Tamil Script
Learn about Tamil script topic at defaultLogic. defaultLogic provides comprehensive technology and business learning resources.

Tamil
Word Tamil.svg
Type
LanguagesTamil
Kanikkaran
Badaga
Irula
Paniya
Saurashtra
Time period
c. 400 CE - present[1][2]
Parent systems
Sister systems
Grantha, Mon, Khmer, Kawi
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Taml, 346
Unicode alias
Tamil

The Tamil script ( ?, Tami? ariccuva?i, [tam 'a?it:?u?a?i], About this soundpronunciation ) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and elsewhere to write the Tamil language.[5] Certain minority languages such as Saurashtra, Badaga, Irula and Paniya are also written in the Tamil script.[6]

Characteristics

Diverging evolution of Tamil-Brahmi script (center column) into the Vatteluttu alphabet (leftmost column) and the Tamil script (rightmost column)

The Tamil script has 12 vowels (, uyire?uttu, "soul-letters"), 18 consonants (, meyye?uttu, "body-letters") and one special character, the ? (? ?, ?ytha e?uttu). ? is called "", akku and is classified in Tamil orthography as being neither a consonant nor a vowel.[7] However, it is listed at the end of the vowel set. The script is syllabic, not alphabetic. The complete script, therefore, consists of the 31 letters in their independent form and an additional 216 combinant letters, for a total of 247 (12+18+216+1) combinations (, uyirmeyye?uttu, "soul-body-letters") of a consonant and a vowel, a mute consonant or a vowel alone. The combinant letters are formed by adding a vowel marker to the consonant. Some vowels require the basic shape of the consonant to be altered in a way that is specific to that vowel. Others are written by adding a vowel-specific suffix to the consonant, yet others a prefix and still other vowels require adding both a prefix and a suffix to the consonant. In every case, the vowel marker is different from the standalone character for the vowel.

The Tamil script is written from left to right.

History

Historical evolution of Tamil writing from the earlier Tamil-Brahmi near the top to the current Tamil script at bottom

The Tamil script, like the other Brahmic scripts, is thought to have evolved from the original Brahmi script.[8] The earliest inscriptions which are accepted examples of Tamil writing date to the Ashokan period. The script used by such inscriptions is commonly known as the Tamil-Brahmi or "Tamili script" and differs in many ways from standard Ashokan Brahmi. For example, early Tamil-Brahmi, unlike Ashokan Brahmi, had a system to distinguish between pure consonants (m, in this example) and consonants with an inherent vowel (ma, in this example). In addition, according to Iravatham Mahadevan, early Tamil Brahmi used slightly different vowel markers, had extra characters to represent letters not found in Sanskrit and omitted letters for sounds not present in Tamil such as voiced consonants and aspirates.[8] Inscriptions from the 2nd century use a later form of Tamil-Brahmi, which is substantially similar to the writing system described in the Tolk?ppiyam, an ancient Tamil grammar. Most notably, they used the pui to suppress the inherent vowel.[9] The Tamil letters thereafter evolved towards a more rounded form and by the 5th or 6th century, they had reached a form called the early vae?uttu.[10]

The modern Tamil script does not, however, descend from that script.[3] In the 4th century,[11] the Pallava dynasty created a new script for Tamil and the Grantha alphabet evolved from it, adding the Vae?uttu alphabet for sounds not found to write Sanskrit.[12] Parallel to Pallava script a new script (Chola-Pallava script, which evolved to modern Tamil script) again emerged in Chola territory resembling the same glyph development like Pallava script, but it did not evolve from that. By the 8th century, the new scripts supplanted Vae?uttu in the Chola resp. Pallava kingdoms which lay in the north portion of the Tamil-speaking region. However, Vae?uttu continued to be used in the southern portion of the Tamil-speaking region, in the Chera and Pandyan kingdoms until the 11th century, when the Pandyan kingdom was conquered by the Cholas.[4]

With the fall of Pallava kingdom, the Chola dynasty pushed the Chola-Pallava script as the de facto script. Over the next few centuries, the Chola-Pallava script evolved into the modern Tamil script. The Grantha and its parent script influenced the Tamil script notably. The use of palm leaves as the primary medium for writing led to changes in the script. The scribe had to be careful not to pierce the leaves with the stylus while writing because a leaf with a hole was more likely to tear and decay faster. As a result, the use of the pui to distinguish pure consonants became rare, with pure consonants usually being written as if the inherent vowel were present. Similarly, the vowel marker for the kuiyal ukaram, a half-rounded u which occurs at the end of some words and in the medial position in certain compound words, also fell out of use and was replaced by the marker for the simple u. The pui did not fully reappear until the introduction of printing, but the marker kuiyal ukaram never came back into use although the sound itself still exists and plays an important role in Tamil prosody.

The forms of some of the letters were simplified in the 19th century to make the script easier to typeset. In the 20th century, the script was simplified even further in a series of reforms, which regularised the vowel markers used with consonants by eliminating special markers and most irregular forms.

Relationship with other Indic scripts

The Tamil script differs from other Brahmi-derived scripts in a number of ways. Unlike every other Brahmic script, it does not regularly represent voiced or aspirated stop consonants as these are not phonemes of the Tamil language even though voiced and fricative allophones of stops do appear in spoken Tamil. Thus the character k, for example, represents but can also be pronounced [g] or [x] based on the rules of Tamil grammar. A separate set of characters appears for these sounds when the Tamil script is used to write Sanskrit or other languages.

Also unlike other Brahmi scripts, the Tamil script rarely uses typographic ligatures to represent conjunct consonants, which are far less frequent in Tamil than in other Indian languages. Where they occur, conjunct consonants are written by writing the character for the first consonant, adding the pui to suppress its inherent vowel, and then writing the character for the second consonant. There are a few exceptions, namely k?a and ? ?r?.

ISO 15919 is an international standard for the transliteration of Tamil and other Indic scripts into Latin characters. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script.

Letters

Mangulam Tamili inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu dated to Tamil Sangam period c. 400 BCE to c. 200 CE.
Explanation for Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu dated to Tamil Sangam period c. 400 BCE to c. 200 CE.
Left: Tampiran Vanakkam (Doctrina Christum) was the first book in Tamil, printed on 20 October 1578. Right: A book in Tamil printed in 1781.

Basic consonants

Consonants are called the "body" (mei) letters. The consonants are classified into three categories: vallinam (hard consonants), mellinam (soft consonants, including all nasals), and itayinam (medium consonants).

There are some lexical rules for the formation of words. The Tolk?ppiyam describes such rules. Some examples: a word cannot end in certain consonants, and cannot begin with some consonants including r-, l- and ?-; there are three types of n in Tamil, a dental n?, an alveolar n and a retroflex ?.

The order of the alphabet (strictly abugida) in Tamil closely matches that of the nearby languages both in location and linguistics, reflecting the common origin of their scripts from Brahmi.

Tamil consonants[13]
Consonant ISO 15919 Category IPA
k vallinam [k], [?], [x], [?], [?]
? mellinam
c vallinam [t], [d], [s], [?]
ñ mellinam [?]
? vallinam [?], [?], [?]
? mellinam [?]
t vallinam , , ,
n mellinam [n?]
p vallinam [p], [b], ,
m mellinam [m]
y idaiyinam [j]
r idaiyinam [?]
l idaiyinam [l]
v idaiyinam [?]
? idaiyinam
? idaiyinam
? vallinam [r], [t], [d]
? mellinam [n]

Grantha consonants used in Tamil

The Tamil speech has incorporated many phonemes which were not part of the Tolk?ppiyam classification. The letters used to write these sounds, known as Grantha, are used as part of Tamil. These are taught from elementary school and incorporated in the Tamil Nadu Government encoding called Tamil All Character Encoding (TACE16).

Grantha consonants in Tamil[13]
Consonant ISO 15919 IPA
j [d]
? [?]
? [?]
s [s]
h [h]
? k? [k?]

There is also the compound ? (?r?), equivalent to ? in Devanagari.

In recent times four combinations of Tamil basic letters are generally used to depict sounds of English letters 'f', 'z', and the 'kh' sound in Hindi, Arabic and Persian. This is helpful for writing English and Arabic names and words in Tamil. The combinations are for f, for z, and for kh. For example: asif = , aZaarudheen = ?, Genghis Khan = .[]

There has also been effort to differentiate voiced and voiceless consonants through subscripted numbers - two, three, and four which stand for the unvoiced aspirated, voiced, voiced aspirated respectively. This was used to transcribe Sanskrit words in Sanskrit-Tamil books, as shown in the table below.[14][15]

? ka kha ga gha
? ca cha ? ja ? jha[1]
? ?a ?ha ?a ?ha
? ta tha da dha
? pa pha ba bha

^ The letter should be underlined.

The Unicode Standard uses superscripted digits for the same purpose, as in ?² pha, ?³ ba, and bha.[16]

Vowels

Vowels are also called the 'life' (uyir) or 'soul' letters. Together with the consonants (mei, which are called 'body' letters), they form compound, syllabic (abugida) letters that are called 'living' letters (uyir mei, i.e. letters that have both 'body' and 'soul').

Tamil vowels are divided into short and long (five of each type) and two diphthongs

Tamil vowels[13]
Independent Vowel sign ISO 15919 IPA
? N/A a
? ? ? [a:]
? ? i [i]
? ? ? [i:]
? ? u [u], [?]
? ? ? [u:]
? ? e [e]
? ? ? [e:]
? ? ai [a?]
? ? o [o]
? ? ? [o:]
? ? au [a?]
? - a? [x]
? a? [ ?a]

Compound form

Using the consonant 'k' as an example:

Formation Compound form ISO 15919 IPA
+ ? ? ka [ka]
+ ? k? [ka:]
+ ? ki [ki]
+ ? k? [ki:]
+ ? ku [ku], [k?]
+ ? k? [ku:]
+ ? ke [ke]
+ ? k? [ke:]
+ ? kai [ka?]
+ ? ko [ko]
+ ? k? [ko:]
+ ? kau [ka?]

The special letter ?, represented by three dots and called ?ytha e?uttu or akh, is the visarga. It traditionally served a purely grammatical function, but in modern times it has come to be used as a diacritic to represent foreign sounds. For example, is used for the English sound f, not found in Tamil.

Another archaic Tamil letter ?, represented by a small hollow circle and called A?uvara, is the Anusvara. It was traditionally used as a homorganic nasal when in front of a consonant, and either as a bilabial nasal (m) or alveolar nasal (n) at the end of a word, depending on the context.

The long (nedil) vowels are about twice as long as the short (ku?il) vowels. The diphthongs are usually pronounced about one and a half times as long as the short vowels, though some grammatical texts place them with the long (nedil) vowels.

As can be seen in the compound form, the vowel sign can be added to the right, left or both sides of the consonants. It can also form a ligature. These rules are evolving and older use has more ligatures than modern use. What you actually see on this page depends on your font selection; for example, Code2000 will show more ligatures than Latha.

There are proponents of script reform who want to eliminate all ligatures and let all vowel signs appear on the right side.

Unicode encodes the character in logical order (always the consonant first), whereas legacy 8-bit encodings (such as TSCII) prefer the written order. This makes it necessary to reorder when converting from one encoding to another; it is not sufficient simply to map one set of code points to the other.

Compound table of Tamil letters

The following table lists vowel (uyir or life) letters across the top and consonant (mei or body) letters along the side, the combination of which gives all Tamil compound (uyirmei) letters.

Tholkapyam
consonants
Vowels
?
a
?
?
?
i
?
?
?
u
?
?
?
e
?
?
?
ai
?
o
?
?
?
au
k ?
? ?
c ?
ñ ?
? ?
? ?
t ?
n ?
p ?
m ?
y ?
r ?
l ?
v ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
Grantha compound table
Grantha
consonants
Vowels
?
a
?
?
?
i
?
?
?
u
?
?
?
e
?
?
?
ai
?
o
?
?
?
au
? ?
j ?
? ?
s ?
h ?
? k? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Numerals and symbols

Apart from the usual numerals (from 0 to 9), Tamil also has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols for fraction and other number-based concepts can also be found.[17]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 1000
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
day month year debit credit as above rupee numeral time quantity
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

In Unicode

Tamil script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 1991 with the release of version 1.0.0. The Unicode block for Tamil is U+0B80-U+BFF. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points. Most of the non-assigned code points are designated reserved because they are in the same relative position as characters assigned in other South Asian script blocks that correspond to phonemes that don't exist in the Tamil script.

Efforts to unify the Grantha script with Tamil have been made;[14][18] however the proposals triggered discontent by some.[19][20] Eventually, considering the sensitivity involved, it was determined that the two scripts should be encoded independently, except for the numerals.[21]

Tamil[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0B8x
U+0B9x
U+0BAx
U+0BBx ி
U+0BCx
U+0BDx
U+0BEx
U+0BFx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Proposals to encode characters used for fractional values in traditional accounting practices were submitted.[22] Although discouraged by the ICTA of Sri Lanka,[23] the proposal was recognized by the Government of Tamil Nadu[24] and were added to the Unicode Standard in March 2019 with the release of version 12.0. The Unicode block for Tamil Supplement is U+11FC0–U+11FFF:

Tamil Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+11FCx 𑿀 𑿁 𑿂 𑿃 𑿄 𑿅 𑿆 𑿇 𑿈 𑿉 𑿊 𑿋 𑿌 𑿍 𑿎 𑿏
U+11FDx 𑿐 𑿑 𑿒 𑿓 𑿔 𑿕 𑿖 𑿗 𑿘 𑿙 𑿚 𑿛 𑿜 𑿝 𑿞 𑿟
U+11FEx 𑿠 𑿡 𑿢 𑿣 𑿤 𑿥 𑿦 𑿧 𑿨 𑿩 𑿪 𑿫 𑿬 𑿭 𑿮 𑿯
U+11FFx 𑿰 𑿱 𑿿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Syllabary

Like other South Asian scripts in Unicode, the Tamil encoding was originally derived from the ISCII standard. Both ISCII and Unicode encode Tamil as an abugida. In an abugida, each basic character represents a consonant and default vowel. Consonants with a different vowel or bare consonants are represented by adding a modifier character to a base character. Each code point representing a similar phoneme is encoded in the same relative position in each South Asian script block in Unicode, including Tamil. Because Unicode represents Tamil as an abugida all the pure consonants (consonants with no associated vowel) and syllables in Tamil can be represented by combining multiple Unicode code points, as can be seen in the Unicode Tamil Syllabary below.

In Unicode 5.1, named sequences were added for all Tamil pure consonants and syllables. Unicode 5.1 also has a named sequence for the Tamil ligature SRI (?r?), ?. The name of this sequence is TAMIL SYLLABLE SHRII and is composed of the Unicode sequence U+0BB6 U+0BCD U+0BB0 U+0BC0.

Unicode Tamil Syllabary
Consonants Vowels
?
0B85
?
0B86
?
0B87
?
0B88
?
0B89
?
0B8A
?
0B8E
?
0B8F
?
0B90
?
0B92
?
0B93
?
0B94

0B95
0BCD
?
0B95
 

0B95
0BBE

0B95
0BBF

0B95
0BC0

0B95
0BC1

0B95
0BC2

0B95
0BC6

0B95
0BC7

0B95
0BC8

0B95
0BCA

0B95
0BCB

0B95
0BCC

0B99
0BCD
?
0B99
 

0B99
0BBE

0B99
0BBF

0B99
0BC0

0B99
0BC1

0B99
0BC2

0B99
0BC6

0B99
0BC7

0B99
0BC8

0B99
0BCA

0B99
0BCB

0B99
0BCC

0B9A
0BCD
?
0B9A
 

0B9A
0BBE

0B9A
0BBF

0B9A
0BC0

0B9A
0BC1

0B9A
0BC2

0B9A
0BC6

0B9A
0BC7

0B9A
0BC8

0B9A
0BCA

0B9A
0BCB

0B9A
0BCC

0B9E
0BCD
?
0B9E
 

0B9E
0BBE

0B9E
0BBF

0B9E
0BC0

0B9E
0BC1

0B9E
0BC2

0B9E
0BC6

0B9E
0BC7

0B9E
0BC8

0B9E
0BCA

0B9E
0BCB

0B9E
0BCC

0B9F
0BCD
?
0B9F
 

0B9F
0BBE

0B9F
0BBF

0B9F
0BC0

0B9F
0BC1

0B9F
0BC2

0B9F
0BC6

0B9F
0BC7

0B9F
0BC8

0B9F
0BCA

0B9F
0BCB

0B9F
0BCC

0BA3
0BCD
?
0BA3
 

0BA3
0BBE

0BA3
0BBF

0BA3
0BC0

0BA3
0BC1

0BA3
0BC2

0BA3
0BC6

0BA3
0BC7

0BA3
0BC8

0BA3
0BCA

0BA3
0BCB

0BA3
0BCC

0BA4
0BCD
?
0BA4
 

0BA4
0BBE

0BA4
0BBF

0BA4
0BC0

0BA4
0BC1

0BA4
0BC2

0BA4
0BC6

0BA4
0BC7

0BA4
0BC8

0BA4
0BCA

0BA4
0BCB

0BA4
0BCC

0BA8
0BCD
?
0BA8
 

0BA8
0BBE

0BA8
0BBF

0BA8
0BC0

0BA8
0BC1

0BA8
0BC2

0BA8
0BC6

0BA8
0BC7

0BA8
0BC8

0BA8
0BCA

0BA8
0BCB

0BA8
0BCC

0BAA
0BCD
?
0BAA
 

0BAA
0BBE

0BAA
0BBF

0BAA
0BC0

0BAA
0BC1

0BAA
0BC2

0BAA
0BC6

0BAA
0BC7

0BAA
0BC8

0BAA
0BCA

0BAA
0BCB

0BAA
0BCC

0BAE
0BCD
?
0BAE
 

0BAE
0BBE

0BAE
0BBF

0BAE
0BC0

0BAE
0BC1

0BAE
0BC2

0BAE
0BC6

0BAE
0BC7

0BAE
0BC8

0BAE
0BCA

0BAE
0BCB

0BAE
0BCC

0BAF
0BCD
?
0BAF
 

0BAF
0BBE

0BAF
0BBF

0BAF
0BC0

0BAF
0BC1

0BAF
0BC2

0BAF
0BC6

0BAF
0BC7

0BAF
0BC8

0BAF
0BCA

0BAF
0BCB

0BAF
0BCC

0BB0
0BCD
?
0BB0
 

0BB0
0BBE

0BB0
0BBF

0BB0
0BC0

0BB0
0BC1

0BB0
0BC2

0BB0
0BC6

0BB0
0BC7

0BB0
0BC8

0BB0
0BCA

0BB0
0BCB

0BB0
0BCC

0BB2
0BCD
?
0BB2
 

0BB2
0BBE

0BB2
0BBF

0BB2
0BC0

0BB2
0BC1

0BB2
0BC2

0BB2
0BC6

0BB2
0BC7

0BB2
0BC8

0BB2
0BCA

0BB2
0BCB

0BB2
0BCC

0BB5
0BCD
?
0BB5
 

0BB5
0BBE

0BB5
0BBF

0BB5
0BC0

0BB5
0BC1

0BB5
0BC2

0BB5
0BC6

0BB5
0BC7

0BB5
0BC8

0BB5
0BCA

0BB5
0BCB

0BB5
0BCC

0BB4
0BCD
?
0BB4
 

0BB4
0BBE

0BB4
0BBF

0BB4
0BC0

0BB4
0BC1

0BB4
0BC2

0BB4
0BC6

0BB4
0BC7

0BB4
0BC8

0BB4
0BCA

0BB4
0BCB

0BB4
0BCC

0BB3
0BCD
?
0BB3
 

0BB3
0BBE

0BB3
0BBF

0BB3
0BC0

0BB3
0BC1

0BB3
0BC2

0BB3
0BC6

0BB3
0BC7

0BB3
0BC8

0BB3
0BCA

0BB3
0BCB

0BB3
0BCC

0BB1
0BCD
?
0BB1
 

0BB1
0BBE

0BB1
0BBF

0BB1
0BC0

0BB1
0BC1

0BB1
0BC2

0BB1
0BC6

0BB1
0BC7

0BB1
0BC8

0BB1
0BCA

0BB1
0BCB

0BB1
0BCC

0BA9
0BCD
?
0BA9
 

0BA9
0BBE

0BA9
0BBF

0BA9
0BC0

0BA9
0BC1

0BA9
0BC2

0BA9
0BC6

0BA9
0BC7

0BA9
0BC8

0BA9
0BCA

0BA9
0BCB

0BA9
0BCC

0BB6
0BCD
?
0BB6
 

0BB6
0BBE

0BB6
0BBF

0BB6
0BC0

0BB6
0BC1

0BB6
0BC2

0BB6
0BC6

0BB6
0BC7

0BB6
0BC8

0BB6
0BCA

0BB6
0BCB

0BB6
0BCC

0B9C
0BCD
?
0B9C
 

0B9C
0BBE

0B9C
0BBF

0B9C
0BC0

0B9C
0BC1

0B9C
0BC2

0B9C
0BC6

0B9C
0BC7

0B9C
0BC8

0B9C
0BCA

0B9C
0BCB

0B9C
0BCC

0BB7
0BCD
?
0BB7
 

0BB7
0BBE

0BB7
0BBF

0BB7
0BC0

0BB7
0BC1

0BB7
0BC2

0BB7
0BC6

0BB7
0BC7

0BB7
0BC8

0BB7
0BCA

0BB7
0BCB

0BB7
0BCC

0BB8
0BCD
?
0BB8
 

0BB8
0BBE

0BB8
0BBF

0BB8
0BC0

0BB8
0BC1

0BB8
0BC2

0BB8
0BC6

0BB8
0BC7

0BB8
0BC8

0BB8
0BCA

0BB8
0BCB

0BB8
0BCC

0BB9
0BCD
?
0BB9
 

0BB9
0BBE

0BB9
0BBF

0BB9
0BC0

0BB9
0BC1

0BB9
0BC2

0BB9
0BC6

0BB9
0BC7

0BB9
0BC8

0BB9
0BCA

0BB9
0BCB

0BB9
0BCC
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCD

0B95
0BCD
0BB7
 
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BBE
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BBF
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC0
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC1
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC2
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC6
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC7
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC8
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCA
?
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCB

0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCC

Programmatic access

  • Tamil script can be manipulated using the Python library called open-Tamil.[25]
  • There is a Windows open source application available called AnyTaFont2UTF8 using C#.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Rajan, K. (December 2001). "Territorial Division as Gleaned from Memorial Stones". East and West. Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente (IsIAO). 51 (3/4): 363. JSTOR 29757518. (table showing Tamil in row for the 601-800 period)
  2. ^ Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 385.
  3. ^ a b Mahadevan 2003, p. 209.
  4. ^ a b Mahadevan 2003, p. 212.
  5. ^ Allen, Julie (2006), The Unicode 5.0 Standard (5 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-321-48091-0 at p. 324
  6. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009), Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.), Dallas, Tex.: SIL International, retrieved 2009
  7. ^ University of Madras Tamil Lexicon, page 148: " [ aliye?uttu n ali-y-e?uttu . < ¹ +. 1. The letter ?, as being regarded as neither a vowel nor a consonant; . (. ?. 6, .) 2. Consonants; . (?.)."]
  8. ^ a b Mahadevan 2003, p. 173.
  9. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 230.
  10. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 211.
  11. ^ Griffiths, Arlo (2014). "Early Indic Inscriptions of Southeast Asia". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 213.
  13. ^ a b c Steever 1996, p. 426-430.
  14. ^ a b Sharma, Shriramana. (2010a). Proposal to encode characters for Extended Tamil.
  15. ^ Sharma, Shriramana. (2010c). Follow-up #2 to Extended Tamil proposal.
  16. ^ Unicode Consortium (2019). Tamil. In The Unicode Standard Version 12.0 (pp. 489-498).
  17. ^ Selvakumar, V. (2016). History of Numbers and Fractions and Arithmetic Calculations in the Tamil Region: Some Observations. HuSS: International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.15613/HIJRH/2016/V3I1/111730
  18. ^ Sharma, Shriramana. (2010b). Follow-up to Extended Tamil proposal L2/10-256R.
  19. ^ Eraiyarasan, B. Dr. B.Eraiyarasan's comments on Tamil Unicode And Grantham proposals.
  20. ^ Nalankilli, Thanjai. (2018). Attempts to "Pollute" Tamil Unicode with Grantha Characters. Tamil Tribune. Retrieved 12 March 2019 from http://www.tamiltribune.com/18/1201.html
  21. ^ Government of India. (2010). Unicode Standard for Grantha Script.
  22. ^ Sharma, Shriramana. (2012). Proposal to encode Tamil fractions and symbols.
  23. ^ ICTA of Sri Lanka. (2014). Comments on the Proposals to Encode Tamil Symbols and Fractions.
  24. ^ Government of Tamil Nadu. (2017). Finalized proposal to encode Tamil fractions and symbols.
  25. ^ "Open-Tamil 0.65 : Python Package Index".

References

External links

Media related to Tamil script at Wikimedia Commons


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Tamil_script
 



 



 
Music Scenes