Stephen O. Andersen
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Stephen O. Andersen

Stephen Oliver Andersen (born 17 January 1948) is the American Director of Research at the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD)[1] and former co-chair (1989-2012)[2] of the Montreal Protocol Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP). He is considered one of the founders and leading figures in the success of the Montreal Protocol[3] that has phased out the chemicals that deplete the stratospheric ozone that protects the Earth against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation that causes skin cancer, cataracts, and suppression of the human immune system, and destroys agricultural crops and natural ecosystems.[4] Because ozone-depleting chemicals are also powerful greenhouse gases the Montreal Protocol also protected climate.

Early life

Andersen was born in Logan, Utah, United States, the child of a professor of horticulture and a botanist. He studied business administration for two years at Utah State University and then transferred in 1969 to the University of California, Berkeley where he earned B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Agricultural and Natural Resources Economics.[5] His PhD dissertation at UC Berkeley was supervised by Drs. Siegfried von Ciriacy-Wantrup who was among the first to describe the importance to sustainability of common property, conservation, land use planning, endangered species and biodiversity and pioneered the Precautionary Principle and the "Safe Minimum Standard" the threshold below which loss in sustainability is catastrophic and irreversible.

While a graduate student he was a member of the U.S. Department of Transportation "Climatic Impact Assessment Program" (CIAP)[6] assessing the environmental and economic impacts of the decline in northern latitude grain production predicted as a consequence of climate change and depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.

Andersen began his professional career in 1974 at the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund (now Earthjustice), where he provided litigation support for cases including energy conservation, forestry, mining, national parks and marine mammal protection. In 1976 he joined the Environmental Law Institute as their first economist working on a series of five books on energy conservation and later on a study with Lisle Baker (Suffolk University Law School) on the Vermont Land Gains Tax (1981).[7]

From 1977 to 1986, Andersen was a professor at College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor Maine, visiting professor at the University of Hawaii, Manoa, and visiting scholar at Kyoto University.[8]

Ozone Action

Stephen O. Andersen and Madhava Sarma meeting with the Pope John Paul II in Rome in November 2002

In 1986, Andersen joined the fledgling U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) team that built the scientific, technical and economic case for protecting the stratospheric ozone layer.[9] At EPA he rose to Deputy Director for Stratospheric Ozone Protection[10] and then transferred to the Climate Protection Partnerships Division, where he was Director of Strategic Climate Projects until his retirement from government in 2009.[11]

The timing of Andersen's arrival at EPA was fortuitous. 1987 proved to be a watershed moment in the effort to stop ozone depletion, which increased risks of skin cancer and threatened to wipe out crops and ecosystems, among many adverse impacts. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was agreed on 16 September 1987 and created a timetable to phase out and eliminate the production of ozone depleting substances.

At EPA, Andersen's responsibilities included analysis of regulatory impact, cost, and trade, technology co-operation, and sector projects in halons, foams, mobile air conditioning, and military uses. Over his tenure he pioneered EPA's voluntary approaches to ozone layer protection including the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbon(CFC) in the manufacturing of food packaging, the recycling of CFC from vehicle air conditioning, the halt to testing and training with halon, and the accelerated CFC solvent phase-out in electronics manufacturing. Andersen also brought Soviet authorities together with NASA scientists and EPA senior managers to gain agreement for US Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) be carried to space on a Soviet Meteor-3 satellite(1994) rocket in order to overcome loss of access to space (resulting from the Space Shuttle Challenger accident);[12] he founded and managed the first EPA international awards, the U.S. EPA Stratospheric Protection Awards[13] and Climate Protection Awards;[14] and was EPA Liaison to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) on stratospheric ozone and climate, chairing several DoD committees on solvent validation, aircraft maintenance, manufacturing rockets without ozone-depleting substances, and certifying the Joint Strike Fighter for particulate emissions.[15]

Whilst at EPA Andersen co-Chaired the 1989 Economic Assessment Panel, the 1989-1997 Solvents Coatings and Adhesives Technical Options Committee, the 1992 Methyl Bromide Assessment and since 1989 co-founded and co-chaired the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP).[16]

Over the decades, the Montreal Protocol became a victim of its own success. By 2006, some called for dismantling the treaty, claiming it had achieved its goals and outlived its usefulness. Andersen knew the Protocol needed to be not only preserved but strengthened.[9] In 2007 Andersen assembled a team of scientists, led by Dutch scientist Dr. Guus Velders,[17] to research the role of the Protocol in climate protection. In 2007 Andersen and the Velders' team published "The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate." The team quantified the benefits of the Montreal Protocol, and found that it helped prevent 11 billion metric tons of CO2equivalent emissions per year from 1990 to 2010, having delayed the impacts of climate change by 7 - 12 years.[18] The paper determined the Montreal Protocol had been the most successful climate agreement in history, it also estimated the joint ozone and climate benefits of an accelerated hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) phaseout, providing policymakers with information needed to accelerate the phaseout.

In 2009, Andersen retired from the EPA and joined Durwood Zaelke at the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD) as director of research,[1] where he has continued in his pursuit of ozone and climate protection. In 2009, Andersen and the Velders' team published their second paper "The Large Contribution of Projected HFC Emissions to Future Climate Forcing", which used future HFC production and consumption scenarios to show that without new controls, HFC emissions lead to substantial climate warming by the middle of the 21st century.[19] The two Velders papers helped build the foundation that inspired other scientists to calculate and communicate the interlinkages of ozone with climate and the importance of phasing out ODSs and phasing-down HFCs.[20]

Andersen's research and work at IGSD, and over his career, culminated on 15 October 2016 when the Parties to the Montreal Protocol agreed to the Kigali Amendment, an amendment to the Protocol for the inclusion and regulation of HFCs.[21] The Kigali Amendment will limit warming from HFCs to 0.06 °C, avoiding nearly 0.5 °C of warming by 2100 and 80 Gt CO2e by 2050.[22]

To date Andersen now concentrates on achieving the HFC phasedown as quickly as feasible with higher energy efficiency at affordable prices. He is also part of the team using government procurement to purchase super-efficient room ACs at an affordable price around the world,[23] and of the team demonstrating secondary-loop motor vehicle air conditioning.[24]

Stephen is featured in the PBS Documentary "Saving the Ozone Layer: How We Saved the Planet" along with scientists Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina, politicians Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, scientists Paul Newman and Mack McFarland and NGO Presidents David Doniger and Durwood Zaelke, aired 10 April 2019.


  • 2017 United Nations Environment Policy and Implementation Leadership Award - "For Lifetime Contributions as an Architect and Implementer of the Montreal Protocol."[3]
  • 2017 United Nations Environment 2017 Scientific Leadership Team Award - "For Building and Communicating the Scientific Foundation for the 2007 acceleration of the HCFC Phaseout and the 2016 Kigali Amendment and Decision to phase down HFCs and increase energy efficiency." (Earned with John S. Daniel, David W. Fahey, Marco Gonzalez, Mack McFarland, Guus J.M. Velders, and Durwood Zaelke).[3]
  • 2012 US Environmental Protection Agency Level III Scientific and Technological Achievement Award - "For a Substantial Revision of a Scientific Procedure for Assessing Ozone and Trifluoroacetic Impacts of Refrigerants."[25]
  • 2008 Service to America Career Achievement Medal - "For Over 35 Years of Public Service for the Environment."[9]
  • 2007 Nobel Peace Prize - Awarded to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and former US Vice President Albert Gore, Jr [Stephen O. Andersen served as Special Report co-chair].[26]
  • 2007 United Nations Environment Programme Best New Scientific Publication 20thAnniversary of the Montreal Protocol - "For the Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate", published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Earned with Guus J. M. Velders, John S. Daniel, David W. Fahey and Mack McFarland).
  • 2007 US Environmental Protection Agency Stratospheric Protection Award - "For Climate Co-Benefits of the Montreal Protocol Science Team."[27]
  • 2007 United Nations Environmental Programme Montreal Protocol Visionaries Award - "For His Tireless Energies Over 20 Years for Ozone Layer Protection."[28]
  • 2007 United Nations Environmental Programme Technology and Economic Assessment Panel Champion Award - "For Leadership and Prolific Efforts Around the Globe to Achieve an Early Phase-Out of Ozone-Depleting Substances."[28]
  • 1998 United Nations Environment Programme Global 500 Roll of Honour - "For Outstanding Contribution to the Protection of the Environment."[11]
  • 1987 US EPA Gold Medal - "For Outstanding Service in the Development and Implementation of Strategies for Addressing Problems of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion."[29]


  • Andersen, Stephen O., Richard Ferris, Romina Picolotti,  Durwood Zaelke, president, Suely Carvalho, and Marco Gonzalez (2018). "Defining the Legal and Policy Framework to Stop the Dumping of Environmentally Harmful Products". Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum, 1-48.
  • Andersen, Stephen O., Nancy J. Sherman, Suely Carvalho, and Marco Gonzalez (2018). "The Global Search and Commercialization of Alternatives and Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances", Geoscience. doi:10.1016/j.crte.2018.07.010.
  • Andersen, Stephen O. (2017). "We Can and Must Govern Climate Engineering", Nature World View.
  • Seidel, Stephen, Jason Ye, Stephen O. Andersen, and Alex Hillbrand (2016). "Not-In-Kind Alternatives to High Global Warming HFCs", Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES).
  • Sherry, David, Maria Nolan, Stephen Seidel, and Stephen O. Andersen (2016). "HFO-1234yf: An Examination of Projected Long-Term Costs of Production", Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) and the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development (IGSD).
  • Andersen, Stephen O., Duncan Brack and Joanna Depledge (2014). "A global Response to HFCs through Fair and Effective Ozone and Climate Policies", The Royal Institute for International Affairs (Chatham House).
  • Montzka, Stephen A.; McFarland, Mack; Andersen, Stephen O.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Fahey, David W; Hall, Bradley D.; Hu, Lei; Carolina, Siso; Elkins, James W. (2014). "Recent Trends in Global Emissions of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Hydrofluorocarbons--Reflecting on the 2007 Adjustment to the Montreal Protocol". Journal of Physical Chemistry. 119 (19): 4439-4449. doi:10.1021/jp5097376. PMID 25405363.
  • Stephen O. Andersen, Marcel L. Halberstadt and Nathan Borgford-Parnell (2013). "Stratospheric Ozone, Global Warming, and the Principle of Unintended Consequences--An Ongoing Science and Policy Success Story". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (AWMA), Critical Review, published online 22 May. 10.1080/10962247.2013.791349 E-ISSN 2162-2906 ISSN 1096-2247.
  • Zaelke, Durwood; Andersen, Stephen O.; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan (2012). "Strengthening Ambition for Climate Mitigation: The Role of the Montreal Protocol in Reducing Short-lived Climate Pollutants". Review of European Community & International Environmental Law. 21 (3): 231-242. doi:10.1111/reel.12010.
  • Luecken, Deborah J.; Waterland, Robert L.; Papasavva, Stella; Taddonio, Kristen N.; Hutzell, William T.; Rugh, John P.; Andersen, Stephen O. (2010). "Ozone and TFA Impacts in North America from Degradation of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf), A Potential Greenhouse Gas Replacement". Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (1): 343-348. doi:10.1021/es902481f. PMID 19994849.
  • Andersen, Stephen O., Guus J.M. Velders and Penelope Canan (2009). "How Science Guides Industry Choice of Alternatives to Ozone-Depleting Substances," Twenty Years of Ozone Decline: Proceedings of the Symposium for the 20th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol, Springer Science.
  • Molina, Mario, Durwood Zaelke, K. Madhava Sarma, Stephen O. Andersen, Veerabhadran Ramanathan and Donald Kaniaru, 2009. "Reducing Abrupt Climate Change Risk Using the Montreal Protocol and Other Regulatory Actions to Complement Cuts in CO2 Emissions," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences;;, 106:20616-20621.
  • Velders, Guus J.M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; MacFarland, Mack; Andersen, Stephen O. (2009). "The Large Contribution of Projected HFC Emissions to Future Climate Forcing". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (27): 10949-10954. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902817106. PMC 2700150. PMID 19549868.
  • Andersen, Stephen O., K. Madhava Sarma and Kristen N. Taddonio, "Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer: Lessons for Climate Change," Earthscan Press, London 2007 (Official publication of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Environment Programme).
  • Velders, Guus J.M.; Andersen, Stephen O.; Daniel, John S.; Fahey, David W.; MacFarland, Mack (2007). "The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting the Climate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (12): 4814-4819. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610328104. PMC 1817831. PMID 17360370.
  • Andersen, Stephen O., and Durwood Zaelke (2003). "Industry Genius: Inventions and People Protecting the Climate and Fragile Ozone Layer," Greenleaf Press, London.
  • Andersen, Stephen O., and K. Madhava Sarma (2002). "Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History," Earthscan Press, London (Official publication of the United Nations Environment Programme).
  • G. M. Woodwell, "Natural Resource Economics: Selected Papers. S. V. Ciriacy-Wantrup, Richard C. Bishop, Stephen O. Andersen (1986)," The Quarterly Review of Biology 61, no. 3: 429. doi:10.1086/415109
  • Baker, R. Lisle, and Stephen O. Andersen (1981). "Taxing Speculative Land Gains: The Vermont Experience. Urban Law Annual", Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law, Vol. 22.
  • Andersen, Stephen O.; Anderson, Robert C.; Searles, Barbara J. (1978). "The Tuna -Porpoise Dilemma, is Conflict Resolution Attainable". Natural Resources Journal. 18: 505.

See also


  1. ^ a b "People". IGSD. 2013-08-13. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Montreal Protocol Who's Who". UNEP. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "30th Montreal Protocol Anniversary ozone awards" (PDF). Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ "Montreal Protocol", Wikipedia, 2019-01-04, retrieved
  5. ^ "Alumni of the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics". Retrieved .
  6. ^ "TGsec2-1_new.html". Retrieved .
  7. ^ Lisle, Baker, R.; O., Andersen, Stephen (1981). "Taxing Speculative Land Gains: The Vermont Experience". Urban Law Annual ; Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law. 22 (1).
  8. ^ "1998 Assessment Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel" (PDF). October 1998. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ a b c "2008 Sammies Winner: Career Achievement". Service to America Medals. Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Document Display | NEPIS | US EPA". Retrieved .
  11. ^ a b "Dr. Stephen O. Andersen". Retrieved .
  12. ^ Khattatov, Vyachaslav (2002). "How common Concerns for the Environment Let to Cooperation in Space". Earthscan Press: 20.
  13. ^ EPA,OAR,OAP,SPD, US. "Ozone Layer Protection | US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved .CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ EPA,OAR,OAP,CPPD, US. "Climate Leadership Awards | US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved .CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ "Stephen O. Andersen" (PDF). World Sustainable Development Summit TERRIN. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ "REPORT OF THE TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT PANEL 2007" (PDF). UN Environment. April 2007. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ "Guus Velders: The World's 100 Most Influential People". Time. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Velders, Guus J. M.; Andersen, Stephen O.; Daniel, John S.; Fahey, David W.; McFarland, Mack (2007-03-20). "The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (12): 4814-4819. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610328104. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1817831. PMID 17360370.
  19. ^ Velders, Guus J. M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; McFarland, Mack; Andersen, Stephen O. (2009-07-07). "The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (27): 10949-10954. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902817106. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2700150. PMID 19549868.
  20. ^ "Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol 30th Anniversary Awards Recipients" (PDF). Ozone UNEP. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ Vidal, John (2016-10-15). "Kigali deal on HFCs is big step in fighting climate change". the Guardian. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "HFC primer". IGSD. 2015-10-29. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "Buyers Club Handbook" (PDF). IGSD. Retrieved 2018.
  24. ^ "Tata Motors and MAHLE partner together to develop a prototype Secondary Loop Mobile Air Conditioning System on a vehicle". IGSD. 2017-07-13. Retrieved .
  25. ^ Competitions, US EPA, Extramural Research. "Extramural Research - STAA". Retrieved .
  26. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2007". Retrieved .
  27. ^ "EPA Honors Champions for Protecting Climate, Ozone" (PDF). 19 May 2008. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Twentieth Anniversary Ozone Protection Awards" (PDF). 2007. Retrieved 2018. External link in |website= (help)
  29. ^ "Excellence in EPA Fy 1987 Awards Report". Retrieved 2018.

External links

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