Synod of Diamper
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Synod of Diamper

The Synod of Diamper, held at Udayamperoor (called Diamper in non-vernacular sources), was a diocesan synod or council that created rules and regulations for the ancient Saint Thomas Christians of the Malabar Coast (modern Kerala state, India), formally uniting them with the Catholic Church. These accomplishments led to the creation of the Eastern Catholic Syro-Malabar Church, which follows a Latin-based East Syriac Rite liturgy.[1][2]

The Synod of Diamper was convened on June 20, 1599 under the leadership of Aleixo de Menezes, Latin rite Archbishop of Goa. Archdeacon George of the Cross was forced to comply with the wishes of the Archbishop of Goa. This compliance separated the Saint Thomas Christians from the Church of the East in Persia and subjected them directly to the Latin Archbishopric of Goa. The Archbishopric of Angamaly was downgraded to a bishopric under Goa in 1600 AD. Portuguese Padroado rule was thus imposed and the bishops for Saint Thomas Christians were appointed by Portuguese Padroado.[3]


In 1597, Mar Abraham, the last Metropolitan Archbishop appointed by the Chaldean Patriarch, died. Archdeacon George of the Cross, according to the custom and by virtue of appointment of Mar Abraham, took up the administration of the Archdiocese of Angamale. Menezes hastened to Nominate Fr. Francis Ros SJ as Administrator. However, since the Archdeacon George ((? )) was extremely popular with the general public, Menezes reluctantly reversed his decision and confirmed the Archdeacon as Administrator. The Archdeacon called together an assembly of the Saint Thomas Christians at Angamali, where a solemn oath was taken. The participants agreed to act only according to the wishes of Archdeacon.

Menezes undertook a visit to all the Churches of Saint Thomas Christians in February 1599, which lasted for a few months and slowly earned him more popularity with the public. After persuading a considerable number of people and priests, Menezes threatened to depose Archdeacon, George (of the Cross) and appoint in his place Thomas Kurian, another nephew of former Archdeacon whose claims had been ignored in 1593. To prevent a division, the Archdeacon, George (of the Cross), yielded to the demands of Menezes.

This yielding cleared the way for the Portuguese to impose their own customs, hierarchy, law, liturgy, and rites among the Saint Thomas Christians. Many of the local customs were officially anathematized as heretical, and their manuscripts were condemned to be either corrected or burnt.

Dom Alexis Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, was leading this schism summoning all the priests, other clerics, and four laymen elected from each church, even from the churches he had not visited under the pain of excommunication. About 130 ecclesiastics and 660 laymen (elected and specially invited) met at Diamper in the territory of Kingdom of Cochin.[4]

The synod solemnly began on the third Sunday after Pentecost, 20 June 1599, in the church of Diamper (Udayamperoor) from 20 to 26 June 1599.[5] Archbishop Menezes presided the Synod. The Nestorian Patriarch was condemned as a heretic and schismatic, and they were made to swear that they would not accept any bishop except the one nominated by Rome.[6] The controversial Synod of Diamper canonised the Romanisation of the Church of Saint Thomas Christians.[7] Aleixo de Menezes, laboring under the shadow of the Protestant Reformation and the Council of Trent, was unwilling to give an inch to the customs of the Saint Thomas Christians.

Decrees of the Synod

The Synod issued 200 decrees distributed in nine actions (sessions).[6] There are some differences that exist among the decrees of the Synod, which are available today. It has been suggested that these decrees were first formulated in the Portuguese language by Don Menezes and then translated to Malayalam. It has been suggested that the participants sign the Malayalam document, which lacks 35 Canons given in the Portuguese text.[7]

Social influences of the Synod

Synod of Diamper condemned a multitude of Hindu beliefs, especially those related to Transmigration, Fate and Astrology. Hindu ceremonies and customs related to matrimony, death, birth and purification on touching lower castes which were prevalent among the Christians of St. Thomas, were abandoned altogether. They were even banned from frequenting to Hindu Festivities including Onam. The Synod also condemned the belief that every man might be saved by his own Laws, all which are good and lead to heaven, irrespective of his religion. The Synod banned Christian teachers from installing or using any Hindu idols in their schools. Polygamy and Concubinage were forbidden and clergymen were banned from marital relations, military services to Hindu Princes and other secular indulgences. Hindu musicians used to conduct programs in Christian churches and the Synod banned it outright.[8]

Portuguese impositions had much more serious consequences on the social status of Syrian Christians. Dr. Buchanan on his interview with a senior priest in Mavelikara, in the year 1806, elicit a brief account of the degenerated social status of Syrian Christians. According to him, a once self-sufficient community had to seek the protection of Hindu Princes and the dispersed Christians further became the victims of encroachment by other communities. It is notable that even in such a degenerated condition of the community, Dr. Buchanan was introduced to a Brahmin man who had opted to become a Syrian Priest.[9]

Prohibited books

The Synod prohibited the use of many heretic books. These book are listed below.[10][11][12][13]

The Infancy of our Saviour (The History of our Lady) (Language: Syriac)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The annunciation of the angel was made in the Temple of Jerusalem, which contradicts the Gospel of St. Luke, which says it was made in Nazareth.
  2. Joseph had another wife and children when he was betrothed to Mary.
  3. Child Jesus was reproved for his naughty tricks.
  4. Child Jesus went to school and learned from them.
  5. St. Joseph, suspecting Mary of adultery, took her to priests, who gave her the water of jealousy to drink; that Mary brought forth with pain, and parting from her company, not being able to go farther, she retired to a stable at Bethlehem.
  6. None of the saints is in heaven, but are all in a terrestrial paradise, where they should remain till the Day of Judgement.

Book of John Barialdan (Language: Syriac)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. In Christ, there were two persons: a divine and human.
  2. The names Christ and Emanuel are that of only human person, so the name Jesus should not be adored.
  3. The union of incarnation is common to all the three divine persons, who were all incarnated.
  4. The union of the incarnation is only an accidental union of love.

The Procession of the Holy Spirit (Language: Persian)

This book contained the following concept which is against Catholic creed:

Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father, and not from the Son.

Margarita Fidei (The Jewel)

Written by Abed Isho, a Nestorian prelate. This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Mary is not ought to be called the mother of God, but only the mother of Christ.
  2. In Christ there are two persons, the one of the Word, and the other of Jesus.
  3. The union of the incarnation is only an accidental union of love and power, and not a substantial union.
  4. Out of three distinct faiths Nestorian, Jacobite, and Roman, only the Nestorian faith is the true one taught by the Apostle, and the Roman faith is false and heretical.
  5. Matrimony is not a sacrament.
  6. The fire of hell is metaphorical, not real.
  7. Roman Church is fallen from the faith as they do not celebrate in leavened bread.

Fathers (Language: Unknown)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Mary ought not to be called the mother of God.
  2. The Patriarch of Nestorians is the universal head of the Church immediately under Christ.
  3. The fire of hell is not real, but spiritual.
  4. It is heresy to say God was born, or died.
  5. There are two persons in Christ.

Life of Abed Isho (Language: Arabic)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The whole Trinity was incarnated.
  2. St. Cyril of Alexandria, who condemned Nestorius, was a heretic and is now in hell, for having taught, that there is only one person in Christ.
  3. Nestorius, Theodoras and Diodorus are saints, and are blessed.
  4. None of the saints is in heaven, but are all in a terrestrial paradise, where they should remain till the Day of Judgement.
  5. God dwelt in Christ as in a rational temple, giving him power to do all the good things he did.
  6. The souls of the just will be in a terrestrial paradise till the Day of Judgement.

Book of Synods (Language: Syriac)

It has a forged letter of Pope Caius, with false subscriptions of many other Western Bishops, directed to Nestorian Bishops, wherein it is acknowledged that the Church of Rome ought to be subject to Nestorian church.

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The Roman Church is fallen from the faith, having perverted the canons of the Apostles, by the force of heretical emperors' arms.
  2. The Romans are heretics, for not celebrating in leavened bread.
  3. All Bishops who followed Nestorius ought to be much esteemed and styled saints and their relics must be revered.
  4. Matrimony is not a sacrament. It may be dissolved for the bad conditions of the parties.
  5. Usury is lawful, and there is no sin in it.

Book of 'Timothy the Patriarch' (Language: Persian)

This book contained the following concept which is against Catholic creed:

That the true body of our Lord Christ is not there in the sacrament of altar, but only its figure.

Domingo or Letter of the Lord's-day (Language: Malayalam)

A letter believed to have come from heaven, in which the Roman Church is accused of having fallen from the faith.

Maclamatas (Language: Syriac)

It claims the distinction of two persons in Christ, and the accidental union of the incarnation are proved.

Uguarda or Rose (Language: Greek)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. There are two persons in Christ.
  2. The union of the incarnation was accidental.
  3. When Mary brought forth with pain, the sons of Joseph, which he had by his other wife, went for a midwife to her.

Camiz (Language: Syriac)

This book contained the following concept which is against Catholic creed:

The Divine Word and the Son of Virgin Mary are not the same.

Menra (Language: Hebrew)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Christ is only the image of the Word.
  2. The substance of God dwelt in Christ as in a temple.
  3. Christ is next to the divinity and was made the companion of God.

Book of Orders (Language: Tamil)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The form, and not the matter, is necessary to orders.
  2. There are only two orders: deaconate and priesthood.
  3. Altars of wood, and not of stone, are to be consecrated.

It also contains prayers for those converted to Nestorianism from any other sect.

Book of Homilies (Language: Arabic)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The Eucharist is only the image of Christ, and is distinguished from him, as an image is from a true man.
  2. The body of Jesus Christ is not there in Eucharist, nor anywhere else but in heaven.
  3. The whole Trinity was incarnate.
  4. Christ is only the temple of the Divinity, and God only by representation.
  5. The soul of Christ descended not into hell, but was carried to the paradise of Eden.

It also contains:

  1. Letters from some Nestorian synods, in which it is said that the Nestorian Patriarch is not subject to the Roman Bishop.
  2. An oath to be taken to the Nestorian Patriarch, as the head of the church, wherein people swear to obey him, and him only, and not the Bishop of Rome.

An Exposition of the Gospels (Language: Syriac)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. There are two persons in Christ.
  2. Christ is a pure creature.
  3. He was obliged to adore God, and stood in need of prayer.
  4. He was the temple of the most holy Trinity.
  5. Christ's soul, when he died, descended not into hell, but was carried to the paradise of Eden.
  6. Mary deserved to be reproved as well as the rest of the Jews for having vainly imagined that she was mother to one that was to be a great King; looking upon Christ as no other than a pure man and presuming that he was to have a temporal empire.
  7. Evangelists did not record all Christ's actions in truth as they were not present at many of them.
  8. The wise men that came from the East received no favour from God for their journey, neither did they believe in Christ.
  9. Christ was the adopted Son of God, and not God's natural Son.
  10. Christ received new grace in baptism, which he had not before.
  11. Christ is only the image of the Word, and the pure temple of the Holy Spirit.
  12. Eucharist is only the image of the body of Christ, which is only in heaven at the right hand of the Father, and not here on earth.
  13. Christ, as pure man, did not know when the Day of Judgement was to be.
  14. When St. Thomas put his hand into Christ's side, and said, "My Lord and my God!" he was not speaking to Christ as God, but it was only an exclamation made to God on such a miracle.
  15. The authority that Christ gave to St. Peter over the church was the same that he gave to other priests, so his successors have no more power or jurisdiction than other bishops.
  16. Mary is not the mother of God.
  17. The first Epistle of St. John, and that of St. James, are not the writings of those Apostles, but of some other persons of the same name, and therefore are not canonical.

Book of Hormisda Raban (Language: Greek)

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Nestorius was a saint and martyr, and suffered for the truth.
  2. St. Cyril, who persecuted him, was the priest and minister of the devil, and is now in hell.
  3. Images are filthy and abominable idols, and ought not to be adored.
  4. St. Cyril, as a heretic, invented and introduced them.

Book of Lots (Language: Aramaic)

It contains many non-Christian rituals and practices such as:

  1. Ring of Solomon
  2. Choice of good days to marry upon, and for several other uses.

A book of unknown title which is a Nestorian version of Flos Sanctorum (Language: Syriac)

Describes the lives of many Nestorian saints.

Parisman or Persian Medicine (Language: Persian)

It contains:

  1. Many sorceries.
  2. Certain methods whereby one may do mischief to their enemies, and may gain women.
  3. The strange names of devils, that whosoever shall carry the names of seven of them about him writ in a paper shall be in no danger of any evil.
  4. Many exorcisms for the casting out of devils, mixing some Christian words with others that are not intelligible.
  5. The invocation of the most Holy Trinity, often desiring the doing of lewd things and enormous sins, joining the merits of Nestorius and his followers, many times, in the same prayer with those of the blessed Virgin, and those of their devils with those of the holy angels.

Changes in Liturgy

The text on which the Synod worked was a composite East Syriac text of Anaphora of Addai and Mari.[14] The Synod declared certain passages of the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari as impious, sacrilegious and resulting from Nestorian heresy. The changes made by the Synod consist of six in litanies, seven in hymns or anthems, four in formulae pertaining to the deacon, one in response of the people, one in the text of the gospel lesson, and one affecting the whole creed. In the prayer of the priest there are five changes in pre-anaphoral part of the Qurbana of Addai and Mari. There are four changes within the anaphora and eleven in the four variable hutame (Sealing prayers).[15]

Changes in Administration

Tomb of Francis Roz, first Jesuit Metropolitan of Kodungalloor Archeparchy, inside Kottakkavu Mar Thoma Syro-Malabar Pilgrim Church, North Paravur.

Under Portuguese Padroado, Latin Bishops were appointed to govern the Saint Thomas Christians. Fr. Francis Ros SJ was nominated as successor to Mar Abraham on 5 November 1599. Bishop Roz SJ, centralised in himself all the authority reducing almost to nothing the powers of Archdeacon. Bishop Franics Roz SJ died on 16 February 1624 and was succeeded by Bishop Britto Stephen SJ. Archdeacon George (of the Cross) died c. 1634 and was succeeded by Archdeacon Thomas. Bishop Britto SJ died in 1641 and Bishop Garcia Franics SJ succeeded him. A regular fight ensued between the new Archbishop Garcia Franics SJ and the new Archdeacon Thomas.[16]

Destructions of Syriac Books

The decree XVI ordered that all the Syriac MSS should be handed over to the Archbishop or his deputy on visit to the Churches. Due to the lack of printed books, the Qurbana MSS were excluded from this.

Some of the other books which are said to have been burnt at the Synod of Diamper are: 1.The book of the infancy of the saviour (history of our Lord) 2. Book of John Braldon 3. The Pearl of Faith 4. The Book of the Fathers 5. The Life of the Abbot Isaias 6. The Book of Sunday 7. Maclamatas 8. Uguarda or the Rose 9. Comiz 10. The Epistle of Mernaceal 11. Menra 12. Of orders 13. Homilies (in which the Eucharist is said to be the image of Christ) 14. Exposition of Gospels. 15. The Book of Rubban Hormisda 16. The Flowers of the Saints 17. The Book of Lots 18. The Parsimon or Persian Medicines.[12][13]

There are only very few Syriac MSS which withstood the destruction. More recently, Dr Istvan Perczel, a Hungarian scholar researching Syrian Christians in India, found that certain texts survived the destruction of Syriac religious writings by the Portuguese missionaries.[17]

The result of the synod, however, was unfortunately not as helpful as expected. As the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) says:

The only case in which an ancient Eastern rite has been wilfully romanised is that of the Uniat Malabar Christians, where it was not Roman authority but the misguided zeal of Alexius de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, and his Portuguese advisers at the Synod of Diamper (1599) which spoiled the old Malabar Rite.

Some time after the Synod of Diamper, on 25 November 1599, a letter was sent to Pope by Archdeacon, giving information about the Synod and its work. The letter praises the work of Menezes and request the appointment of Menezes or Fr. Francis Roz as their Bishop.[18] The letter hardly represent the genuine sentiments of Archdeacon as by that time he was completely at the mercy of the will of Portuguese and the only thing left for him was to follow their directives.[6]

In this way the Synod of Diamper achieved one of the aims of the Portuguese policy in Kerala, to separate the Syrian Christians of Malabar from the Chaldean Patriarch and to extend the influence of Portuguese Padroado in India. As a result, the King of Portugal, got the right of nomination to the ancient See of Saint Thomas in Malabar. The Archbishopirc of Angamale was degraded to a Portuguese Padroado diocese under Goa in August,4th 1600 AD.[6]

The oppressive rule of the Portuguese padroado provoked a violent reaction on the part of the St. Thomas Christian community. The first solemn protest took place in 1653. Under the leadership of Malankara Mooppen Thoma, Nasranis gathered at Mattancherry church on Friday, 24 January 1653 (M.E. 828 Makaram 3), and made an oath that is known as the Great Oath of Bent Cross. The following oath was read aloud and the people touching a stone-cross repeated it loudly.

By the Father, Son and Holy Ghost that henceforth we would not adhere to the Franks, nor accept the faith of the Pope of Rome.[19]The Missionary Register for 1822 seems to be the earliest reliable document available. Those who were not able to touch the cross tied ropes on the cross, held the rope in their hands and made the oath. Because of the weight it is said that the cross bent a little and so it is known as Oath of the bent cross (Coonen Kurisu Sathyam)

The exact wording of the oath is a matter of dispute among the Saint Thomas Christians of various denominations.

Syro-Malabar Catholic and Syro-Malankara Catholic Churches insist the oath was not against the Pope of Rome, but against the Jesuits. This could be supported with the fact that the majority of the oath takers (84 of the 116 communities) eventually returned to communion with the Pope, after the Pope replaced the Jesuit missionaries with Carmelites.

Stephen Neill, an Anglican Protestant missionary and later Anglican Bishop of Tamil Nadu from Scotland in his book, A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707:

In January 1653 priests and people assembled in the church of Our Lady at Mattanceri, and standing in front of a cross and lighted candles swore upon the holy Gospel that they would no longer obey Garcia, and that they would have nothing further to do with the Jesuits they would recognise the archdeacon as the governor of their church. This is the famous oath of the Koonen Cross (the open-air Cross which stands outside the church at Mattenchery). The Thomas Christians did not at any point suggest that they wished to separate themselves from the pope. They could no longer tolerate the arrogance of Garcia. And their detestation of the Jesuits, to whose overbearing attitude and lack of sympathy they attributed all their troubles, breathes through all the documents of the time. But let the pope send them a true bishop not a Jesuit, and they will be pleased to receive and obey him.[20]

Four months after the oath according to their ancient tradition 12 elders of the church laid their hands on Malankara Mooppen Thoma and ordained him as Mar Thoma I. The Portuguese missionaries attempted for reconciliation with Saint Thomas Christians but was not successful. Later Pope Alexander VII sent the Syrian bishop Joseph Sebastiani at the head of a Carmelite delegation who succeeded in convincing majority of Saint Thomas Christians, including Palliveettil Chandy Kathanar and Kadavil Chandy Kathanar that the consecration of Archdeacon as metropolitan was not legitimate. Later Palliveettil Chandy Kathanar was consecrated as the bishop for the Syrian Catholics with the historic title 'The Metropolitan and the Gate of all India' which denotes a Quasi Patriarchal status with all India jurisdiction.[21][22][23] This led to the first permanent split in the Saint Thomas Christian community. Thereafter, the faction affiliated with the Catholic Church under Parambil Mar Chandy was designated the Pazhayakuttukar, or "Old Party", while the branch affiliated with Mar Thoma was called the Puthankuttukar, or "New Party".[24][25][26][27] These appellations have been somewhat controversial, as both groups considered themselves the true heirs to the Saint Thomas tradition, and saw the other as heretical.[28]

After the Coonan Cross Oath, between 1661 and 1662, out of the 116 churches, the Syrian Catholics claimed eighty-four churches, leaving Archdeacon Mar Thoma I only thirty-two churches. The eighty-four churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syro Malabar Catholic Church have descended. The other thirty-two churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syriac Orthodox Church (Jacobites), Thozhiyur (1772), Mar Thoma (Reformed Syrians) (1874), Syro Malankara Catholic Church have originated.[29] In 1665, Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel, a Bishop sent by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch arrived in India and the native Christians under the leadership of the Archdeacon welcomed him.[6][30] This visit resulted in the Mar Thoma taking spiritual authority of the St. Thomas Christians.

The arrival of Mar Gregorios in 1665 marked the beginning of the associations of St. Thomas Christians with the Church of West Syria. Those who accepted the West Syriac theological and liturgical tradition of Mar Gregorios became known as the Malankara Syrian Church. Those who continued with East Syriac theological and liturgical tradition are known as the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in communion with the Catholic Church. They adopted their own Syro-Malabar Hierarchy on 21 December 1923 with the Metropolitan Mar Augustine Kandathil as the Head of their Church.

By this process, Saint Thomas Christians were divided into East Syriac and West Syriac branches.

See also


  1. ^ "Synod of Diamper." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 December 2011.
  2. ^ For the Acts and Decrees of the Synod cf. Michael Geddes,"A Short History of the Church of Malabar Together with the Synod of Diamper &c." London, 1694;Repr. in George Menachery, Ed., Indian Church History Classics, Vol.1, Ollur 1998, pp.33-112
  3. ^ Divisions and Rite of the Churches- Syro Malabar Church, Malankara Syriac Orthodox Church, Malankara Orthodox Syriac Church, Thozhiyur Church, Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Syro Malankara Church, Chaldean Syrain Church- Syond of Diamper, NSC Network.
  4. ^ Syond of Diamper, NSC Network.
  5. ^ Syond of Diamper Church, Garvasis and Protasis church and All Saints church.
  6. ^ a b c d e Dr. Thekkedath, History of Christianity in India"
  7. ^ a b J Thaliath, The Synod of Diamper
  8. ^ The history of the church of Malabar: Together with the Synod of Diamper 1599 - Michael Geddes - the Bavarian State Library
  9. ^ C. Buchanan - Christian researches in Asia: with notices of the translation of the scriptures into the oriental languages, 1811
  10. ^ [1], The history of Christianity in India: Volume 2 By James Hough
  11. ^ Acts and Decrees of the Synod are exhaustively given by Michael Geddes,"A Short History of the Church of Malabar Together with the Synod of Diamper &c." London, 1694;Repr. in George Menachery, Ed., Indian Church History Classics, Vol.1, Ollur 1998, pp.33-112. Also in James Hugh Vol.2. Cf.Relevant articles in The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, 1973, 1982,2009
  12. ^ a b Ferroli, "Jesuits in Malabar" Vol.1
  13. ^ a b Save Syriac, NSC Network.
  14. ^ D. Webb, " Versions of the Malabar Liturgy"
  15. ^ Connolly, " Work of Menezes", Codrington, " The Malabar Liturgy and the Synod of Diamper"
  16. ^ Synod of Diamper[permanent dead link], NSC Network.
  17. ^ Nagarajan, Saraswathy (19 June 2009) Journey of discovery The Hindu
  18. ^ Giuseppe Beltrami, La Chiesa Caldea pp 253-6, Full text reproduced
  19. ^ The Missionary Register for M DCCC XXII. October 1822, Letter from Punnathara Mar Dionysious (Mar Thoma XI) to the Head of the Church Missionary Society. From a translation of it, out of Syriac, by Professor Lee. Page 431- 432.
  20. ^ [Coonan Cross Oath (Koonan Kurishu Satyam)]
  21. ^ Joseph Thekkedathu, pous cit pp96-100
  22. ^ Rev Dr Placid Podipara, The Hierarchy of Syro Malabar Church, in Collected works of Rev Dr Placid Podipara CMI, Vol I p 719
  23. ^
  24. ^ Vadakkekara, p. 84; 86.
  25. ^ Frykenberg, p. 361.
  26. ^ Fernando, p. 79.
  27. ^ Chaput, pp. 7-8.
  28. ^ Vadakkekara, p. 84 and note.
  29. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia- "St. Thomas Christians" The Carmelite Period, Dr. Thekkedath, History of Christianity in India"
  30. ^ Claudius Buchanan 1811., Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956; Tisserant, E. 1957; Michael Geddes, 1694;

Books (Studies on Synod of Diamper)

  • Paul Pallath, "The Synod of Diamper : valid or invalid?"
  • George Nedungatt S.J.,"The Synod of Diamper Revisited", Pontifico Instituto Orientale, Rome, 2001.
  • Joseph Kuzhinjalil, "The disciplinary Legislation of Synod of Diamper" (1975)
  • Jonas Thaliath, " The Synod of Diamper" (1958)
  • Connolly, " The Work of Meneses"
  • Codrington, " The Chaldean Liturgy"
  • Codrington," The Malabar Liturgy and Synod of Diamper"
  • Neill, Stephen - (1977) A history of Christian missions Neill, Stephen- The story of the Christian church in India and Pakistan
  • Eric Frykenberg, Robert- Christianity in India
  • Hough, James - 1845 - The history of Christianity in India: Volume 4
  • Sir William Kaye, John- Christianity in India
  • Bruce Firth, Cyril- An introduction to Indian church history
  • Hunter, W.W. - (1886) The Indian Empire; Its People History and Products pp 240
  • Logan, William - (1887) Malabar Manual pp 119
  • Nangam Aiya, V.-(1906) The Travancore State Manual Volume 2 pp 243
  • Barton, John M. -(1872) The Syrian Christians: Narrative of a Tour in the Travancore Mission of the Church Missionary Society Mission Life, Vol. III * * Geddes, Michael- (1694) A short History of the Church of Malabar
  • Henry, J. & Parker, J - The Christians of St. Thomas and their liturgies
  • Milne Rae, George- Syrian Church in India Whitehouse, Thomas - (1873) Lingerings of light in a dark land: researches into the Syrian church of Malabar * * Brown, Leslie- The Indian Christians of St Thomas
  • David Macbride, John - (1856) - The Syrian church in India

External links

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