Taiwanese Southern Min Recommended Characters
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Taiwanese Southern Min Recommended Characters
Taiwanese Southern Min Recommended Characters
Traditional Chinese??

Taiwanese Southern Min Recommended Characters is a set of three lists of Taiwanese Hokkien characters, numbering 700 in total, which were published by the Taiwan Ministry of Education between 2007 and 2009[1][2][3][4][5] recommending which Chinese characters to use when writing Taiwanese Hokkien with Chinese characters.[6]

Categories of characters

  • Root characters (): Characters closest in meaning and pronunciation to ancient definitions from rime dictionaries such as Fanqie, for example ? mountain, ? water, ? heaven. Some Taiwanese Hokkien characters are consistent with ancient Chinese, for example ? ("chopsticks"; in Standard Mandarin), ? ("walk", ? in Standard Mandarin) and ? ("eat", ? in Standard Mandarin).
  • Semantic reading characters (): If the root character is uncertain, then use the Standard Mandarin Vernacular Chinese equivalent that is closest in pronunciation and meaning to the Taiwanese Hokkien morpheme, for example ? (g?ng), ? (óo/ué).
  • Phonetic borrowing characters (): If the root character is uncertain and there are no close equivalent morphemes in Standard Mandarin, characters with similar sounds that have gained widespread acceptance in literature can be used, for example ? (m?, "also"), (ka-tsài, "fortunately"), (p?ng-khang, "tunnel").
  • Orthodox characters (): Some morphemes have root characters, however there are also a large number of semantic reading characters or phonetic borrowing characters that are more commonly used, resulting in the root characters becoming obscure and rare. In this case, the more commonly used characters should be used rather than the orthodox characters, for example ? (lí, "you"; equivalent root character ?), ? (lâng, "person"; equivalent root character ?).
  • Combined sound characters (): As a result of a lack of consensus among writers regarding word use, some monosyllable Taiwanese Hokkien morphemes are still written with equivalent polysyllable phrases, for example (lueh), (tueh), (tsa?ng), (siáng). However, some common homophonous characters have become widely adopted over the bisyllabic equivalent, for example ? (originally ), ? (originally ), ? (originally ).

Examples

Taiwanese Hokkien character Tâi-lô reading English translation Standard Mandarin equivalent
? i third-person pronoun ? / ? / ? / ?
? h?o give, passive voice marker
? ioh guess
? s?g merriment
? tàn throw
? m? no, not ?
? khùn sleep
? suí beautiful, handsome ?
? se?h spin, orbit
? phâng serve with both hands ?(?)
? kiánn son
? bih hide
? au cup
? thâi slaughter
? tsiu eye
? tshiâu adjustment
? lòng strike
? huah shout, roar
? khi? stand
? kâng identical
? ts? / tsu? numerous
? sak push ?
? khioh pick up
? kh?g put
? hioh / heh / hennh rest
? tsiok very
? bái ugly
? siû swim
? pa?k bound
? gia?h hold, lift, carry
? ak pour ?(?)
? tuà reside
? tsông run
? tshun remainder
? tshiànn hire
? giú pull
? lim drink
? hia there

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ (?1?)
  3. ^ (?2?)
  4. ^ (?3?)
  5. ^ ! ?
  6. ^ Comparative Analysis of The Taiwanese Southern-Min"thui-tsiàn-i?ng-j?" (Recommended Words) of The Ministry of Education http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh?docid=U0045-2903201313494836

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