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Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body of an animal. In birds this is termed topography. Surface anatomy deals with anatomical features that can be studied by sight, without dissection. As such, it is a branch of gross anatomy, along with endoscopic and radiological anatomy. Surface anatomy is a descriptive science. In particular, in the case of human surface anatomy, these are the form and proportions of the human body and the surface landmarks which correspond to deeper structures hidden from view, both in static pose and in motion.
In addition, the science of surface anatomy includes the theories and systems of body proportions and related artistic canons. The study of surface anatomy is the basis for depicting the human body in classical art.
The breast is called the mamma or mammary, the armpit as the axilla and axillary, and the navel as the umbilicus and umbilical.
The pelvis is the lower torso, between the abdomen and the thighs.
The groin, where the thigh joins the trunk, are the inguen and inguinal area.
The entire arm is referred to as the brachium and brachial, the front of the elbow as the antecubitis and antecubital, the back of the elbow as the olecranon or olecranal, the forearm as the antebrachium and antebrachial, the wrist as the carpus and carpal area, the hand as the manus and manual, the palm as the palma and palmar, the thumb as the pollex, and the fingers as the digits, phalanges, and phalangeal.
The buttocks are the gluteus or gluteal region and the pubic area is the pubis.
Anatomists divide the lower limb into the thigh (the part of the limb between the hip and the knee) and the leg (which refers only to the area of the limb between the knee and the ankle).
The kneecap is the patella and patellar while the back of the knee is the popliteus and popliteal area.
The leg (between the knee and the ankle) is the crus and crural area, the lateral aspect of the leg is the peroneal area, and the calf is the sura and sural region.
The ankle is the tarsus and tarsal, and the heel is the calcaneus or calcaneal. The foot is the pes and pedal region, and the sole of the foot the planta and plantar.
As with the fingers, the toes are also called the digits, phalanges, and phalangeal area.
The big toe is referred to as the hallux.
List of features
Following are lists of surface anatomical features in humans and other animals. Sorted roughly from head to tail, cranial to caudal. Homologues share a bullet point and are separated by commas. Subcomponents are nested. Class in which component occurs in italic.
^Constant, Jules (1999). Bedside cardiology. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 228. ISBN0-7817-2168-7.
Drake, Richard; Vogl, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Adam W. M. (2009). Gray's Anatomy for Students (2nd ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 157-164, 311-320, 538-547, 686-694, 882-892, 1097-1110, 1514-1524. ISBN9781437720556. Retrieved 2014.
Seeley, Rod R.; Stephens, Trent D.; Tate, Philip (2002). Anatomy & physiology (6th ed.). McGraw & Hill. ISBN978-0-07-235113-2.
Standring, Susan (2008) Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th Edition. ISBN978-0-443-07168-3. Human surface anatomy photos at pp. 947, 1406-1410 Figs. 56.3, 110.12, 110.13, 110.15, 110.22
Frederick, Roland Becker; Wilson, James Walter; Gehweiler, John A. (1971). The anatomical basis of medical practice (illustrated ed.). Williams and Wilkins.