Swadesh List of Slavic Languages
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Swadesh List of Slavic Languages

The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages. The word list is based on the Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, a tool to study the evolution of languages via comparison, containing a set of 207 basic words which can be found in every language and are rarely borrowed. However, the words given as the modern versions are not necessarily the normal words with the given meaning in the various modern languages, but the words directly descended from the corresponding Proto-Slavic word (the reflex). The list here is given both in the orthography of each language, with accent marks added as necessary to aid in pronunciation and Proto-Slavic reconstruction. See below for a capsule summary of how to pronounce each language, as well as some discussion of the conventions used.

Table

Slavic languages
Translation Late Proto-Slavic class Russian Bulgarian Czech Polish Serbo-Croatian Slovenian Macedonian
Cyrillic Latin Cyrillic Latin standard
(Shtokavian)
Chakavian Cyrillic Latin
I *(j)az?, (j)? prn. ? ja az ja j? jå? jàz jas
thou *ty prn. ty ti ty ty t? t? t? ti
he *on? prn. , , on, oná, onó (()) ((toj)) on, ona, ono ?n/?n, òna, òno õn, on?, on? òn, óna, on/óno /? toj/onoj
we *my prn. my nie (dial.) my my m? m? m? nie
ye *vy prn. vy (?) (víe) vy wy v? v? v? vie
they *oni, *ony, *ona prn. ? on'í te oni, ony, ona oni, one oni oni /? tie/onie
this, that *t? prn. tot, ta, to () (tová) ten, ta, to t?j, t?, t? t?, t?, t?/t? t?, t?, t / ova/ona
there *tam? tam tam tam tam tam ? tamu
who *k?to prn. kto (()) ((koi)) kdo kto tk?; ki kd koj
what *to, * prn. ?to /?to/ ?to co co ?t? (Vrg.) ?a (<*) kaj ?to
where *k?de prn. gd'e ? k?de kde gdzie gdj? kad? (Orb.) kj ? kade
when *kog?da; *kog?dy adv./conj. kogdá kogá (kdy); OCz. kehdy kiedy kàda k?dá(j); kdá(j); kadá; kadaj ? koga
how; what (kind of) ? adv.; prn. kak; kakój kak (jak) (OCz. kaký) (jak) (arch. kaki) kàko, kakav káko, kak?en ?, // kako, kakov/kakva/kakvo
not *ne adv. n'e ne ne nie ne ne
all *v, *vja, ve prn. ?, , v'es', vs'a, vs'o (?)/ (vsí?ki)/vsi (v?ichni); OCz. ve?, v, v?e (wszyscy); OPl. wszy, wsza, wsze s?v, sv?, sv? sv?s, sv?, sv? vs, vsà, vsè /? se/seto
many *m?nog? adj. o ? mnógij mnógo (adv.) mnohý mnogi mn?g? mngi mnogu
some *ne + *koliko ? n'éskol'ko njákolko n?kolik kilka nekoliko nekoliko ? ?
few *mal? málo málko málo ma?o malo malo malku
second *dr?g? adj. o (c) ? drugój (()) ((vtori)) druhý drugi dr?g dr?g? dr?g ? vtor
other *jn? prn. (a) inój ((?)), () ((drug)), (inak?v) jiný inny ?n drugo
one *(j)edìn?, *(j)ed?n? num. o , od'ín, odná edín jeden jeden jèdan, j?dna jedå?n, jedn?, jedn? eden, ena, eno ? ?
two *d(?)va num. dva, dve, dva a dva dva, dv?, dv? dwa, dwie, dwa dv?, dv?je, dv? dvå?, dv?, dvå? dv? dva
three *tr?je, *tri num. tr'i tri t?i trzy tr? tr? tr?je, tr?, tr? tri
four *?et?re num. (a) ? ?'etýr'e ?étíri ?ty?i cztery ?ètiri ?et?ri ?tirje, ?tiri, ?tiri ?etiri
five pt? num. i (c) ? p'at' pet p?t pi p?t p?t pt pet
big, great *velìk?; vel?k? adj. o v'el'ík'ij (()), ((goljam)), velík velký wielki v?lik?, v?lik?, v?lik? v?lik, velik?, velik? vélik, velíka , golem, veliki
long *dlg? adj. o (a) ? dólg'ij dl?g dlouhý d?ugi d?g d?g dg, dó?ga ?/ dolg/dolgo
wide *?irok? ?irók'ij ?irók ?iroký szeroki ?irok ?irok , /?/? ?irok, ?iroko/a/i
thick *t?lst? tólstyj (()), ((debel)), tl?st tlustý t?usty debel, tolst , /?/? debel, debelo/a/i
heavy *tk? adj. o ? t'á?kij ték tký ciki té?ak, té?ka tak, tk? ték, té?ka; tek , /?/? te?ok, te?ko/a/i
small *màl? adj. o (a) mályj (); (mál?k); mal malý ma?y m?o må?l? m?li, majhen o?/?//, , ?/?/?. male?ok/a/ki/ko, mal, malo/a/i
short *kortk? adj. o (b) korótk'ij (()), ? ((k?s)), krát?k krátký krótki krátak, krátka krå?tak, krå?tk?, krå?tko;
krãtak, krãtka, krãtko
krát?k /?/?, kratko/a/i, kratok
narrow *?z?k? adj. o úzk'ij; úzok, uzká, úzko (()) ((tésen)) úzký w?ski ?zak, ?ska/usk? ?sak, usk?, ?sko z?k, zka /// tesno/na/ni/en, te?ko/a/i
thin *tn?k? adj. o (c) ? tónk'ij; tónok, tanká, tónko tn?k tenký cienki t?nak, tànka/tánka t?nak, tank?, t?nko t?nk, t?nkà , /?/? tenok, tenko/a/i
husband *m? m. jo (c) mu? (()), ((s?prug)), m mu? m m (ma) m (mo) soprug
woman/wife *?enà f. ? (b) ?'ená /?ená/ /? ?ená/s?pruga ?ena ?ona ?èna (acc. ?ènu) ?en? (acc. ?en?) ?éna ?/? ?ená/sopruga
man (human) *?elov?k? m. o ?'elov'ék ?ovék ?lov?k cz?owiek ?òvjek (?òvjeka); vjek (?ovjèka) ?ov?k (?ok?ka) ?lóvek (?lovka) ?ovek
child *d?t? d'it'á deté dít? dziecko, dzieci? dijete otrok, dete ? dete
mother *mati ? mat' májka matka matka majka, mater mati majka
father *ot?c? ot'éc , , ? ba?tá, tátko, otec otec ojciec otac o?e , ? tatko, otec
wild animal *zvr? m. i (c) zv'er' ? zvjar zv zwierz, zwierz? zv?jer f. (i) zv?r (zv?ri) f. (i) zvr (zver?) ? dzver
fish *ryba rýba ríba ryba ryba riba riba ? riba
bird *p?tica, *p?t?ka pt'íca ptíca pták ptak ptica ptica ptica
dog *p?s? ?, sobáka, p'os , pes, kú?e pes pies pas pes ?, ku?e, pes
louse *v? f. i (c) ? vo?' /vo?/ (v?'i) vka ve? wesz v (vi); (i) ù? (u); vo?ka
snake *zm?jà f. i? zm'ejá zmijá zmije[table 1] ?mija[table 2] zmìja zmij? ka?a zmija
worm *rv? ?'erv' ? ?érvej ?erv czerw, robak crv ?rv crv
tree *dervo, *d?rvo ? d'ér'evo d?rvó strom drzewo drvo drevo ? drvo
forest *l?s? l'es , gorá, les les las ?uma, dubrava gozd, les, ?uma, hosta, meja ? ?uma
stick *palica, *pal?ka pálka ?, prka, palka h?l laska / pa?ka / kij ?tap, palica palica ?, stap, stap?e
fruit *plod? ? plod ?, plod, ovo?ka ovoce (plod) owoc (p?ód) vo?e, plod sade?, plod o ovo?je
seed *s?m? s'ém'a séme semeno nasiono/nasienie, ziarno, siemi? sjeme seme ?, ? seme, semenka
leaf *list? ? l'ist , ? listó, list list li list list ? list
root *koren? ? kór'en' kóren ko?en korze? korijen koren, korenina koren
bark (of a tree) *kora korá korá k?ra kora kora skorja ? kora
flower *kv?t? ? cv'etók cvéte kv?t kwiat cvijet cvet, cvetlica cvekje
grass *trava travá trevá tráva trawa trava trava treva
rope *e ? v'er'óvka , ?, ? vé, vrv, ?nur provaz, hou?ev sznur, lina, powróz konop, ?paga, u?e vrv, konop ?, ja?e, ortoma
skin *ko?a kó?a kó?a ke ko?uch[table 3] ko?a ko?a ? ko?a
meat *m?so m'áso méso maso mi?so meso meso ? meso
blood *kry krov' ? kr?v krev krew krv kri krv
bone *kost? kost' ?, kost, kókal kost ko kost kost koska
fat (noun) *sadlo sálo , , ? slanína, mas, maznina tuk t?uszcz, sad?o masno?a, masti, salo mast, tola, maoba, salo ?, ? mast, salo
egg *?je; *aj?ce n. jo (c); n. jo jajcó jajcé vejce jajo; jajko jáje; jájce jå?je jájce jajce
horn *r?g? m. o (c) rog rog roh róg (rogu) r?g (r?ga) rg (rga/rog?) rog
feather *però n. o (b) p'eró peró péro pióro pèro per? péro (péra); per (persa) perduv
hair *v?ls? m. o (c) vólos (vólosa) , vlakno, kos?m vlas w?os vl?s (vl?sa) vlå?s (vlå?sa) l?s (l?sa/las?) vlakno
hair, braided hair *kosà f. ? (c) kosá (kósu)[table 4] kosá OCz. kosa OPl. kosa[table 5] kòsa (acc. k?su) (Novi) kos? (acc. kos?/k?su) lasje a kosa
head *golvà f. ? (c) ? golová (acc. gólovu) glavá hlava g?owa gláva (acc. gl?vu) glå?v? (acc. glå?vu) gláva glava
ear *?xo n. o (c) ? úxo, pl. ú?'i /ú?y/ ? uxó, pl. u?í ucho ucho ?ho/?vo, pl. f. i ?ho (?ha), pl. m. i uh (usa) , uvo, u?e
eye *?ko n. o (c) ?, ? óko (poet.) ? okó oko oko ?ko ok (osa) oko
nose *n?s? m. o (c) nos nos nos nos n?s (n?sa) ns (nsa/nos?/nos?) nos
mouth *?stà pl. n. o (b) ustá (poet.) ustá ústa usta ústa ?stå?; ?sta ústa ? usta
tooth *zb? m. o (c) zub z?b zub z?b z?b (z?ba) zb (zba, zob?) zab
tongue/language *?z?k? m. o (a) jazýk ezík jazyk j?zyk jèzik jaz?k jézik (jezíka) jazik
nail (of finger/toe), claw *n?g?t? m. i/io (c) ? nógot' (nógt'a) nók?t nehet paznokie? (OPl. paznogied?), pazur n?kat (n?kta); nogat (nokta) n?hat (n?hta) nh?t (nhta) ?, nokt, kand?a
foot, leg *noga f. ? (c) nogá (nógu) ?, ? krak, nogá noha noga nòga (n?gu) nog? (n?gu) nóga ?, ? stapalo, noga
knee *kolno n. o (a) ? kol'éno ? kol'áno koleno kolano kòljeno kol?no kolno /? koleno/nica
hand *r?kà f. ? (c) ruká r?ká ruka r?ka rúka (r?ku) r?k? (r?ku) róka ? raka
wing *kr?dlò n. o (b) kryló kriló k?ídlo skrzyd?o krílo (Orb.) kr?l? krílo krilo
belly *bxo, *bx? m./n. o (c) br'úxo , , korem, stomah, t?rbuh b?icho brzuch trbuh --- trebuh , stomak, ?eludnik
guts *?ervo ?, vnútr'ennost'i, k'i?k'í , vtre?nosti, ?ervá vnit?nosti, st?eva wn?trzno?ci, trzewia (?cierwo[table 6]) crijevo ?revo, drobovje creva
neck *?ija, *ja ? ?'éja /?éja/ ?, ? vrat, ?íja krk szyja, kark vrat vrat ? vrat
shoulder *pletjè n. jo (b) ple?ó ?, (pl.) ramo, ple?tí pl. plec plecy pl.[table 7] plé?e, rame (Novi) ple plé?e, rame ? ramo
breast *grd? f. i (c) grud' ? gr?d prsa, hru? pier?; OPl. gr?dzi (pl.) gr?d, prsa prsi, grod grada
heart *srd?ce n. jo (c) ? s'érdc'e /s'érce/ s?rcé srdce serce (OPl. serdce) s?ce (s?ca) src ? srce
liver *trò n. o (b) játro/jatró[table 8] ?, cheren drob, d?iger játra (pl.) (w?troba) j?tra (pl.) (Orb.) ji?tra (pl.) jtra (pl.) , ? d?iger, crn drob
to drink *pìti v. ? p'it' ? da píja píti pi? p?ti (p?j?m) p?ti (p?j) píti (píjem) da pie
to eat *sti v. ? jest' da jam jísti je j?sti (j?dem) ?sti/?sti (3sg. id?) jsti (jm) ? da jade
to gnaw *gr?zti v. (c) gryzt' da grize hryzat gry gr?sti (gríz?m) gr?sti (2sg. gr?z) grísti (grízem) da grize
to suck *s?sàti v. ? sosát' (sosú, sos'ót) () (sú?a) sát (saji) ssa? (ss?) sisati s?sáti (s?s?m) ? da cica
to spit *pjvati v. (a) pl'evát' (pljujú, plujót) pljúja; pljúvam plivat (plivu) plu? (pluj?) pljùvati (plj?j?m) pljúvati (pljújem) da pluka
to vomit *blj?vàti v. bl'evát' (bljujú, bljujót) , povrshtam, blvam blít (bliju) wymiotowa?, zwraca?, rzyga?; OPl. blu? (bluj) bljùvati (blj?j?m), povra?ati (Orb.) blj?vat (3sg. blj?je/blj?va) blj?váti/bljuváti/bljúti (bljúvam/bljújem) ? da povrakja
to breathe *dyxati v. dyshat' (dial.) dí?am dýchat (dýchám) oddycha?; dycha? (colloq.), dysze?[table 9] dísati (dm/d?h?m) d?hati (2sg. de?) díhati (d?ham) ? da di?e
to laugh *sm?jàti s? v. (c) sm'eját's'a (smejús', smejóts'a) sméja se smát se (sm?ju se) ?mia? si? (?miej? si?) smìjati se (sjìj?m se) (Vrg.) sm?j?ti se (smij se) smjati/smejáti se (smjem/smjam/smejím se) ? da se smee
to see *vìd?ti v. (a) ? v'íd'et' (1sg. v'í?u, 3sg. v'íd'it) ? vídja, ví?dam vid?t (vidím) widzie? v?djeti (v?d?m) vìti (2sg. v?d) vídeti (v?dim) ? da vidi
to hear *slu?ati slú?at' ?, slú?am, ?úvam sly?et (sly?ím) s?ysze? slu?ati sli?ati (sli?im) da slu?ne
to know, be familiar with *znàti v. (a) znat' (znáju) ; ? znája; znam znát (znám) zna? zn?ti (zn?m) zn?ti (2sg. znå) znáti (zn?m) ?, ? da znae, da poznava
to know, understand *v?d?ti v. v'édat'[table 10] ?, znam, razbiram v?d?t (vím) wiedzie? (wiem) znati vdeti (vm) ? da razbere
to think *mysliti mýsl'it' míslja myslet (myslím) my?le? misliti misliti (mislim) da misli
to smell *?uti ?, n'úkhat', ?újat' ?, mirí?a, dú?a von?t (voním), ?ichat (?ichám) czu? mirisati vohati ? da mirisne
to fear *bojati s? boját's'a ? , straxúvam se, boja se bát se ba? si? (boj? si?), p?oszy? si?, stracha? si?(arch.), l?ka? si? bojati se bati se da se pla?i
to sleep *s?pati spat' spja spát spa? spavati spati ? da spie
to live *?ìti v. (c) ? ?'it' /?yt'/ ?ivéja ?ít ?y? ?ívjeti, 1sg. ?ív?m v?ti, 2sg. v ?iveti da ?ivee
to die *merti um'irát' ? umíram umírat umiera?, mrze? umrjeti, umriti umreti ? da umre
to kill *ubiti ub'ivát' ? ubívam zabíjet zabija?, ubija? ubiti ubiti ? da ubie
to fight *boriti s? borót's'a , ? bórja se, bíja se bojovat walczy?, bi? si?, wojowa?, zmaga? si? boriti se, tu?i se boriti se, biti se, bojevati se ?, ? da se bori, da se tepa
to hunt *loviti ? oxót'it's'a , ? lovúvam, lovja lovit polowa?,[table 11] ?owi?[table 12] loviti loviti ? da lovi
to hit *udariti v. udar'át' údrjam ude?it uderza? ùdariti, 1sg. ùdar?m udariti ? da udri
to cut *s?kti, *strigti, *r?zati ?, ? r'ézat', rub'ít' , ré?a, seká ?ezat ci,[table 13] strzyc,[table 14] OPl. rzeza? (arch.) rezati rezati ? da se?e
to split ? razd'el'át' razdéljam rozd?lit podzieli?,[table 15] rozdzieli?[table 16] podijeliti, razdijeliti razdeliti , ? da podeli, da razdeli
to stab *bosti, *kolti ? kolót' , ?, ? bu?á, promú?vam, probó?dam píchnout pchn,[table 17][table 18] (coll. koln) ubosti, zabosti zabosti, prebosti da ubode
to scratch *?esati, *drapati carápat' , ?é?a, dráskam ?krábat drapa?,[table 19] skroba?,[table 20] czesa?[table 21] ?e?ati, grebati praskati , , ?, da grebe, draska, ?e?a, drapa
to dig *kopati ? kopát' kopája kopat kopa? kopati kopati ? da kopa
to swim, sail *pluti; *pl?ti v.; v. (a) plyt' (plyvú, plyv'ót) ? plúvam plout (pluju) (p?ywa?), plu?[table 22] pl?ti (pl?j?m) plúti (plújem/plóvem) , ? da pliva, da edri
to swim, sail *plàvati v. (a) plávat' ? plávam plavat p?ywa?, p?awi? si?,[table 23] OPl. p?awa? plivati plávati (pl?vam) , ? da pliva, da edri
to fly *let?ti ? l'etát' letjá létat lata?, lecie? letjeti leteti ? da leta
to walk *xoditi v. ? xod'ít' xódja chodit chodzi? hòdati (h?d?m) hod?ti hóditi (hdim) da odi
to go *j?ti v. idt'í (idú, id'ót) , vrvja, otivam jít (jdu) i (id?) ì?i (?d?m) íti (ídem) da
to come ?, ? pr'ixod'ít', pr'ijt'í , , ídvam, ida, doho?dam p?icházet, p?ijít przychodzi?, przyj do?i, pri?i priti da dojde
to lie (as in a bed) *le?ati ? l'e?át' le?á le?et le?e? le?ati, lijegati le?ati le?am
to sit *s?sti ? s'id'ét' sedjá sed?t siedzie? sjediti sesti da sedne
to stand *stati ? stoját' , stojá, stavam stát sta?, stawa?, stoje?(arch./dial.) stajati vstati da stane
to turn *v?rtti v. (c) v'ert'ét' (1sg. v'er?ú, 3sg. v'ért'it) v?rtjá vrt?t (obraca?), wierci? v?tjeti (v?t?m) vrt?ti (2sg. vrt) vrtti (vrtím) ?, da vrti, da zavrti
to turn, return *vortìti v. (b) , ? vorot'ít' (1sg. voro?ú, 3sg. vorót'it)[table 24] vernut' vr?shtam vrátit wróci? vrátiti (1sg. vr?t?m) vrå?t?ti (2sg. vrå?t) vrniti da se vrati
to fall *pasti ? pádat' pádam padat spada?/pada?, pa/spa pasti pasti da padne
to give *dati ? davát' dávam dávat dawa?, da? dati dati ? da dade
to hold *d?r?ati d'er?át' d?r?á dr?et trzyma?, dzier?y? dr?ati dr?ati ? da dr?i
to squeeze *tiskati;
*ti
v. (b) s?'imát' /ymát'/ , ? stískam, má?kam ma?kat ?ciska?, wy?yma?[table 25] stiskati stiskati , da steska, da stega
to rub *terti ? t'er'ét' , ? tríja, trkam t?ít trze? trljati treti, drgniti ? da trie
to wash *myti ? myt' ?, míja, perá mýt my? oprati, umiti umiti, oprati , ? da mie, da pere
to wipe vyt'irát' , br?a, tríja vytírat wyciera? obrisati, brisati brisati, otreti da bri?i
to pull *p?xati ? t'anút' ?, , drpam, téglja, vlá?a táhnout ci?gn potegnuti vle?i, potegniti , da vle?e, da tegne
to push , ? tolkát', p'ixát' , natískam, bútam tla?it pcha? gurnuti potistniti, poriniti da turka
to throw *kydati, *mesti, *vergti v. , ? brosát', k'idát' xvrljam házet; OCz. vrci (1sg. vrhu) rzuca? |ve, 2sg. vee? vre?i ? da frli
to tie *vzàti v. (b) ? v'azát' vrzvam vázat wi?za? vézati, 1sg. vém v?z?ti, 2sg. ve? vezati ? da vrze
to sew *?iti ? ?'it' /?yt'/ ? ?íja ?ít szy? ?ivati sejati da so?ie
to read, count *?itati v. ? ?'itát' ? cheta ?íst (?tu) czyta? ?ìtati (?ìt?m) tati (2sg. tå) brati (berem), ?ítati (?ítam) ?, da ?ita, da ra?una
to speak, talk *govorìti v. govor'ít' govórja mluvit, hovo?it rozmawia?, gwarzy? OPl. goworzy?; gaworzy?[table 26] govòriti (gòvor?m) gov?r?ti (2sg. gov?r) govoríti (govorím) , ? da govori, da zboruva
to show *k?zàti v. ? kazát' pokazvam ukázat kaza? kázati (km) kå?z?ti (2sg. kåe?) kázati (ká?em) da poka?e
to sing *p?ti v. (c) ? p'et' (pojú, pojót) ? péja (2sg. pée?) zpívat (zpívám), p?t (p?ji) ?piewa? (?piewam), pia? (piej?)[table 27] pjevati pti (pójem); pójati (pójam/pójem) da pee
to play *j?grati ? igrát' igrája hrát gra? igrati igrati ? da igra
to flow *tekti ? t'e?' ? te?e téct ciec, ciekn te?i te?i ? da te?e
to freeze *m?rzn?ti á zam'erzát' ? zamrzvam zamrznout marzn zamrznuti zamrzniti ? da zamrzne
to swell *puxn?ti púxnut' ?, ?, podpúxvam, otí?am, podúvam se opuchnout, otéct puchn, rozd (si?) oteknuti, ote?i ote?i da pote?i
sun *s?ln?ce ? sólnc'e /sónce/ ? slnce slunce s?o?ce sunce sonce sonce
moon *luna, *m?s?c? , luná, m'és'ac , , luná, mesec, mese?ina m?síc ksiyc, OPl. miesi?c mjesec mesec mese?ina
star *gv?zda ? zv'ezdá ? zvezdá hv?zda gwiazda zvijezda zvezda dzvezda
water *vodà f. ? (c) vodá (acc. vódu) vodá voda woda vòda (acc. v?du) vod? (acc. v?du) vóda ? voda
rain *dd? do?d' /do', do?t'/ ? dd deszcz, OPl. de?d? (gen. deszczu/d?d?u) ki?a de? ? do?d
river *r?ka r'eká reká ?eka rzeka rijeka reka ? reka
lake *(j)ezero óz'ero ézero jezero jezioro jezero jezero ezero
sea *more, *mor? mór'e moré mo?e morze more morje ? more
salt *sol? ? sol' sol s?l sól sol sol sol
stone *kamy ? kám'en' , (pl.) kám?k, kam?ni (pl.) kámen kamie? (dim. kamyk) kamen kamen kamen
sand *p?s?k? p'esók pjás?k písek piasek pijesak pesek pesok
dust *porx? ? pyl' ? prax prach py?, kurz pra?ina, prah prah ?, ? prav, pra?ina
earth *zem?à f. j? (b/c) z'eml'á (acc. z'éml'u) zemjá zem? ziemia zèmlja (acc. z?mlju) zem (acc. z?m?u) zémlja zemja
cloud *ta , ? tú?a, óblako óblak oblak chmura, ob?ok oblak oblak oblak
fog *m?glà ?, mgla, tuman m?glá mlha mg?a magla megla magla
sky *n?bo ? n'óbo nebé nebe niebo nebo nebo ? nebo
wind *vtr? m. o (a) v'ét'er vját?r vítr wiatr vj?tar (vj?tra) v?tar (v?tra) v?t?r veter
snow *sn?g? ? sn'eg ? snjag sníh ?nieg snijeg sneg ? sneg
ice *led? l'od led led lód led led ?, mraz, led
smoke *dym? dym , dim, pú?ek dým dym dim dim , ?ad, dim
fire *ogn? ogón' óg?n ohe? ogie? (ognia) vatra ogenj ? ogan
ash *pepel? p'ép'el pépel popel popió? pepeo pepel pepel
to burn *gor?ti, *paliti ?, ? gor'ét', pylát' , gorjá, paljá ho?et pali?, arch. gorze? goriti goreti ? da gori
way *pt? m. i (b) ? put' p?t pout' (fem.)[table 28] droga, OPl. p p?t (púta) p?t (p?ta) pt pat
mountain *gorà fem. ? (c) gorá , ? gorá[table 29], planina hora góra gòra (g?ru), planina gor? (g?ru) góra ?, ? gora, planina
red *rm?n? adj. o ?'er'emnój/?'er'ómnyj (dial.)[table 30] ? ?erveno ?ermný/?rmný (Kott) (dial. czermny) crveno ?rmljen crveno
red *rv(j)en? adj. o ?'er'evl'onyj (obs.)[table 31] ? ?ervén ?ervený czerwony, czerwie? cr?ven rde? /// crven/no/na/ni
green *zelèn? adj. o (b) ? z'el'ónyj zelén zelený zielony, ziele? zèlen, zelèna, zelèno zel?n, zelen?, zelen? zelèn, zeléna /// zelen/no/na/ni
yellow *lt? adj. o ?'óltyj /?óltyj/ ? lt ?lutý ?ó?ty, ?ó, ?ó?cie? t, f. ?úta t, f. t?, n. to rumen, t, ?ó?ta ?/// ?olt///
white *b?l? b'élyj bjal bílý bia?y, biel bijelo bel /?/?/? bel/?/?/?
black *rn? ?'órnyj ?éren ?erný czarny, czer? crno ?rn /?/?/? crn/?/?/?
night *nokt? ? no?' no?t noc noc no? no? nokj
day *d?n? ? d'en' den den dzie? dan dan den
year *god?, *rok? god ? godína rok rok godina leto godina
warm *tepl?, *topl? t'óplyj tóplo teplý ciep?y toplo toplo toplo
cool, cold *xold?n? adj. o (c) xolódnyj /(//), (?/?/?) xlád/en (no/na/ni), studen(o/a/i) chladný ch?odny hlád?n hlå?dan hlád?n ladno
full *p?ln? ? pólnyj plen plný pe?ny, pe?en pun poln ? poln
new *nov? nóvyj nov nový nowy nov nov nov
old *star? ? stáryj ? star starý stary star star ? star
good *dobr? , xoró?'ij, dobryj dobr dobrý dobry dobar dober , dobar, dobro
bad *z?l? adj. o ? zloj; zol, zla, zlo[table 32] , lo?, ? zlý z?y z?o, zl?, zl? z, zlà; z?l , , lo?, zol, zla
rotten *gnjil? ? gn'ilój ? gnil shnilý zgni?y pokvaren gnil ? gnil
dirty gr'áznyj ? mrsen ?pinavý brudny prljav, zmazan umazan ? valkan
straight *prost?, *prav? ? pr'amój ? prav p?ímý prosty; prawy[table 33] ravan raven ?, prav, ramen
round *kr?gl? krúglyj ? krg?l kulatý / okrouhlý kr?g?y/okr?g?y okruglo okrogel , ? kru?no, okruglo
sharp *ostr? ? óstryj óst?r ostrý ostry o?tro oster ostro
dull *t?p? tupój tup tupý t?py tup top ? tapo
smooth *glad?k? , ? gládk'ij, róvnyj ?, glád?k, ráven hladký g?adki gladak gladek mazno
wet *mokr? ? mókryj mók?r mokrý mokry mokar moker mokro
dry *sux? suxój sux suchý suchy suh suh ? suvo
correct práv'il'nyj právilen správný poprawny, w?a?ciwy, prawilny(slang) pravilan pravilen , pravilno, to?no
near *bliz? bl'ízk'ij ? blíz?k blízký bliski blizu blizu, blizek , blizu, blisko
far *dalek? ? dal'ók'ij dalé?en daleký daleki daleko dele?, daljni daleku
right *prav? ? právyj désen pravý prawy desno, pravo desen desno
left *l?v? lévyj ljav levý lewy lijevo levi ? levo
at *po, *u prep./pref. , ? pr'i, u , ?, pri, u, na p?i, u przy, u u; u- pri ?aj kaj
in(to) *v?(n) prep. ? v; vn- ? v v; v(n)- w(e); wn- u; va- v ? v
with *s?(n) ? s ?() s(s?s) s z s, sa s, z so
and (j)?, *a ?, ? i, a ?, ? i, a a, i i, a i in ?, ? i, a
if *(j)ako jésl'i ? akó jestli je?li, je?eli, jak(coll.) ako, ukoliko ?e, ko ako
because *d?lja, *d?lja, d?lj?ma ? potomú ?to /?to/ ? za?tóto proto?e bo, dlatego ?e, poniewa? zato (?to, jer), stoga zato, zato ker , zatoa ?to, za?to
name *(j)?m? ? ím'a ? íme jméno imi?, arch. miano ime ime ime
  1. ^ "adder"
  2. ^ "venomous snake, adder"
  3. ^ "sheepskin coat"
  4. ^ "braid, plait"
  5. ^ "braid, mane"
  6. ^ "carcass"
  7. ^ "back"
  8. ^ "entrails, eggs"
  9. ^ "pant, gasp"
  10. ^ "manage"; "know" (obs.)
  11. ^ "hunt, chase, prowl, course"
  12. ^ "hunt, fish, catch, snare"
  13. ^ "cut, slice, chop"
  14. ^ "cut, mow, trim, shear"
  15. ^ "split, divide, separate, share, distribute"
  16. ^ "split (up), (divide up), disunite, pull apart, separate, parcel, give away, share, distribute, provide, disperse"
  17. ^ "push"
  18. ^ "stab, spike, prick, butt"
  19. ^ "scratch, scrape, irritate, rub"
  20. ^ "scratch, scrape, rasp, scrub, grate, scribble"
  21. ^ "comb, brush"
  22. ^ "spit, sputter"
  23. ^ "wallow"
  24. ^ "bring back"
  25. ^ "to squeeze(mainly clothes)from water"
  26. ^ "babble, coo"
  27. ^ "to crow, to sound like a rooster"
  28. ^ "pilgrimage, journey"
  29. ^ "woods"
  30. ^ "red-haired, ginger"
  31. ^ "dark red"
  32. ^ "angry"
  33. ^ "righteous"

Conventions in the table

  • Common Slavic accents follow Chakavian conventions: ã (long rising), à (short rising), ? (long falling), ? (short falling), ? (length in unstressed syllable).
  • The accent pattern (a, b or c) of Common Slavic nouns, verbs and adjectives is indicated. These patterns are as follows: a = consistent root accent; b = predominant suffix accent; c = mobile accent.
  • Nouns are given in the nominative singular; a form in parentheses is genitive singular except as indicated (acc. = accusative singular, pl. = nominative plural).
  • Verbs are given in the infinitive (but the first singular present in Bulgarian, which has no infinitives). A form in parentheses is first singular present except as indicated (2sg. = second singular, 3sg. = third singular). A second form in parentheses is third singular present.
  • When multiple forms of an adjective are given, the order is masculine, feminine, neuter.
  • Chakavian forms are given in the Vrgada dialect except as indicated (Novi = Novi dialect, Orb. = Orbani?i dialect).

Transcription of Russian and Bulgarian

Transcription of Bulgarian follows the standard conventions for academic transliteration of Cyrillic, with the exception that Cyrillic ? is represented as ? instead of ? for ease of reading, particularly when combined with a stress mark ( instead of ?). This is a one-to-one transliteration that directly represents the spelling of Cyrillic. This transliteration also represents Bulgarian phonology quite well (unlike the situation in Russian).

Transcription of Russian is based on the same standard, but deviates from it in order to consistently represent palatalization (always written with a following apostrophe, e.g. l', n', t', v') and the phoneme /j/ (always written j), both of which are spelled in multiple ways in Cyrillic. The following indicates how to convert between the two:

Cyrillic letters Letter class Academic transliteration This article's transcription
? ? ? ? ? Non-palatal vowels a è y o u a e y o u
? ? ? ? ? Palatal vowels ja e i ë ju If following a consonant letter, a e i o u with preceding apostrophe ('); elsewhere, ja je ji jo ju.
? ? Semivowels j ? same
? Soft sign ' same
? Hard sign '' not written
? A consonant sign '

The result is that this article's transcription is almost directly phonemic, making it significantly easier for readers not familiar with the complications of Cyrillic spelling. Note that the transcription used here continues the standard practice of representing the Cyrillic letters ? ? as y i, although they are normally considered allophones of each other. This is because the pronunciation of the two letters is significantly different, and Russian ? normally continues Common Slavic *y [?], which was a separate phoneme.

The letter ? is conventionally written ?t in Bulgarian, in Russian. This article writes ' in Russian to reflect the modern pronunciation [].

Both transcriptions indicate stress with an acute accent (á é í ó ú ý ). Stress is indicated in Cyrillic in the same fashion, except with the letter ?, which is always stressed.

Pronunciation

Capsule summary of Russian pronunciation

The transcription used in this article is morphophonemic rather than strictly phonemic, i.e. it writes the underlying phonemes rather than the phonemes actually heard when pronounced. The difference occurs particularly in the representation of unstressed vowels, where multiple underlying phonemes merge. For example, underlying e and i merge into the same sound when unstressed, but the difference is revealed in related forms based on the same root: e.g. z'eml'á [zm'l?æ] "land" has accusative z'éml'u ['z?eml], but z'imá [z'ma] "winter" has accusative z'ímu ['z?imu]. When the transcription (which is derived from the spelling) disagrees with the actual morphophonemic pronunciation, the latter is indicated specially, e.g. ?to /?to/; ?'it' /?yt'/; ?'óltyj /?óltyj/; ?'ená /?ená/ ['na]; sólnc'e /sónce/ ['sont?s?]. This occurs mostly with the letters ?, ?, c, which are normally written palatal but pronounced non-palatal; but it is also due to occasional assimilations. Note that the rules for unstressed vowels still need to be applied (see below).

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • ? [?], ? [?] and c [t?s] are never palatal, while ? [t] and [] are always palatal, regardless of spelling.
  • y [?]: allophone of i [i] after non-palatal consonants, but written differently by convention. Written i sounds as y after ?, ?, c, regardless of whether indicated as palatal in the spelling: ?'it [t?] "to live".
  • Vowel mergers in unstressed syllables are extensive, but not written.
    • After palatal, vowels a, o, e, i all merge as [?]: t'a?'ólyj [t'?ol?j] "heavy", v'el'ík'ij [v'l?ikj] "big".
    • After non-palatal, vowels a and o merge as [?] directly before the stress and absolutely word-initially, [?] elsewhere: molokó [m?l?'ko] "milk", sobáka [s?'bak?] "dog", ?'elov'ék [tl?'v?ek] "man (human)".
    • After non-palatal, vowels e and i/y merge as [?]: ?'ená ['na].
    • Exception: Absolutely word-finally after a palatal, e, i merge as [?] but a, o merge as [?]: s'ém'a ['s?em] "seed".
  • Obstruents are devoiced word-finally, and agree in voicing in a cluster before another obstruent: mu? [mu?] "husband", vs'o [fs] "everything", vokzál [v'zal] "railway station". But v does not trigger voicing of preceding obstruent, nor is it devoiced.
  • The reflexive suffix -s'a and reflexive infinitive -t'-s'a are pronounced without palatalization, i.e. as if written -sa and -t-sa.

Capsule summary of Bulgarian pronunciation

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • Stressed ? is actually [?]; unstressed a and ? tend to merge as [?].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian.

Capsule summary of Czech pronunciation

  • á, é, í etc. indicates vowel length.
  • ? [u:] < . ou [o] < .
  • h [?], ch [x].
  • ? [t?], ? [?], ? [?], ? [r?] (a palatal fricative trill, sounding a bit like [r?]).
  • ? [?], ? [c], ? [?]. Also indicated by d, t, n before i, í or ?.
  • y = i but indicates normal rather than palatal pronunciation after d t n.
  • ? = short e but signals palatal nature of previous consonant: d?, t?, n? = ?e, ?e, ?e; v?, f?, b?, p? = vje, fje, bje, pje; m? = m?e.
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian. ? after obstruent is itself devoiced rather than trigger voicing: p?ímý [pri:mi:] "straight".

Capsule summary of Slovak pronunciation

Capsule summary of Polish pronunciation

  • Retroflex consonants: sz [?], cz [t], ? [?], rz [?] < *? (as in Czech), d? [d].
  • Alveolopalatal consonants: ? or si [?], ? or ci [t], ? or zi [?], d? or dzi [d], ? or ni [?].
  • All consonants are palatalized before i. Note that alveolar s, z, n become alveolopalatal when palatalized, absorbing the i before another vowel: chodzi? ['x?dit] "to walk", siedzie? ['dt] "to sit".
  • h or ch [x], w [v], ? [w].
  • y [?], ó [u] < *o:, ? [], ? [].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian and Czech. However, w and rz do not voice a preceding voiceless obstruent, but instead are devoiced: kwiat [kf?at] "flower", przyj [pj?t] "to come" < *pr?ijt? (cf. Russian pr'ijt'í).

Capsule summary of Serbo-Croatian pronunciation

  • Accents: á (long rising), à (short rising), ? (long falling), ? (short falling), ? (length in unstressed syllable), ã (long rising in Chakavian dialect = Common Slavic neoacute).
  • ? [?], ? [t?], ? [?], d? [d?], ? [t?], ? [d?], nj [?], lj [?].
  • Russian-style obstruent voicing/devoicing does not occur.

Dialectal differentiation

After the three palatalizations of Proto-Slavic, dialectal variation became more apparent. Some dialects (such as Proto-East Slavic), applied the second regressive palatalization across an intervening *v.[1]

  • Russian: *gwojzda > *gw?zda > zv?zda > [z?v'zda] ('star')
  • Polish: *gwojzda > *gw?zda > gwiazda > ['?v?azda] ('star')

Also, the realization of the palatalizations' sibilants varied a little amongst dialects. Beli? (1921) argues that the phonetic character of the palatalizations was uniform throughout Common Slavic and that West Slavic languages developed *? later on by analogy.[2] In all dialects (except for Lechitic), [dz] was deaffricated to [z]:[1]

  • Ukrainian: *zvizda> z'vizda; and zyrka/z'irka> Cf. Pol.: gwiazda-> GV/ZV + I + ZD; Z'/Z + Y/I + R + K +A ( zIr > vision).

The final cutoff point for the Proto-Slavic period was the change of *? to *a after palatal consonants and *j, which then created *?a/*ka contrasts.[3] This, and the shortening and elision of weak yers (*?/? and *?/?) (see Havlík's law) that created newly formed closed syllables[4] ended the period of syllabic synharmony characteristic of Common Slavic.

For many Common Slavic dialects--including most of West Slavic, all but the northernmost portions of East Slavic, and some western parts of South Slavic-- *g lenited from a voiced velar plosive to a voiced velar fricative ([?] > [?]). Because this change was not universal and because it did not occur in a number of East Slavic dialects (such as Belarusian and South Russian) until after the application of Havlík's law, Shevelov (1977) calls into question early projections of this change and postulates three independent instigations of lenition, dating the earliest to before 900 AD and the latest to the early thirteenth century.[5]

Because the reflexes for the nasal vowels *? and *? differ so widely, it's very likely that their phonetic value in Late Proto-Slavic was not uniform.[6]

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Beli?, Aleksandar (1921), " () ? ? ? k, g ? h ? ? ", ?, II: 18-39
  • Bethin, Christina Yurkiw (1998), Slavic Prosody: Language Change and Phonological Theory, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59148-1
  • Channon, Robert (1972), On the Place of the Progressive Palatalization of Velars in the Relative Chronology of Slavic, The Hague: Mouton
  • Lehr-Sp?awi?ski, Tadeusz (1957), "Z dziejów j?zyka pras?owia?skiego (Urywek z wi?kszej ca?o?ci)", ? ? , Sofia
  • Schenkar, Alexander M. (2002), "Proto-Slavonic", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 60-124, ISBN 0-415-28078-8
  • Shevelov, George Y. (1977), "On the Chronology of h and the New g in Ukrainian", Harvard Ukrainian Studies (PDF), vol 1, Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, pp. 137-52, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-31

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