The hub and hosts, and the transmission lines between them, form a graph with the topology of a star. Data on a star network passes through the hub before continuing to its destination. The hub manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.
The star topology reduces the impact of a transmission line failure by independently connecting each host to the hub. Each host may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to, and receiving from, the hub. The failure of a transmission line linking any host to the hub will result in the isolation of that host from all others, but the rest of the network will be unaffected.
^Roberts, Lawrence G.; Wessler, Barry D. (1970), "Computer network development to achieve resource sharing", AFIPS '70 (Spring): Proceedings of the May 5-7, 1970, spring joint computer conference, New York, NY, USA: ACM, pp. 543-549, doi:10.1145/1476936.1477020