T%C5%8Dkaid%C5%8D Main Line
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T%C5%8Dkaid%C5%8D Main Line
T?kaid? Main Line
JT JR Central Tokaido Line.svg JRW kinki-A.svg
E233kei NT53.JPG
An E233 series EMU on the T?kaid? Main Line, January 2012
Overview
Other name(s)Biwako Line (JR West:Maibara - Kyoto)
JR Kyoto Line (JR West:Kyoto - Osaka)
JR Kobe Line (JR-West:Osaka - Kobe)
Native name
TypeHeavy rail
LocaleKant?, T?kai, Kansai regions
TerminiTokyo
K?be
Stations166 (passenger only)
Operation
Opened1922
Operator(s)JR East
JR Central
JR West
Technical
Track length515.4 km (320.3 mi)
Track gauge
Electrification1,500 V DC overhead catenary
Operating speed130 km/h (80 mph)

The T?kaid? Main Line (, T?kaid?-honsen) is a major Japanese railway line of the Japan Railways Group (JR Group) network, connecting Tokyo and K?be stations. It is 515.4 km (320.3 mi) long, not counting its many freight feeder lines around the major cities. The high-speed T?kaid? Shinkansen largely parallels the line.

The term "T?kaid? Main Line" is largely a holdover from pre-Shinkansen days; now various portions of the line have different names which are officially used by JR East, JR Central, and JR West. Today, there are no passenger trains that operate over the entire length of the line (other than certain overnight services; see below), so longer intercity trips require several transfers along the way.

The Tokaido Main Line is owned and operated by three JR companies:

Basic data

  • Total distance: 713.6 km (443.4 mi) (including branch lines; Tokyo – K?be is 589.5 km (366.3 mi))
    • East Japan Railway Company (JR East) (Services and tracks)
      • Tokyo – Atami: 104.6 km (65.0 mi)
      • Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi: 17.8 km (11.1 mi)
      • Hamamatsuch? – Tokyo Freight Terminal – Kawasaki Freight Terminal – Hama-Kawasaki: 20.6 km (12.8 mi) (T?kaid? Freight Line)
      • Tsurumi – Hatch?-Nawate: 2.3 km (1.4 mi) (T?kaid? Freight Line)
      • Tsurumi – Higashi-Takashima – Sakuragich?: 8.5 km (5.3 mi) (Takashima Line)
      • Tsurumi – Yokohama-Hazawa – Higashi-Totsuka: 16.0 km (9.9 mi) (T?kaid? Freight Line)
    • Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central) (Services and tracks)
      • Atami – Maibara: 341.3 km (212.1 mi) (3.3 km (2.1 mi) between Kanayama – Nagoya overlaps with Chuo Main Line)
      • ?gaki – Mino-Akasaka: 5.0 km (3.1 mi) (Mino-Akasaka branch line)
      • ?gaki – (Shin-Tarui) – Sekigahara: 13.8 km (8.6 mi) (Shin-Tarui Line)
    • West Japan Railway Company (JR West) (Services and tracks)
      • Maibara – K?be: 143.6 km (89.2 mi)
      • Ky?to Freight Terminal – Tambaguchi: 3.3 km (2.1 mi) (not in use by passenger trains)
      • Suita – (Miyahara Rail Yard) – Amagasaki: 10.7 km (6.6 mi) (Hopp? Freight Line)
      • Suita – Umeda – Fukushima: 8.5 km (5.3 mi) (Umeda Freight Line, used by Haruka limited expresses)
    • Japan Freight Railway Company (JR Freight) (Tracks and services)
      • Sann? Signal – Nagoya-Minato: 6.2 km (3.9 mi) (Nagoya-Minato Line)
      • Suita Signal – Osaka Freight Terminal: 8.7 km (5.4 mi) (Osaka Terminal Line)
    • Japan Freight Railway Company (JR Freight) (Services only)
      • Shinagawa – Atami: 97.8 km (60.8 mi)
      • Shinagawa – Shin-Tsurumi Signal: 13.9 km (8.6 mi)
      • Tokyo Freight Terminal – Hama-Kawasaki: 12.9 km (8.0 mi)
      • Tsurumi – Yokohama-Hazawa – Higashi-Totsuka: 16.0 km (9.9 mi)
      • Tsurumi – Hatch?-Nawate: 2.3 km (1.4 mi)
      • Tsurumi – Shink? – Sakuragich?: 11.2 km (7.0 mi)
      • Atami – Maibara: 341.3 km (212.1 mi)
      • Minami-Arao Signal – Sekigahara: 10.7 km (6.6 mi)
      • Minami-Arao Signal – Mino-Akasaka: 1.9 km (1.2 mi)
      • Maibara – K?be: 139.0 km (86.4 mi) (via Hopp? Freight Line)
      • Ky?to Freight Terminal – Tambaguchi: 3.3 km (2.1 mi)
      • Suita – Umeda – Fukushima: 8.5 km (5.3 mi)
  • Gauge: Narrow gauge railway
  • Stations:
    • Passenger: 166 (does not include Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi section or branches other than Mino-Akasaka branch line)
      • JR East: 34
      • JR Central: 82
      • JR West: 50
    • Freight only: 14
  • Tracks:
    • Four or more
      • Tokyo – Odawara: 83.9 km (52.1 mi)
      • Nagoya – Inazawa: 11.1 km (6.9 mi)
      • Kusatsu – K?be: 98.1 km (61.0 mi)
    • Two
      • Odawara – Nagoya
      • Inazawa – Kusatsu
      • Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi
      • Hamamatsuch? – Tokyo Freight Terminal – Kawasaki Freight Terminal – Hama-Kawasaki
      • Tsurumi – Hatch?-Nawate
      • Tsurumi – Higashi-Takashima
      • Tsurumi – Yokohama-Hazawa – Higashi-Totsuka
      • Suita – Umeda
      • Suita – (Miyahara Rail Yard) – Amagasaki
    • Single-track: All other sections
  • Electrification: 1,500 V DC (except for Sann? Signal – Nagoya-Minato)
  • Railway signalling: Automatic Train Control
  • Maximum speed:
    • Tokyo – ?funa, Odawara – Toyohashi: 110 km/h (68 mph)
    • ?funa – Odawara, Toyohashi – Maibara: 120 km/h (75 mph)
    • Minami-Arao Signal – Tarui – Sekigahara, Minami-Arao Signal – Mino-Akasaka: 85 km/h (53 mph)
    • Maibara – K?be: 130 km/h (81 mph)

Station list

JR East

The Tokaido Main Line shown in orange in this map of the southern approaches to Tokyo
Tokaido Main Line (JR East) service pattern diagram

This section is operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East).

The Tokaido Main Line in the Greater Tokyo Area has local services ( Futs?), and also two rapid services called Rapid Acty (?, Kaisoku Akut?) and Commuter Rapid (?, Ts?kin Kaisoku). It runs on dedicated tracks parallel to the Yamanote Line between Tokyo and Shinagawa, the Keihin-T?hoku Line between Tokyo and Yokohama, and the Yokosuka Line between Yokohama and ?funa. Some Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line trains share the segment south of Yokohama to ?funa and Odawara.

The Ueno-Tokyo Line, a JR East project, extended the services of the Utsunomiya Line, the Takasaki Line, and the Joban Line to Tokyo Station, allowing for through services to and from the Tokaido Line from March 2015.[1]

Almost all trains along this section of the line have bi-level "Green Cars" with forward-facing seats, with each set of trains having 2 of them. Green Cars can be used after paying an additional fee.

Legend:

  • ? : All trains stop
  • | : All trains pass
  • ? : Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line trains use Yokosuka Line platforms
No. Station Japanese Distance (km) Commuter
Rapid
Local,
Rapid Rabbit
& Urban
Rapid
Acty
J?ban Line through service Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line Transfers Location
Between
Stations
Total Rapid Special Rapid
Through service from/to: / JU Ueno-Tokyo Line JS Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line (for JU Takasaki Line)
JU Utsunomiya
& Takasaki Line
JU Utsunomiya Line JJ J?ban Line (Rapid)
TYOJT01
Tokyo - 0.0 ? ? ? ? Shinkansen-E.png Tohoku Shinkansen

Shinkansen-E.png Hokkaido Shinkansen
Shinkansen-E.png Yamagata Shinkansen
Shinkansen-E.png Akita Shinkansen
Shinkansen-E.png Joetsu Shinkansen
Shinkansen-E.png Hokuriku Shinkansen
JY Yamanote Line
JK Keihin-T?hoku Line
JO Yokosuka Line.S?bu Line (Rapid)
JE Keiy? Line
JU Ueno-Tokyo Line (Through to JU Utsunomiya.Takasaki Line/JJ J?ban Line)
JC Ch Line (Rapid)
Shinkansen jrc.svg Tokaido Shinkansen
M Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line

Chiyoda Tokyo
SMBJT02
Shimbashi 1.9 1.9 ? ? ? ? JY Yamanote Line
JK Keihin-T?hoku Line
JO Yokosuka Line
G Tokyo Metro Ginza Line(G-08)
A Toei Asakusa Line(A-10)
Yurikamome line symbol.svgYurikamome
Minato
SGWJT03
Shinagawa 4.7 6.8 ? ? ? ? JY Yamanote Line
JK Keihin-T?hoku Line
JO Yokosuka Line
Shinkansen jrc.svg T?kaid? Shinkansen
KK Keikyu Main Line
KWSJT04
Kawasaki 11.4 18.2 | ? ? JK Keihin-T?hoku Line
JN Nambu Line
(Keikyu-Kawasaki) KK Keikyu Main Line and KK Keikyu Daishi Line
Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki Kanagawa
YHMJT05
Yokohama 10.6 28.8 | ? ? ? ? JK Keihin-T?hoku Line, Negishi Line
JS Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line
JO Yokosuka Line
TY T?ky? T?yoko Line
KK Keikyu Main Line
Sotetsu line symbol.svgSagami Railway Main Line
Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line symbol.svgYokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line
Minatomirai Line symbol.svgMinatomirai Line
Nishi-ku, Yokohama
TTKJT06
Totsuka 12.1 40.9 | ? ? ? ? JS Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line
JO Yokosuka Line
Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line symbol.svgYokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line
Totsuka-ku, Yokohama
OFNJT07
?funa 5.6 46.5 ? ? ? ? ? JK Negishi Line
JO Yokosuka Line
Shonan Monorail
JS Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line
Sakae-ku, Yokohama
Kamakura
JT08 Fujisawa 4.6 51.1 ? ? ? ? ? Odakyu enoshima.svgOdaky? Enoshima Line
Enoshima Electric Railway
Fujisawa
JT09 Tsujid? 3.7 54.8 | ? | ? |
JT10 Chigasaki 3.8 58.6 ? ? ? ? ? ? Sagami Line Chigasaki
JT11 Hiratsuka 5.2 63.8 ? ? ? ? ?   Hiratsuka
JT12 ?iso 4.0 67.8 | ? | ? |   ?iso, Naka District
JT13 Ninomiya 5.3 73.1 | ? | ? |   Ninomiya, Naka District
JT14 K?zu 4.6 77.7 ? ? ? ? ? JR Central Gotemba Line.svgGotemba Line Odawara
JT15 Kamonomiya 3.1 80.8 | ? | ? |  
JT16 Odawara 3.1 83.9 ? ? ? ? ? Shinkansen jrc.svg T?kaid? Shinkansen
Odakyu odawara.svgOdaky? Odawara Line
Odakyu Hakone StaNo.svgHakone Tozan Line
Izu-Hakone Railway Daiy?zan Line
JT17 Hayakawa 2.1 86.0   ? ?
JT18 Nebukawa 4.4 90.4 ? ?
JT19 Manazuru 5.4 95.8 ? ?   Manazuru, Ashigarashimo District
JT20 Yugawara 3.3 99.1 ? ?   Yugawara, Ashigarashimo District
JT21 Atami 5.5 104.6 ? ? JT It? Line (Some through trains for Ito)
Shinkansen jrc.svg T?kaid? Shinkansen
Atami Shizuoka
Local: Some operate through service from/to Numazu or Ito
  • Some trains run through services beyond Atami, as far as Numazu.
  • With the Ueno-Tokyo Line, Utsunomiya Line Rapid Rabbit and Takasaki Line Rapid Urban services now run along the Tokaido Line, and stop at all stations on this line. As such, the two services are classified as 'Local' service trains within the Tokaido Line. Likewise, Tokaido Line Rapid Acty services now run up to the Utsunomiya Line.
  • Sh?nan Liner services are special, all-reserved commuter express trains with comfortable seating. They operate from Odawara to Tokyo on weekday mornings, with a few services terminating in Shinagawa. Return services run from Tokyo to Odawara on weekday evenings. Like commuter rapid trains, Sh?nan Liner services normally make no stops between Shinagawa and Fujisawa. Between Fujisawa and Odawara, varying stops are made. In addition to the standard fare, a reserved seat fee of ¥500 is required to use the Sh?nan Liner.
  • Keihin-T?hoku Line stations between Tokyo and Yokohama officially are a part of the T?kaid? Main Line. These stations are: Y?rakuch?, Hamamatsuch?, Tamachi, ?imachi, ?mori, Kamata, Tsurumi, Shin-Koyasu, and Higashi-Kanagawa.
  • Yokosuka Line stations between Tokyo and ?funa officially are a part of the T?kaid? Main Line. These stations are: Nishi-?i, Musashi-Kosugi, Shin-Kawasaki, Hodogaya, and Higashi-Totsuka. The route of the Yokosuka Line between Shinagawa and Tsurumi is separate from the main line and is referred to as the Hinkaku Line, on which Nishi-?i, Musashi-Kosugi, and Shin-Kawasaki stations are located.
  • Sh?nan-Shinjuku Line operates through services to the T?kaid? Main Line. Trains operate from the Takasaki Line to ?saki and enter the Yokosuka Line at Nishi-?i to Totsuka then switches tracks to the T?kaid? Main Line towards Odawara, and vice versa. Rapid Service stop at all stations on the T?kaid? Main Line (Totsuka - Odawara), while Special Rapid Service operate the same pattern as a Rapid Acty Service.

JR Central

The Tokaido Line between Atami and Maibara is operated by JR Central, and covers the T?kai region - Shizuoka Prefecture, Aichi Prefecture, and Gifu Prefecture.

Shizuoka Block

No. Station Japanese Distance (km) Rapid Services Home Liner Transfers Location
Between
Stations
Total
(From
Tokyo)
Semi
Rapid
Rapid New
Rapid
Special
Rapid
CA00 Atami 104.6           T?kaid? Shinkansen
JT It? Line
Atami Shizuoka
CA01 Kannami 9.9 114.5             Kannami, Tagata District
CA02 Mishima 6.2 120.7   ?       T?kaid? Shinkansen
Izuhakone Railway Sunzu Line (some morning/evening through services)
Mishima
CA03
CB18
Numazu 5.5 126.2   ?     ? Gotemba Line Numazu
CA04 Katahama 4.1 130.3   ?     |  
CA05 Hara ? 2.5 132.8   ?     |  
CA06 Higashi-Tagonoura 4.6 137.4   ?     |   Fuji
CA07 Yoshiwara 3.9 141.3   ?     | Gakunan Railway Line
CA08
CC00
Fuji 4.9 146.2   ?     ? Minobu Line
CA09 Fujikawa 3.5 149.7   |     |  
CA10 Shin-Kambara 2.8 152.5   |     |   Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka
CA11 Kambara 2.4 154.9   |     |  
CA12 Yui 3.5 158.4   |     |  
CA13 Okitsu 5.9 164.3   |     |  
CA14 Shimizu 4.7 169.0   ?     ?  
CA15 Kusanagi 5.2 174.2   |     | Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka-Shimizu Line
CA16 Higashi-Shizuoka 3.5 177.7   |     |   Aoi-ku, Shizuoka
CA17 Shizuoka 2.5 180.2   ?     ? T?kaid? Shinkansen
Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka-Shimizu Line (Shin-Shizuoka)
CA18 Abekawa 4.3 184.5         |   Suruga-ku, Shizuoka
CA19 Mochimune 2.1 186.6         |  
CA20 Yaizu 7.1 193.7         |   Yaizu
CA21 Nishi-Yaizu 3.3 197.0         |  
CA22 Fujieda 3.3 200.3         ?   Fujieda
CA23 Rokugo 4.6 204.9         |   Shimada
CA24 Shimada 2.9 207.8         ?  
CA25 Kanaya 5.1 212.9         | Oigawa Railway Oigawa Main Line
CA26 Kikugawa 9.3 222.2         ?   Kikugawa
CA27 Kakegawa 7.1 229.3         ? T?kaid? Shinkansen
Tenry? Hamanako Railroad
Kakegawa
CA28 Aino 5.3 234.6         |   Fukuroi
CA29 Fukuroi 3.5 238.1         ?  
CA30 Mikuriya (Construction begins in 2020) 4.6 242.7         ?   Iwata
CA31 Iwata 7.8 245.9         ?  
CA32 Toyodach? 2.9 248.8         |  
CA33 Tenry?gawa 3.9 252.7         |   Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu
CA34 Hamamatsu 4.4 257.1     ? ? ? Tokaido Shinkansen
Ensh? Railway Line (Shin-Hamamatsu)
Naka-ku, Hamamatsu
CA35 Takatsuka 5.3 262.4     ? ?     Minami-ku, Hamamatsu
CA36 Maisaka 5.1 267.5     ? ?     Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu
CA37 Bentenjima 2.3 269.8     ? ?    
CA38 Araimachi 3.1 272.9     ? ?     Kosai
CA39 Washizu 3.7 276.6     ? ?    
CA40 Shinjohara 5.8 282.4     ? ?   Tenry? Hamanako Railroad
CA41 Futagawa 4.3 286.7     ? ?     Toyohashi Aichi
CA42 Toyohashi 6.9 293.6 ? ? T?kaid? Shinkansen, Iida Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line
Toyohashi Railway Atsumi Line (Shin-Toyohashi), Toyohashi Railroad Azumada Main Line (Ekimae)

Nagoya Block Main Line

No. Station Japanese Distance (km) Rapid Services Home Liner Transfers Location
Between
Stations
Total
(From
Tokyo)
Semi
Rapid
Rapid New
Rapid
Special
Rapid
CA42 Toyohashi 6.9 293.6 ? ? ? ? ? T?kaid? Shinkansen, Iida Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line
Toyohashi Railway Atsumi Line (Shin-Toyohashi), Toyohashi Railroad Azumada Main Line (Ekimae)
Toyohashi Aichi
CA43 Nishi-Kozakai ? 4.8 298.4 ? | | | |   Toyokawa
CA44 Aichi-Mito ? 3.7 302.1 ? | | | |  
CA45 Mikawa-?tsuka ? 3.1 305.2 ? | | | |   Gamagori
CA46 Mikawa-Miya ? 3.1 308.3 ? ? ? | |  
CA47 Gamagori 2.3 310.6 ? ? ? ? ? Meitetsu Gamag?ri Line
CA48 Mikawa-Shiotsu ? 2.3 312.9 ? | | | | Meitetsu Gamag?ri Line (Gamag?ri-Ky?teij?-Mae)
CA49 Sangane 2.6 315.5 ? | | | |   K?ta, Nukata District
CA50 K?da 3.0 318.5 ? ? ? | |  
CA51 Aimi 3.1 321.6 ? | | | |  
CA52 Okazaki 7.4 325.9 ? ? ? ? ? Aichi Loop Line Okazaki
CA53 Nishi-Okazaki 4.2 330.1 | | | | |  
CA54 Anj? 3.6 333.7 ? ? ? ? ?   Anj?
CA55 Mikawa-Anj? ? 2.6 336.3 | | | | | T?kaid? Shinkansen
CA56 Higashi-Kariya 1.8 338.1 | | | | |   Kariya
CA57 Noda-Shinmachi ? 1.6 339.7 | | | | |  
CA58 Kariya 1.9 341.6 ? ? ? ? ? Meitetsu Mikawa Line
CA59 Aizuma 1.9 343.5 | | | | |  
CA60 ?bu 3.0 346.5 ? ? ? | ? Taketoyo Line ?bu
CA61 Ky?wa 3.0 349.5 ? ? | | |  
CA62 Minami-?daka 2.3 351.8 | | | | |   Midori-ku, Nagoya
CA63 ?daka 1.8 353.6 | | | | |  
CA64 Kasadera 3.2 356.8 | | | | |   Minami-ku, Nagoya
CA65 Atsuta 4.0 360.8 | | | | |   Atsuta-ku, Nagoya
CA66 Kanayama 1.9 362.7 ? ? ? ? ? Ch Main Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line
Nagoya Municipal Subway: Meij? Line (M01), Meik? Line (E01)
Naka-ku, Nagoya
CA67 Ot?bashi 0.9 363.6 | | | | |   Nakagawa-ku, Nagoya
CA68 Nagoya 2.4 366.0 ? ? ? ? ? T?kaid? Shinkansen, Kansai Main Line, Ch Main Line
Kintetsu Nagoya Line (Kintetsu-Nagoya)
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line (Meitetsu-Nagoya)
Higashiyama Line (H08), Sakura-d?ri Line (S02)
Aonami Line (AN01)
Nakamura-ku, Nagoya
CA69 Biwajima 4.0 370.0 | | | | | T?kai Transport Service J?hoku Line Kiyosu
CA70 Kiyosu 3.8 373.8 | | | | |   Inazawa
CA71 Inazawa 3.3 377.1 | | | | |  
CA72 Owari-Ichinomiya ? 6.0 383.1 ? ? ? ? ? Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line, Meitetsu Bisai Line (Meitetsu-Ichinomiya) Ichinomiya
CA73 Kisogawa 3.5 388.6 | | | | |  
CA74 Gifu 7.7 396.3 ? ? ? ? ? Takayama Main Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line, Meitetsu Kagamihara Line (Meitetsu Gifu)
Gifu Gifu
CA75 Nishi-Gifu 3.2 399.5 ? ? ? ? |
CA76 Hozumi 1.0 400.5 ? ? ? ? ?   Mizuho
CA77 ?gaki 9.5 410.0 ? ? ? ? ? T?kaid? Main Line (Mino-Akasaka, Shin-Tarui branch lines)
Kintetsu Yoro Line
Tarumi Railway Tarumi Line
?gaki
CA78 Tarui 8.1 418.1 ? ? ? ? ?   Tarui, Fuwa District
CA79 Sekigahara 5.7 423.8 ? ? ? ? ? T?kaid? Main Line (Shin-Tarui branch line) Sekigahara, Fuwa District
CA80 Kashiwabara 7.1 430.9 ? ? ? ?     Maibara Shiga
CA81 ?mi-Nagaoka ? 4.3 435.2 ? ? ? ?    
CA82 Samegai 4.6 439.8 ? ? ? ?    
CA83 Maibara 6.1 445.9 ? ? ? ?   T?kaid? Shinkansen
Hokuriku Main Line, Biwako Line (T?kaid? Main Line)
Ohmi Railway Main Line

Branch lines

Track diagram around Minami-arao Junction
Abstract track diagram between ?gaki and Sekigahara

Both the Mino-Akasaka and Tarui branch lines separate from the Main Line at Minami-Arao junction (), located 3.1 km west of ?gaki Station.

Mino-Akasaka Branch Line
Station Japanese Distance (km) Transfers Location
Between
Stations
Total (from ?gaki)
?gaki - 0.0 T?kaid? Main Line ?gaki Gifu
Arao 3.4 3.4  
Mino-Akasaka ? 1.6 5.0  
Tarui Branch Line

Between ?gaki and Sekigahara, there is a 25 per mil grade. In 1944, a single track bypass was built to avoid this steep slope of the main line and the old westbound track was removed.

Station Japanese Distance (km) Transfers Location
Between
Stations
Total (from ?gaki)
?gaki - 0.0 T?kaid? Main Line ?gaki Gifu
Tarui 8.1 8.1 Tarui, Fuwa District
Sekigahara 5.7 13.8 JR Central: T?kaid? Main Line Sekigahara

JR West

The western part of the T?kaid? Main Line from Maibara to K?be is operated by JR West and forms the main trunk of the company's Urban Network in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area. Although the line is divided into three segments, known as the Biwako Line, JR Kyoto Line, and JR Kobe Line, they are part of a single contiguous network, with many services traversing multiple sections. The Biwako Line includes a segment of the Hokuriku Main Line. Some services on the Kosei, JR Takarazuka and Gakkentoshi lines run through onto the T?kaid? Main Line.

Biwako Line

The section between Maibara and Kyoto is known as the Biwako Line. The line also includes the section of the Hokuriku Main Line between Maibara and Nagahama, where some Kyoto-bound trains originate.

JR Kyoto Line

The section between Kyoto and Osaka is known as the JR Kyoto Line. Trains from the Biwako and Kosei lines travel through onto the JR Kyoto Line and continue west towards the JR Kobe Line at Osaka.

JR Kobe Line

The westernmost section between Osaka and K?be is part of the JR Kobe Line, which continues west to Himeji on the Sany? Main Line. Although K?be is the official terminus of the T?kaid? Main Line, most trains continue to Nishi-Akashi, Himeji and beyond.

Limited express services

In addition to standard local, rapid, and special rapid service trains, the T?kaid? Main Line also hosts a number of limited express services.

Daytime trains

Overnight trains

Overnight trains on the T?kaid? Line go from Tokyo to western Honsh? and Shikoku.

  • Sunrise Izumo (Tokyo – Izumo via Okayama) (Operates daily)
  • Sunrise Seto (Tokyo – Takamatsu) (Operates daily)
  • Moonlight Nagara (Tokyo – ?gaki) (Operates seasonally - rapid service with reserved seats)

Discontinued trains

  • Overnight limited express Sakura (Tokyo – Nagasaki (discontinued March 2005), Tokyo – Sasebo (discontinued 1999))
  • Overnight limited express Izumo (Tokyo – Izumo via Tottori), discontinued March 2006
  • Limited express Wide View T?kai (Tokyo – Shizuoka), discontinued March 2007
  • Overnight express Ginga (Tokyo – Osaka), discontinued March 2008
  • Overnight limited express Fuji (Tokyo – ?ita), discontinued March 2009
  • Overnight limited express Hayabusa (Tokyo – Kumamoto), discontinued March 2009
  • Overnight limited express Sunrise Yume (Tokyo – Hiroshima), discontinued March 2009

Rolling stock for local and rapid services

JR East

(Odawara, Atami, through service onto the It? Line)

JR Central

JR West

Former rolling stock

  • E217 series (Tokyo – Atami, March 2006 - March 2015)[2]
  • 211 series (Tokyo – Atami – Numazu, through services onto the It? Line, 1985 - April 2012)
  • 113-1000 series (April 1972 - March 2006)
  • KiHa 75 (through services onto the Taketoyo Line, 1999 - March 2015)

History

Chigasaki Station, circa 1898

The T?kaid? route takes its name from the ancient road connecting the Kansai region (Kyoto, Osaka) with the Kant? region (Tokyo, then Edo) through the T?kai region (including Nagoya). Literally, it was the T?kai road, or Road through T?kai. The T?kaid? Line does not follow the old road exactly, since the latter diverges at Nagoya toward the Mie Prefecture coastline; to follow it by train, the Kansai Main Line and Kusatsu Line would have to be followed from Nagoya to Kusatsu. The largest population centers in Japan are along this route - Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe. These centers have grown to occupy an ever more dominant role in the country's government, financial, manufacturing and cultural life.[3]

Historically, one of the first priorities of Japanese railway planners was to build a line from Tokyo to the Kansai region, either following the Tokaido route or the northern Nakasend? route. This decision remained unresolved as regional needs were addressed. The first railway in Japan was the line from Shinbashi to Sakuragicho in Yokohama, which opened in 1872; another segment of today's Tokaido Main Line, between Kyoto and Kobe, opened in 1877.

In 1883, the government decided to use the Nakasendo route, and construction of several segments commenced (including the modern-day Takasaki Line). Railways were opened between Ogaki and Nagahama (1884) and between Nagoya and Kisogawa (1886) in line with the Nakasendo plan. However, by 1886, it was clear that the Tokaido route would be more practical, and so the Nakasendo plan was abandoned.

The lines between Kisogawa and Ogaki, Yokohama and Kozu, and Hamamatsu and Obu were completed in 1887, and the first line from Tokyo to Kobe was completed in 1889, when Kozu and Hamamatsu were connected through the present-day Gotemba Line corridor, and the final segments were completed between Kasumigahara and Otsu. At the time, there was one Tokyo-Kobe train in each direction per day, taking over 20 hours each way.

The "Tokaido Line" name was formally adopted in 1895. In October 1895, following the Sino-Japanese War, through service to the Sanyo Railway (now Sanyo Main Line) began. Express service between Tokyo and Kobe began in 1896, sleeper service in 1900, and dining car service in 1901.

In 1906, all privately run main lines were nationalized under the newly created Japan Imperial Railway, which, at the time had a network of just over 7000 km. Automatic couplers were introduced on all freight wagons in 1926. In 1930, the first Tsubame ("swallow") express was introduced, reducing the Tokyo - Kobe travel-time to nine hours - a significant reduction from the twenty hours required in 1889 and fifteen in 1903.[3]

Infrastructure improvements included the completion of double track on this route in 1913, and the opening of the 7.8 km long Tanna Tunnel, which shortened the route by omitting a detour round the mountains between Atami and Numazu. This was the last major change to the alignment of the route.

By the early 1950s the T?kaid? Line had become the main transportation artery of Japan. Although it was only 3 percent of the railway system by length, it carried 24 percent of JNR's passenger traffic and 23 percent of its freight, and the rate of growth was higher than any other line in the country. By 1956 electrification was completed along the Tokyo-Osaka section and with the introduction of new Kodama trains, travel time was reduced to six and a half hours. The line became so popular that tickets regularly sold out within ten minutes of being put on sale, one month in advance of the travel date.[3]

The capacity constraints on the Tokaido Main Line had been clear prior to World War II, and work started on a new standard gauge "bullet train" line in 1940. Intercity passenger traffic between Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka largely transferred to the T?kaid? Shinkansen after it was completed in 1964. Since then, the Tokaido Main Line has been used as a commuter and freight line, serving a very small number of long-distance passenger trains (mainly overnight and sleeper services).

Following the Hanshin earthquake on January 17, 1995, the line was shut down between Takatsuki and Kobe, with certain segments remaining impassable until April 1.

Former connecting lines

The handcar line near Yoshihama (see Atami Station)
The Yoshihama line after conversion to steam power, circa 1920
Mishima-Tamachi Station circa 1914 (see Numazu Station)
Mokogawa Station in 1944, note the dual-gauge track (see Nishinomiya Station)

Kanagawa Prefecture

  • Ninomiya Station: The Shonan Horse-drawn Tramway opened a 10 km line to Hatano in 1906 to haul tobacco. Steam locomotion was introduced in 1913. Passenger services ceased in 1933, and the line closed in 1935.[]
  • Odawara Station: The Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation operated an approximately 1 km line to its factory, electrified at 1,500 V DC, between 1950 and 1984. The line was also serviced by the adjoining Odakyu Odawara Line from its Ashigara station.[]

Shizuoka Prefecture

  • Atami Station: In 1895, a 10 km gauge handcar line opened to Yoshihama, and was extended 4 km to Odawara the following year. In 1907, the line was converted to gauge and steam locomotives were introduced. The line closed in 1923 as a result of the Great Kanto earthquake.[]
  • Numazu Station: The Sunzu Electric Railway opened a 7 km line to Mishima-Tamachi on the Izuhakone Railway Sunzu Line in 1906. In 1915, the line was truncated 1 km to connect at Mishima-Hirokoji, and the line was electrified at 600 V DC in 1919. The line closed in 1961 following the destruction of the Kisegawa bridge during a flood.[]
  • Yoshiwara Station: The Fuji Horse Tramway (, Fuji Basha Tetsud?) opened a gauge line to ?miya (presentday Fujinomiya) in 1890. The Fuji Minobu Railway (, Fuji Minobu Tetsud?) purchased the tramway in 1912, converted it to a 1,067 mm gauge steam railway the following year and gradually extended it (eventually becoming the Minobu Line). In 1924, the company built a new alignment which connected to Fuji station on the Tokaido main line, at which time the original section from Omiya to Yoshiwara closed.[]
  • Shimizu Station: Shimizuk? Line from 1916 to 1984.
  • Shizuoka Station:
    • The Abe Railway opened a 9 km gauge line from Inomiya (approximately 2 km from Shizuoka) to Ushizuma in 1914 to haul timber. Plans to extend the line to Shizuoka did not eventuate and the line closed in 1934.[]
    • The Shizuoka Electric Railway opened a 2 km line to Anzai, connecting to its Shimizu Line, electrified at 600 V DC, between 1922 and 1926. The line closed in 1962.[]
  • Yaizu Station: A 5 km handcar line operated to Fujieda between 1891 and 1900.[]
  • Fujieda Station: The T?s? Railway opened a 4 km gauge line to Ote in 1913, and by 1926 had extended the line progressively in both directions for a length of 38 km from Jitogata to Suruga-Okabe, although in 1936 the 5 km section from Suruga-Okabe to Ote was closed. In 1943, the company merged with the Shizuoka Railway (see Fujiroi Station below), and in 1948, a 7 km line between Mitsumata and Jitogata opened, linking the two sections. This section of the combined line closed between 1964 and 1970.[]
  • Shimada Station: The Fuji Prefectural Government opened a 3 km gauge handcar line in 1898 to haul timber. In 1944, following the destruction of the nearby Tokaido Line bridge over the Oigawa, it was proposed to use the alignment of this line as a replacement, including a 930 m wooden bridge over the river. The bridge was about 25% completed when the end of the war resulted in the termination of the proposal. A diesel locomotive was introduced in 1955 to haul construction material for the construction of the adjacent national highway, and the line closed in 1959.[]
  • Kikukawa Station: The Joto horse-drawn tramway opened a 15 km gauge line to Ikeshinden in 1899. In 1923, the line was converted to gauge, and a single-cylinder diesel locomotive introduced. The line closed in 1935.[]
  • Fukuroi Station:
    • The Akiba horse-drawn tramway opened a 12 km gauge line to Enshumori-Cho in 1902. In 1926, the company renamed itself the Shizuoka Electric Railway, converted the line to gauge and electrified it at 600 V DC. The line closed in 1962.[]
    • The Shizuoka Railway opened a 10 km gauge line to Yokosuka in 1914, extending it 7 km to Mitsumata in 1927. The company merged with the Fuji-sho Railway in 1943 (see Fujieda Station above), and in 1948, a 7 km line between Mitsumata and Jitogata opened, linking the two sections. This section of the combined line closed between 1964 and 1967.[]
  • Hamamatsu Station: The Dainippon Railway opened a 7 km, gauge line to Kuniyoshi in 1909. In 1919, the line was acquired by the Enshu Railway Line, which closed the first 1 km of the line in 1925, so the new connecting station became Enshu-Magome. The line closed in 1937.[]

Aichi Prefecture

  • Okazaki Station:
    • The Nishio Railway opened a gauge line to Nishio in 1911, and extended it to Kira-Yoshida on the Meitetsu Gamag?ri Line between 1915 and 1916. In 1926, the company merged with the Aichi Electric Railway, which between 1928 and 1929 converted the line to gauge, electrified it at 600 V DC, and connected it to the line from Shin-Anj? on the Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line at Nishioguchi. The line to Nishio closed in 1962.[]
    • A 6 km tram line connected to the Meitetsu Koromo line at Okazaki-Ida Station, which between 1929 and 1962 connected to the Meitetsu Mikawa Line at Uwagoromo, the tramway also closing in 1962.[]
  • Owari-Ichinomiya Station: The 6 km Meitetsu line to Okoshi, electrified at 600 V DC, opened in 1924. When the voltage on the Meitetsu main line was increased to 1,500 V DC in 1952, services were suspended on this line. The substitute bus service proved so popular the line was closed rather than upgraded.[]

Gifu Prefecture

  • Ogaki Station: The Seino Railway opened a 3 km line from Mino-Akasaka to Ichihashi in 1928, and operated a passenger service from 1930 to 1945.[]
  • Arao Station (on the Mino Akasaka branch): A 2 km freight-only line to the Mino Okubo limestone quarry operated between 1928 and 1990.[]

Hy?go Prefecture

  • Nishinomiya Station: A 2 km freight-only line was opened in 1944 to connect to Mukogawa Station on the Hanshin Main Line. As the former was gauge, and the latter gauge, some tracks at Mukogawa were dual gauge. Service on the line ceased in 1958, but it was not formally closed until 1970.[]
  • Rokkomichi Station: A 5 km line to Kobe Port opened in 1907, electrified at 1,500 V DC. Passenger services ceased in 1974, and the line closed in 2003.[]

References

This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia.

  1. ^ An Interview with the President on JR East website, retrieved 2009-05-13
  2. ^ JRE217 - [JR East E217 series withdrawn from Tokaido Line]. Mynavi News (in Japanese). Japan: Mynavi Corporation. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Smith, Roderick A. (2003). "The Japanese Shinkansen". The Journal of Transport History. Imperial College, London. 24/2: 22-236.

External links


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