||UMP||President of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Tarbes from 2008 to 2014|
Vice-President of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Tarbes from 2014
Regional Counsel from 2004
|March 1983||March 2001||Raymond Erraçarret||PCF||General Counsel|
|March 1977||March 1983||Paul Chastellain||PCF|
|March 1959||March 1977||Paul Boyrie||RI|
|March 1953||March 1959||Marcel Billères||SFIO|
Tarbes is the chef-lieu of five cantons (involving only quarters in Tarbes), themselves divided into two electoral districts of Hautes-Pyrénées: Cantons I, III and IV in the first, and the cantons II and V in the second:
Born of the Community of Communes of the tarbaise agglomeration, created in 1995, the Grand Tarbes or the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Tarbes has competence related to transportation, travellers, culture, sports, environment, the university and the city's policy. It now includes the municipalities of Aureilhan, Bordères-sur-l'Échez, Bours, Ibos, Laloubère, Louey, Odos, Orleix, Séméac, Salles-Adour, Sarrouilles, Soues and Tarbes, and thus contains some 75,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2015 (2012 legal population, INSEE). The mayor of Tarbes, Gerard Manty, was the presidenct until the 2014 municipal elections where he had to give way to the Socialist mayor of Orleix, Charles Habas, because of the more left-wing position of Odos.
The school's educational project aims to give versatile training in engineering, industrial engineering, strong culture and openness, able to design, implement and construct industrial systems and production equipment, in respect of the environment and safety.
Site of Tarbes:
LMD: Licence of Physics and Applications in Sciences of the Universe and the Environment
IUT (University Institute of Technology):
IUP (Professionalised University Institute):
IUP MPMO - Management of small and medium-sized enterprises
Located at the Spanish border, the University of Pau and Pays de L'adour (UPPA) is a network of 4 campuses, which are in Tarbes, the Hautes-Pyrénées campus, at the gates of the National Park of the Pyrenees and the Observatoire du Pic du Midi de Bigorre. The diplomas awarded in Tarbes: Arts, letters, languages, humanities and social sciences, sport (2 degrees), and science and technology (3 degrees).
The University Institute of Teacher Training of the Midi-Pyrénées (IUFM), become internal school of the University of Toulouse II - Le Mirail, offers courses at level Bac+4 and Bac+5 for access to competitive examination of the teaching order, in particular, to become Professor of schools (CRPE). It's the Master EFE-ESE (Childhood Education Teacher Training specialty, schooling in the 1st degree and Education) declined through several research courses including one in Occitan.
Established in 1998, at the initiative of the prefet Jean Dussourd and encouraged by Mr. Joël-René Dupont, Academy Inspector, this private institute (the Kaddouch education is partner of the Sorbonne) teaches the pedagogy of Robert Kaddouch with the teachers of the European music conservatories, and provides music education to students of all ages whose youngest are babies of five months old.
The city has also a medical centre spread over three sites that make up the Intercommunal Hospital Centre of Tarbes - Vic-en-Bigorre (CHIC-TV). On 6 June 2003, the institution changed its name and became the Hospital Centre of Bigorre (CHB): A short stay site ("La Gespe" in Tarbes) and two geriatric sites ("L'Ayguerote" in Tarbes and Vic en Bigorre); in 2016 the new hospital of Tarbes and Lourdes will be in Lanne, opposite the airport. The Ormeau Polyclinic in collaboration with the Pyrenees-Bigorre Clinic is the second centre of health in Tarbes. Every year in October, are organised the Pyrenean Days of Gynecology, of worldwide recognition.
In 2012, the commune had 41,664 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.[note 1][note 2]
The population of the commune of Tarbes (legal municipal population 2010) established on 1 January 2013, at 43,034 inhabitants, thus placing the commune as fourth of the Midi-Pyrénées region after Toulouse (441,802 inhabitants), Montauban (56,271 inhabitants) and Albi (48,916 inhabitants). In 1995, the Communauté d'agglomération of Grand Tarbes (12 communes, 78,493 inhabitants) was created which, regionally, ranks third behind the Grand Toulouse (37 communes, 705,000 inhabitants), Castres-Mazamet (16 communes, 85,000 inhabitants), Grand Albigeois (17 communes, 82,181 inhabitants) and before Montauban (7 communes of Montauban-Trois rivières, 64,489 inhabitants). The urban centre has 95,029 inhabitants. It includes the more urbanised communes and those nearest to Tarbes, whether or not in the Communauté d'agglomération of Grand Tarbes. We can include the communes of Juillan (4,078 inhabitants), Ossun (2,383 inhabitants), Azereix (1,019 inhabitants, Louey (1,018 inhabitants), Lanne (585 inhabitants), Barbazan-Debat (3,571 inhabitants), Bazet (1 674 inhabitants), Oursbelille (1,243 inhabitants), Momères (676 inhabitants) and Horgues (1,115 inhabitants). In addition, the perimeter of the Grand Tarbes is three times less than that of the urban area which, with 115,857 inhabitants (2009), is the second of the Pyrenees behind Toulouse (1,102,882 inhabitants) and ahead of Albi (92,927 inhabitants) and Montauban (82,193 inhabitants).
|Communes of the Tarbes urban centre||Census date|
|2011||Community of communes or agglomeration||Political affiliation of the mayor|
|Tarbes||42,888||CA Grand Tarbes||UMP|
|Aureilhan||7,941||CA Grand Tarbes||PS|
|Séméac||4,669||CA Grand Tarbes||PS|
|Bordères-sur-l'Échez||4,338||CA Grand Tarbes||DVD|
|Juillan||4,020||CC Canton d'Ossun||DVD|
|Barbazan-Debat||3,453||CA Grand Tarbes||PRG|
|Odos||3,220||CA Grand Tarbes||DVG|
|Soues||3,004||CA Grand Tarbes||PS|
|Ibos||2,780||CA Grand Tarbes||PS|
|Ossun||2,319||CC Canton d'Ossun||PS|
|Laloubère||1,943||CA Grand Tarbes||UMP|
|Orleix||1,904||CA Grand Tarbes||PS|
|Horgues||1,093||CC Gespe Adour Alaric||UMP|
|Azereix||1,017||CC Canton d'Ossun||SE|
|Louey||989||CC Canton d'Ossun||SE|
|Bours||783||CA Grand Tarbes||SE|
|Momères||665||CC Gespe Adour Alaric||SE|
|Sarrouilles||550||CA Grand Tarbes||PS|
|Salles-Adour||476||CA Grand Tarbes||PCF|
|Allier||383||CC Gespe Adour Alaric||SE|
|Chis||299||CA Grand Tarbes||SE|
The city hall and the courthouse, classical buildings of the 19th century, adjoin the Rue Maréchal-Foch. Built in 1907, it is denoted by its candid monumentality. It is surmounted by a bell tower and faces the Place Jean-Jaurès enthroned with a statue of Danton. On the façade, one can read the motto "Concord, liberty, equality, fraternity, labour." The Hôtel Brauhauban, an 18th-century mansion, is one of its annexes.
Not far away, the Police headquarters occupies two mansions built on the north walls filled in the 18th century to give birth to the current Rue Georges-Clemenceau. The Academy of Inspection of Hautes-Pyrénées occupies a former school, built at the end of the 19th century.
In the La Sède quarter, the prefecture was housed in the old Episcopal Palace, rebuilt in the 17th century. Not far away, lies the old college of Tarbes which became the Lycée Impérial in 1853 and was renamed Lycée Théophile Gautier in 1911. The Council General of Hautes-Pyrénées also has several buildings including the former seminary of priests of the 18th century. The departmental archives are housed in a remarkable building from 1936.
Three places are devoted to the markets: The market hall and the Place Marcadieu, Brauhauban market hall and the Place du Foirail. Near the Brauhauban market hall is an Italian theatre, known as the Théâtre des Nouveautés, which was built in 1885.
The city has many fountains. The Place Marcadieu and Place Verdun reproduce the same pattern: They each have two fountains spread at either ends and not in the middle.
Félicitée Duvignau initiated this peculiarity, in Place Marcadieu, by bequest wishing for the building of fountains at each end of this vast esplanade. This relates to an eponymous Baltard-type market hall building in 1883. Inaugurated in 1897, the monumental fountain of the Quatre-Vallées, combining cast iron and sculpture, figures the valleys of Bagnères, Aure, Argelès and the plain of Tarbes. At the other end of the square, the more modest "Source de l'amour" [Source of love], presents an echo of the style.
The Montaut fountain is set at the centre of this public space and was moved close to the square of the same name. Named after its donor, it is carved in stone by Nelli of the Pyrenees and was first erected in 1874.
In 2008, the ensemble was further complemented by the construction of a nearby square planted with palm trees, in the north of its namesake Sainte-Thérèse Church.
The Place de Verdun has fountains of a much more contemporary appearance. To the south, the Grande Fontaine [Great Fountain] forms a playful bell of water. It is assisted in the north by the Droits de l'Enfant [Rights of the Child] fountain, where a water jet raises a ball which can be rotated by only the force of the wrist.
The Alhambra fountain, a replica of the mythical Alhambra fountain in Granada, Spain. The fountain is located at 43 Rue Maréchal-Foch in an open-air shopping area. Around the fountain is a landscaping of greenery.
The Fontaine de l'Inondation [Fountain of the Flood] which was installed in the Place de Verdun in 1901 was relocated, in 1934, to the Place de la Courteboule in the Soult quarter. It features a family and its goat fleeing the waters contained therein. This is an allusion to the flood of 1875.
Other fountains can also be mentioned such as the one of the Cours Reffye, the one in Place Saint-Jean and that of La Gespe in the Place André-Guerlain.
The Haras de Tarbes is composed of an 8 hectares (20 acres) park with Empire-syle buildings including the Maison du Cheval. It was created by Napoleon in 1806 and is the birthplace of a refined breed of horses, the Anglo-Arabian, which are provided to the regiments of hussars. The buildings were built with mostly local materials: Grey marmorifere stone, pebbles of the Adour, bricks and slates. It has a riding school and stables including boxes and with a set of remarkable chestnut panelled ceilings.
During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Jean-Baptiste Verchère de Reffye establishes, in the old store of tobacco in Tarbes, an artillery workshop commonly referred to as "Arsenal". It was used for military armament production until 2006. The site is today turning towards the tertiary sector. The old tobacco store houses the Municipal Archives and the Massey Museum reserves. In front stands the House of associations and its bell tower.
The development of the Larrey, Soult and Reffye quarters saw the assertion of the military role of Tarbes in the 19th and 20th centuries. Several barracks were built. With regard to the Larrey barracks (1825), the majesty of the central building, 150 metres (492 feet) long and flanked by two side buildings, is reinforced by the existence of an accessible courtyard from a portal framed by two pavilions of neoclassical inspiration. The ensemble is located in the axis of the Leclerc martial walkways which concentrate memorials including the monumental equestrian statue of Marshal Foch erected in 1935. Firmin Michelet is represented riding Marboré, a horse owned by the Fould family.
The Reffye high school is an old military barracks surrendered by the army after World War II.
The former site of the Arsenal has been renovated to accommodate shops, places of leisure (cinema, a second bowling facility, laser quest, restaurants, etc.), municipal or community buildings (archives, maison des associations, business, etc.) and companies. The industrial architecture of the place is preserved. Its genesis took place in 1871 with Jean-Baptiste Verchère de Reffye as the main protagonist. Its industrial deterioration occurred following the 2003 announcement of the closure of the GIAT site, heir to the arsenal of 1871.
This area is adjacent, in Aureilhan, to the Oustau ceramic factory which was founded in 1873 by Laurence Oustau. The factory buildings, abundantly decorated with glazed bricks, were protected as an Historic Monument in 1994.
The Oustau ceramic factory in Aureilhan
Alongside the former Episcopal Palace which became the prefecture, the Notre-Dame-de-la-Sede Cathedral has a classical façade dating from the 17th century. In contrast, the apse chapel is topped by a lantern tower which was enlarged in the Gothic period and the transept dating from the 12th century are primarily marked by the Romanesque origins of the building. The high altar has a Baroque marble canopy, the implementation of which has been attributed to Dominique Ferrère. One can still see the ceiling painted by Henri Borde and the Testament of Louis XVI carved in the oratory. Saint Vincent de Paul was ordained deacon, here, in 1598.
The Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church, commonly known as St. John's Church, is located in the heart of the commercial centre, straddling the pedestrianised Rue Brauhauban, and the Rue Maréchal-Foch. Repeatedly devastated during the Wars of Religion, its structure, dating from the 15th century, remains marked by the Meridional Gothic trend. In the Middle Ages, the building played a major role in the city and the States of Bigorre met there. The church houses a remarkable organ and many Baroque chapels. The high altar is a work of Jean Brunello. The Neo-Romanesque bell tower dates from the 17th century.
Of Languedoc Gothic style, the Sainte-Thérèse Church is opposite the market halls and the Place Marcadieu. Its history began with the establishment of the Carmelites in the 13th century. The bell tower, which is one of the oldest items, dates from the 15th century and is a remnant of the ancient abbey. The church was, however, largely renovated in the 19th century by the architect of the city, Claude Tiffon. It houses a superb organ, beautiful woodwork, some beautiful Baroque statues and paintings of Raymond-Marc Lagarrigue.
The Church of Saint-Antoine was constructed, near the site of the Arsenal, in 1896. It is thus to link to the past workers of this parish who were Conventual Franciscans.
The Church of Saint-Martin, the Sainte-Bernadette Church and the Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Church, which is pyramid-shaped, are of contemporary architecture.
Founded in 1986, the Serbian Orthodox Church of Notre-Dame Source de Vie [Our Lady Source of Life] is decorated with beautiful murals.
In 2005, the first stone of the Omar Ibn al-Khattab Mosque was laid.
The current Théophile Gautier high school, once led by the Doctrinaires (brothers of Christian Doctrine), houses a chapel which has an altar which is classified as an historical monument. It was directed by the Bigorre sculptor Dominique Ferrère during the Baroque period.
The Jeanne d'Arc institution includes a chapel with decor of Art Deco inspiration.
The Ayguerote hospital, which became retirement home, includes a Baroque chapel.
The Carmelite chapel was founded in 1870. Now owned by the town of Tarbes, the chapel became a place of exhibitions. The cloister is not accessible to the public.
The Henri Duparc Conservatory has gradually invested in its adjoining chapel.
The Hôtel de Bricquet (17th century).
In the La Sède quarter the prefecture and the cathedral are visible, the family home of Marshal Foch dating from the 17th century was converted into a museum. It is typically of Bigorre and remains recognisable by its yellow façade. It is possible to visit the room where he was born, and the office of the Marshal, and to observe objects which are related to him.
Other fine examples of Bigorre houses are visible on the Rue de la Victoire, Rue Clémenceau and also Rue Regiment-de-Bigorre. They are recognisable by their carved wooden doors, their coloured plaster frames which enhance grey marmorifere stone, with their wooden roofed balconies and their slate roofs pierced by skylights.
Opposite the Saint-Jean Church, the birthplace of Bertrand Barère is visible.
At the mercy of the movements of his father, Théophile Gautier was also born in Rue Brauhauban. The house is still visible today. The family, however, lived there for only three years. The Rue Brauhauban is also home to the birthplace of another poet of the 19th century, Laurent Tailhade.
English Imperial style or even Neobasque villas dating from the 19th and 20th centuries, adorn the Massey Garden, the Bel Air Park, the Paul Chastellain Park and their respective quarters. The Villa Massey, in the heart of its namesake garden, is Neo-Moorish (19th century). Villa Fould, formerly the residence of Baron Achille Fould, Minister of State of Napoleon III, has been restored. It now houses the headquarters of the Pyrénées National Park. A little further away is Villa Bel Air from the beginning of the 20th century.
Art Nouveau buildings line the Rue Maréchal-Foch and Rue Bertrand Barrère.
Tarbes obtained its fourth flower in 2002 under the Competition of floral cities and villages and seeks to maintain this distinction. Tarbes has also received the Grand Prix national of flowering.
The Massey Garden houses a museum, the cloister of the Abbey of Saint-Sever-de-Rustan, the Higher School of Art of Tarbes, an orangerie, a wildlife park, a bandstand. Depending on the season, it is possible to visit by horse-drawn carriage and small train. It is thus a privileged relaxation area near to the Carmel exhibition hall, the Louis Aragon media library and the Berrens Park tennis courts.
At the centre of the Bel Air Park, sits the old Château Delong better known today as the Villa Bel Air which has become a children's recreation centre. The Sellerie Park, with a more urban aspect, is backed by a separate road.
The Chastellain Park is the haven of greenery of the Villa Fould which contains the administrative headquarters of the Pyrenees National Park.
Within the Laubadère quarter, Bois Blancs [White Woods] Park is, similarly, a contemporary creation. It includes five islets symbolizing the five continents plus a central island used to host events. Spaces dedicated to games and sport adorn the area devoted to Europe.
Along the leafy Leclerc paths are gathered various monuments commemorating the two world wars, and which has the equestrian statue of Marshal Foch.
The path of the banks of the Adour, also called Camin Adour, is equipped with a fitness trail and is a popular landscaped walking space enjoyed by the people of Tarbes.
The Massey Museum is best known for hosting the International Museum of the Hussars. However, it also presents a rich collection of fine arts. The building, located within the Massey Garden, is of Moorish style.
The exhibition room of Carmel is complementary. This place of awareness of art is a former Carmelite convent dating from 1870.
The Museum of Deportation and Resistance, inaugurated in 1989, was the brainchild of the associations of former deportees and former resistance fighters.
The museum space of the House of the Pyrénées National Park evokes the local flora and fauna.
In the birthplace of Marshal Foch, his room has been reconstituted, along with its alcove and his office. It preserves the memories of his personal and military objects, etc.
The city of Tarbes is to the delight of audiophiles, with the last independent record store of the south-west, which moved premises from Pau. Located in the city centre, at 43 Rue Maréchal-Foch, it is reserved for vinyl collectors with numerous musical genres. This place attracts French and foreign travellers as they pass through the Bigorre city.
In addition to the exhibition halls, the various stages and theatres of the city, including that of La Gespe devoted to contemporary music. La Pari, the performing arts stage, is still a place for contemporary creativity. The main theatre remains that of the Nouveautés but Le Parvis, a multidisciplinary cultural institution combining music, dance and cinema on the outskirts in the heart of the Le Meridien commercial centre, sees many pieces played within.
A cinema with eleven rooms "all-digital and 3D" opened its doors in 2010 in a former GIAT industrial building, renovated for the occasion.
Throughout the year, Tarbes offers all kinds of activities, here is a comprehensive list:
The group of La Dépêche du Midi has a local daily edition as well as a comparable second edition branded as the La Nouvelle République des Pyrénées (the latter does not appear on Sunday unlike the first which is published every day).
The Sogemedia Group publishes the weekly La semaine des Pyrénées.
A version of the weekly Le Petit Journal is also available in the department.
FM channels include several local radio stations with their premises in the urban area: Pic FM, Radio País, Atomic, etc.
Other radio stations in the region broadcast local information bulletins such as 100% Radio.
Bigorre jealously nurtures this gem, originally from Latin America, and introduced in the 18th century in the Adour Valley. It requires soil with well defined criteria and with seeding on a specific date. Picking is done exclusively by hand, pod by pod. This exceptional bean received the Label Rouge [Red Label] in 1997 and a Protected Geographical Indication in 2000, which guarantees its level of quality.
Belongs to the mosaic of the vineyards of the south-west. In existence since Gallo-Roman times, however its actual creation date was during the 11th century, when Madiran Abbey was founded by the Benedictine monks.
Its fame was established through the pilgrims of St Jacques de Compostela who discovered it while crossing the region. Straddling three departments, Madiran is a hillside vineyard, with an area of approximately 1,600 hectares (4,000 acres). Very rich in tannins, it is a full-bodied red wine and robust, rough in its youth. After ageing, its tannins are softened and it develops aromas of great finesse, mingling the smells of toasted bread and spices and thus blends perfectly with regional dishes.
A very old breed which was rescued from extinction in 1981, this exceptional product requires outdoor rearing conditions which respect the requirements of this pedigree and relies on traditional knowledge. After 14 months of attentive care and a minimum natural refining of 18 months, the "black pork of Bigorre" gives a ham of choice, which is a real pleasure for gourmets.
It is the quintessential cake from Bigorre. A very delicate cake, which has a taste of wood fire. A recipe for those who own a fireplace because the cooking is done "by spit" before flambéing. This cone is slowly basted with paste to obtain successive layers, which after several hours of cooking, give a cone-shaped cake. It can be stored for more than a month and must be consumed at the end of the third day, with or without custard.
Goat, cow, sheep or mixed (cow-sheep), etc. Farm cheese, usually molded by hand, salted and matured in a cool cellar. The producers are happy to welcome visitors, where they can discover the sheepfold and the cheese production facilities.
Of an ancestral knowledge, the "Barèges-Gavarnie" is a meat with exceptional qualities thanks to the respect for the traditions. These traditions promote the optimal use of the natural environment, and knowledge adapted to the mountainous terrain and harsh climate. For centuries, man and nature have been joined in establishing a land of pastoralism and life.
Tarbes is twinned with: