Taiwanese Romanization System
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Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an
Traditional Chinese?
Simplified Chinese?
Traditional Chinese?
Simplified Chinese?

The official romanisation system for Taiwanese Hokkien in Taiwan is locally known as Tâi-uân Lô-má-j? Phing-im Hong-àn or Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an,[I][1] often referred to as Tâi-lô. It is derived from Pe?h-?e-j? and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[2] The system is used in the MoE's Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan. It is nearly identical to Pe?h-?e-j? apart from using ts tsh j instead of ch chh j for the fricatives /ts ts? dz/, the substitution of o for u in vowel combinations such as oa and oe, the substitution of e for i in eng, using oo instead of o?, and the substitution of nn for n in nasalized vowels like an and on.

Taiwanese Romanization System


Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter A B E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng NN O Oo P Ph S T Th Ts Tsh U
Lower case a b e g h i j k kh l m n ng nn o oo p ph s t th ts tsh u
IPA [a] [b] [e] [?] [h, ?] [i] [d?z] [k] [k?] [l] [m] [n] [?] [] [o] [?] [p] [p?] [s] [t] [t?] [t?s] [t?s?] [u]
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it only appears capitalised in all-caps texts.
  • Palatalization occurs when "j, s, ts, tsh" are followed by "i", so "ji, si, tsi, tshi" are sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels (somewhat similar to erhua), while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

Sample texts

Pe?h-u?-j? (PUJ) s? 1 khuán i?ng Latin (Lô-má) phìng-im h?-thóng lâi siá Tâi-uân ê gí-giân ê su-b?n bûn-j?. In-u? tong-tshoo s? thuân-kàu-s? ín--jp-lâi ê, sóo-í ia?h-?-lâng k? PUJ kiò-tsò Kàu-hu? Lô-má-j?, he?k-tsiá s? kán-tshing Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hi?n-t?i ê sú-i?ng-tsiá b?-tsió m?-s? kàu-tôo, kàu-tôo m? tsin ts? b?-hiáu PUJ.
Pe?h-?e-j? (POJ) s? 1 khoán i?ng Latin (Lô-má) phèng-im h?-thóng lâi siá Tâi-ôan ê gí-giân ê su-b?n bûn-j?. In-?i tong-chho? s? thôan-kàu-s? ín--jp-lâi ê, só?-í ia?h-?-lâng k? POJ kiò-chò Kàu-h?e Lô-má-j?, he?k-chiá s? kán-chheng Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hi?n-t?i ê sú-i?ng-chiá b?-chió m?-s? kàu-tô?, kàu-tô? m? chin ch? b?-hiáu POJ.
[pe?uedi ?i ti?k?uan io? latin (loma) p?i?im het?o? lai ?a taiuan e gigi?n e subin bundi ? inui to?t?s? ?i t?uankausu indi?lai e s?i ia?ula? ka pe?uedi kiot?so kauhue lomadi hi?tia ?i kanti? kaulo ? pu?diko hi?ntai e suio?tia betio mi kaut? kaut? ma tin t?se behiau pe?uedi ?]



Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
? ?(moo)
n [n]
? ?(n?i)
ng [?]
? ?(ngá)
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
? ?(pian)
b [b]
? ?(bûn)
t [t]
? ?(t?)
k [k]
? ?(kiû)
g [g]
? ?(gí)
Aspirated ph [p?]
? ?(pho)
th [t?]
? ?(thann)
kh [k?]
? ?(khì)
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
? ?(tsan)
j [dz]
? ?(jua?h)
tsi [t?]
? ?(tsiam)
ji [d?]
? ?(ji?p)
Aspirated tsh [ts?]
? ?(tshut)
tshi [t]
? ?(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
? ?(sann)
si [?]
? ?(siá)
h [h]
? ?(hí)
Lateral l [l]
? ?(liú)
Syllabic consonant
Bilabial Velar
Nasal m [m?]
? ?(?)
ng []
? ?(sng)

Vowels & Rhymes

Simple & Nasal
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal
Close i [i]
? ?(i)
inn [?]
? ?(înn)
u [u]
? ?(u)
unn [?]
? ?(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
? ?(lé)
enn [?]
? ?(senn)
? ?(ko)
oo [?]
? ?(oo)
onn []
? ?(onn)
Open a [a]
? ?(tsa)
ann [ã]
? ?(sann)
Tâi-lô IPA Bopomofo
ir [?] ?
er [?] ?
ee [?] ?
ere [?e] [a]
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [?] [p?] [t?] [k?] [?]
[a] a ann am an ang ap at ak ah annh
[ai] ai ainn aih ainnh
[au] au auh
[e] e enn eh ennh
[i] i inn im in ing ip it ik ih innh
[ia] ia iann iam ian iang iap iat iak iah iannh
[iau] iau iaunn iauh
[i?] io ioh
[i?] iong iok
[iu] iu iunn iuh iunnh
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [?] [p?] [t?] [k?] [?]
[?] o oh
[?] oo onn om ong op ok ooh onnh
[u] u un ut uh
[ua] ua uann uan uat uah
[uai] uai uainn
[ue] ue ueh
[ui] ui
[m?] m - mh
[] ng - ngh
  • ing pronounced [], ik pronounced [k?].


Tone No. 1 2 (= 6) 3 4 5 7 8
im-pîng si?ng-siann im-khì im-ji?p iông-pîng iông-khì iông-ji?p
Symbol None Acute Grave None (-p, -t, -k, -h) Circumflex macron Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
´ ` ^ ? ?
Pitch ? ?
55 51 31 3? 24 33 5?
Example tong (?) tóng (?) tòng (?) tok (?) tông (?) t?ng (?) to?k (?)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.


  1. ^ In version of Ngoo Siu-le [zh], /?e/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "?Extended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg" is replaced with "Extended Bopomofo eer.svg".

Words in native languages

  1. ^


  1. ^ "" (PDF). language.moe.edu.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ Cheng Jei-cheng (2008). Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce ? [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese) (2nd ed.). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8.
  3. ^ ? (PDF) (in Chinese). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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