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Stavangersk, Stavanger dialect or Stavanger Norwegian (Norwegian: Stavangersk, Stavanger-dialekt (Bokmål) or Stavangerdialekt (Nynorsk)) is a dialect of Norwegian used in Stavanger.

The pronunciation and origin resembles that of the written Nynorsk, yet the official written language of the Stavanger municipality is Bokmål.



  • /n, t, d, l/ are alveolar [n, t, d, l].[1]
  • As in Bergen and Oslo, younger speakers of the Stavanger dialect tend to merge /ç/ with /?/.[2]
  • /r/ is realized as a voiced uvular continuant, either a fricative or an approximant . It can be voiceless before a voiceless consonant or a pause. This means that the dialect does not possess retroflex consonants.[3]


  • The long close central /?:/ and close back /u:/ vowels can be realized as closing diphthongs [] and [?u].[4]
  • The short counterpart of /?:/ is close-mid .[4]
  • The short close back vowel is more front than in Oslo, near-back rather than back .[4]
  • The mid back vowels are somewhat advanced from the fully back position, i.e. near-back, rather than back. The long /o:/ is close-mid , whereas the short /?/ is open-mid .[5]
  • The long open back vowel is phonetically back , but its short counterpart is front , identical to the cardinal . It is the most anterior realization of this vowel in Norway.[6]
  • The non-native diphthong ⟨ai⟩ has a front starting point [æi].[7]
Diphthong phonemes of
Starting point Ending point
Front Central
unrounded rounded rounded
Mid ei øy ø?


Phonetic realization

Phonetically, the tonemes of the Stavanger dialect are the same as those of Central Standard Swedish; accent 1 is rising-falling, whereas accent 2 is double falling.[9][10]


  1. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 30-31, 34, 36.
  2. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 23.
  3. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 38.
  4. ^ a b c Vanvik (1979), p. 18.
  5. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 17-18.
  6. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  7. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 22.
  8. ^ Ims (2010), p. 15.
  9. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 238.
  10. ^ Ophaug (2014), p. 59.


  • Ims, Charlotte Sol (2010), Sandnes i skyggen av Stavanger - en sociolingvistisk undersøkelse av Sandnes-mål med utgangspunkt i utvalgte språklige variabler (PDF), Adger: Universitetet i Adger
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Ophaug, Wencke (2014), EXFAC Fonetikk og fonologi (PDF)
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6

Further reading

  • Berntsen, Mandius; Larsen, Amund B. (1925), Stavanger Bymål, Oslo: Aschehoug
  • Rasch, Jacob (1957), Norsk ordsamling - Stavanger 1698, Universitetsforlaget, ISBN 9788200180098
  • Svedsen, Martin (1931), Syntaksen i Stavanger bymål, Oslo: Aschehoug
  • Westerlund, Selmer Ernst (1927), Den musikalske aksent i Stavangermålet, Oslo: Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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