Standard Mandarin
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Standard Mandarin

Standard Chinese
Modern Standard Mandarin
/ P?t?nghuà
/ Guóy?
/ Huáy?
Native toChina, Taiwan, Singapore
Native speakers
(has begun acquiring native speakers cited 1988, 2014)[1][2]
L2 speakers: 7% of China (2014)[3][4]
Early form
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Mainland Chinese Braille
Taiwanese Braille
Two-Cell Chinese Braille
Wenfa Shouyu[5]
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byNational Language Regulating Committee [zh] (China)[7]
National Languages Committee (Taiwan)
Promote Mandarin Council (Singapore)
Chinese Language Standardisation Council (Malaysia)
Language codes
goyu (Guoyu)
huyu (Huayu)
cosc (Putonghua)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Common name in mainland China
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningCommon speech
Common name in Taiwan
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningNational language
Common name in Singapore and Southeast Asia
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningChinese language

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, a national language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese.

Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject-verb-object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words.

There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters (plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), and Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Zhuyin for teaching). Many characters are identical between the two systems.


In Chinese, the standard variety is known as:[8]

Standard Chinese is also commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably ; Zh?ngwén; 'Middle [i.e. Chinese] writing' and ; ; Zh?ngguóhuà; 'Middle Kingdom [i.e. China] speech' (compare ; Y?ngwén; 'English writing' for English, and ; Y?ngguó; 'English country [i.e. England]'). In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language.[10]

Putonghua and Guoyu

The term Guoyu had previously been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry officially applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language".[11]

The name Putonghua also has a long, albeit unofficial, history. It was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese.

For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language". The former was a national prestige variety, while the latter was the legal standard.[clarification needed]

Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different. Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, which is close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", which is the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage.

The use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably.[12]

In Taiwan, Guoyu (national language) continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese. The term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities.[] The term Putonghua (common speech), on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca.[]

During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition (2000-2008), Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien, Hakka and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.[13]


Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation", originally simply meant "Chinese language", and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin.

This name also avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It also incorporates the notion that Mandarin is usually not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live.


Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings:[8]

This term, as well as Hànzú (; ; 'Han nation'), is a relatively modern concept; it came into being with the rise of Chinese nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries.[14] A related concept is Hànzì (; ; 'Han characters').[15]


The term "Mandarin" is a translation of Gu?nhuà (; , literally "official's speech"),[8] which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire.[16] The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.[17]

In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca.[17] The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects.[8][18]


The Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent that they cannot understand each other.... [They] also have another language which is like a universal and common language; this is the official language of the mandarins and of the court; it is among them like Latin among ourselves.... Two of our fathers [Michele Ruggieri and Matteo Ricci] have been learning this mandarin language...

-- Alessandro Valignano, Historia del Principio y Progresso de la Compañia de Jesus en las Indias Orientales (1542-1564)[19]

Chinese has long had considerable dialectal variation, hence prestige dialects have always existed, and linguae francae have always been needed. Confucius, for example, used y?yán (; 'elegant speech') rather than colloquial regional dialects; text during the Han dynasty also referred to t?ngy? (??; 'common language'). Rime books, which were written since the Northern and Southern dynasties, may also have reflected one or more systems of standard pronunciation during those times. However, all of these standard dialects were probably unknown outside the educated elite; even among the elite, pronunciations may have been very different, as the unifying factor of all Chinese dialects, Classical Chinese, was a written standard, not a spoken one.

Late empire

Zhongguo Guanhua (?/?), or Medii Regni Communis Loquela ("Middle Kingdom's Common Speech"), used on the frontispiece of an early Chinese grammar published by Étienne Fourmont (with Arcadio Huang) in 1742[20]

The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) and the Qing dynasty (1644-1912) began to use the term gu?nhuà (/), or "official speech", to refer to the speech used at the courts. The term "Mandarin" is borrowed directly from Portuguese. The Portuguese word mandarim, derived from the Sanskrit word mantrin "counselor or minister", was first used to refer to the Chinese bureaucratic officials. The Portuguese then translated gu?nhuà as "the language of the mandarins" or "the mandarin language".[18]

In the 17th century, the Empire had set up Orthoepy Academies (?/? Zhèngy?n Sh?yuàn) in an attempt to make pronunciation conform to the standard. But these attempts had little success, since as late as the 19th century the emperor had difficulty understanding some of his own ministers in court, who did not always try to follow any standard pronunciation.

Before the 19th century, the standard was based on the Nanjing dialect, but later the Beijing dialect became increasingly influential, despite the mix of officials and commoners speaking various dialects in the capital, Beijing.[21] By some accounts, as late as the early 20th century, the position of Nanjing Mandarin was considered to be higher than that of Beijing by some and the postal romanization standards set in 1906 included spellings with elements of Nanjing pronunciation.[22] Nevertheless, by 1909, the dying Qing dynasty had established the Beijing dialect as guóy? (/), or the "national language".

As the island of Taiwan had fallen under Japanese rule per the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, the term kokugo (Japanese: , "national language") referred to the Japanese language until the handover to the ROC in 1945.

Modern China

After the Republic of China was established in 1912, there was more success in promoting a common national language. A Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation was convened with delegates from the entire country.[23] A Dictionary of National Pronunciation (?/?) was published in 1919, defining a hybrid pronunciation that did not match any existing speech.[24][25] Meanwhile, despite the lack of a workable standardized pronunciation, colloquial literature in written vernacular Chinese continued to develop apace.[26]

Gradually, the members of the National Language Commission came to settle upon the Beijing dialect, which became the major source of standard national pronunciation due to its prestigious status. In 1932, the commission published the Vocabulary of National Pronunciation for Everyday Use (/), with little fanfare or official announcement. This dictionary was similar to the previous published one except that it normalized the pronunciations for all characters into the pronunciation of the Beijing dialect. Elements from other dialects continue to exist in the standard language, but as exceptions rather than the rule.[27]

After the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China continued the effort, and in 1955, officially renamed guóy? as p?t?nghuà (/), or "common speech". By contrast, the name guóy? continued to be used by the Republic of China which, after its 1949 loss in the Chinese Civil War, was left with a territory consisting only of Taiwan and some smaller islands; in its retreat to Taiwan. Since then, the standards used in the PRC and Taiwan have diverged somewhat, especially in newer vocabulary terms, and a little in pronunciation.[28]

In 1956, the standard language of the People's Republic of China was officially defined as: "P?t?nghuà is the standard form of Modern Chinese with the Beijing phonological system as its norm of pronunciation, and Northern dialects as its base dialect, and looking to exemplary modern works in báihuà 'vernacular literary language' for its grammatical norms."[29][30] By the official definition, Standard Chinese uses:

  • The phonology or sound system of Beijing. A distinction should be made between the sound system of a variety and the actual pronunciation of words in it. The pronunciations of words chosen for the standardized language do not necessarily reproduce all of those of the Beijing dialect. The pronunciation of words is a standardization choice and occasional standardization differences (not accents) do exist, between Putonghua and Guoyu, for example.
  • The vocabulary of Mandarin dialects in general. This means that all slang and other elements deemed "regionalisms" are excluded. On the one hand, the vocabulary of all Chinese varieties, especially in more technical fields like science, law, and government, are very similar. (This is similar to the profusion of Latin and Greek words in European languages.) This means that much of the vocabulary of Standard Chinese is shared with all varieties of Chinese. On the other hand, much of the colloquial vocabulary of the Beijing dialect is not included in Standard Chinese, and may not be understood by people outside Beijing.[31]
  • The grammar and idiom of exemplary modern Chinese literature, such as the work of Lu Xun, collectively known as "vernacular" (báihuà). Modern written vernacular Chinese is in turn based loosely upon a mixture of northern (predominant), southern, and classical grammar and usage. This gives formal Standard Chinese structure a slightly different feel from that of the street Beijing dialect.

In the early 1950s, this standard language was understood by 41% of the population of the country, including 54% of speakers of Mandarin dialects, but only 11% of people in the rest of the country. By 1984, the proportion understanding the standard language nationally had risen to 90% and the proportion understanding the standard language among the speakers of Mandarin dialects had risen to 91%.[32] A survey conducted by the China's Education Ministry in 2007 indicated that 53.06% of the population were able to effectively communicate orally in Standard Chinese.[33]

Current role

Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of all the varieties of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin.

From an official point of view, Standard Chinese serves the purpose of a lingua franca--a way for speakers of the several mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese, as well as the ethnic minorities in China, to communicate with each other. The very name P?t?nghuà, or "common speech," reinforces this idea. In practice, however, due to Standard Chinese being a "public" lingua franca, other Chinese varieties and even non-Sinitic languages have shown signs of losing ground to the standard.

While the Chinese government has been actively promoting P?t?nghuà on TV, radio and public services like buses to ease communication barriers in the country, developing P?t?nghuà as the official common language of the country has been challenging due to the presence of various ethnic groups which fear for the loss of their cultural identity and native dialect. In the summer of 2010, reports of increasing the use of the P?t?nghuà in local TV broadcasting in Guangdong lead to thousands of Cantonese-speaking citizens in demonstration on the street.[34]

In both mainland China and Taiwan, the use of Mandarin as the medium of instruction in the educational system and in the media has contributed to the spread of Mandarin. As a result, Mandarin is now spoken by most people in mainland China and Taiwan, though often with some regional or personal variation from the standard in terms of pronunciation or lexicon. However, the Ministry of Education in 2014 estimated that only about 70% of the population of China spoke Standard Mandarin to some degree, and only one tenth of those could speak it "fluently and articulately".[3][35] There is also a 20% difference in penetration between eastern and western parts of China and a 50% difference between urban and rural areas. In addition, there are still 400 million Chinese who are only able to listen and understand Mandarin and not able to speak it.[36] Therefore, in China's 13th Five Year Plan, the general goal is to raise the penetration rate to over 80% by 2020.[37]

Both mainland China and Taiwan use Standard Chinese in the official context. The PRC in particular is keen to promote its use as a national lingua franca and has enacted a law (the National Common Language and Writing Law) which states that the government must "promote" Standard Mandarin. There is no explicit official intent to have Standard Chinese replace the regional varieties, but local governments have enacted regulations (such as the Guangdong National Language Regulations) which "implement" the national law by way of coercive measures to control the public use of regional spoken varieties and traditional characters in writing. In practice, some elderly or rural Chinese-language speakers do not speak Standard Chinese fluently, if at all, though most are able to understand it. But urban residents and the younger generations, who received their education with Standard Mandarin as the primary medium of education, are almost all fluent in a version of Standard Chinese, some to the extent of being unable to speak their local dialect.

In the predominantly Han areas in mainland China, while the use of Standard Chinese is encouraged as the common working language, the PRC has been somewhat sensitive to the status of minority languages and, outside the education context, has generally not discouraged their social use. Standard Chinese is commonly used for practical reasons, as, in many parts of southern China, the linguistic diversity is so large that neighboring city dwellers may have difficulties communicating with each other without a lingua franca.

In Taiwan, the relationship between Standard Chinese and other varieties, particularly Taiwanese Hokkien, has been more politically heated. During the martial law period under the Kuomintang (KMT) between 1949 and 1987, the KMT government revived the Mandarin Promotion Council and discouraged or, in some cases, forbade the use of Hokkien and other non-standard varieties. This produced a political backlash in the 1990s. Under the administration of Chen Shui-Bian, other Taiwanese varieties were taught in schools. The former President, Chen Shui-Bian, often spoke in Hokkien during speeches, while after the late 1990s, former President Lee Teng-hui, also speaks Hokkien openly.

In Hong Kong and Macau, which are now special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Cantonese is the primary language spoken by the majority of the population and used by government and in their respective legislatures. After Hong Kong's handover from the United Kingdom and Macau's handover from Portugal, their governments use Putonghua to communicate with the Central People's Government of the PRC. There have been widespread efforts to promote usage of Putonghua in Hong Kong since the handover,[38] with specific efforts to train police[39] and teachers.[40]

In Singapore, the government has heavily promoted a "Speak Mandarin Campaign" since the late 1970s, with the use of other Chinese varieties in broadcast media being prohibited and their use in any context officially discouraged until recently.[41] This has led to some resentment amongst the older generations, as Singapore's migrant Chinese community is made up almost entirely of people of south Chinese descent. Lee Kuan Yew, the initiator of the campaign, admitted that to most Chinese Singaporeans, Mandarin was a "stepmother tongue" rather than a true mother language. Nevertheless, he saw the need for a unified language among the Chinese community not biased in favor of any existing group.[42]

Mandarin is now spreading overseas beyond East Asia and Southeast Asia as well. In New York City, the use of Cantonese that dominated the Manhattan Chinatown for decades is being rapidly swept aside by Mandarin, the lingua franca of most of the latest Chinese immigrants.[43]

Standard Chinese and the educational system

A poster outside a high school in Yangzhou urges people to "speak Putonghua, welcome guests from all parts" and "use civilised language".

In both the PRC and Taiwan, Standard Chinese is taught by immersion starting in elementary school. After the second grade, the entire educational system is in Standard Chinese, except for local language classes that have been taught for a few hours each week in Taiwan starting in the mid-1990s.

In December 2004, the first survey of language use in the People's Republic of China revealed that only 53% of its population, about 700 million people, could communicate in Standard Chinese.[44] This 53% is defined as a passing grade above 3-B (a score above 60%) of the Evaluation Exam.

With the fast development of the country and the massive internal migration in China, the standard Putonghua Proficiency Test has quickly become popular. Many university graduates in mainland China take this exam before looking for a job. Employers often require varying proficiency in Standard Chinese from applicants depending on the nature of the positions. Applicants of some positions, e.g. telephone operators, may be required to obtain a certificate. People raised in Beijing are sometimes considered inherently 1-A (A score of at least 97%) and exempted from this requirement.[] As for the rest, the score of 1-A is rare. According to the official definition of proficiency levels, people who get 1-B (A score of at least 92%) are considered qualified to work as television correspondents or in broadcasting stations.[] 2-A (A score of at least 87%) can work as Chinese Literature Course teachers in public schools.[] Other levels include: 2-B (A score of at least 80%), 3-A (A score of at least 70%) and 3-B (A score of at least 60%). In China, a proficiency of level 3-B usually cannot be achieved unless special training is received. Even though many Chinese do not speak with standard pronunciation, spoken Standard Chinese is widely understood to some degree.

The China National Language And Character Working Committee was founded in 1985. One of its important responsibilities is to promote Standard Chinese proficiency for Chinese native speakers.


The usual unit of analysis is the syllable, consisting of an optional initial consonant, an optional medial glide, a main vowel and an optional coda, and further distinguished by a tone.[45]

Initial consonants, with pinyin spellings[46]
Labial Alveolar Dental sibilants Retroflex Palatal Velar
Stops unaspirated pb td t?sz zh tj kg
aspirated p?p t?t t?s?c ?ch tq k?k
Nasals mm nn
Fricatives ff ss ?sh ?x xh
Approximants ww ll ?~?r jy

The palatal initials [t?], [t] and [?] pose a classic problem of phonemic analysis. Since they occur only before high front vowels, they are in complementary distribution with three other series, the dental sibilants, retroflexes and velars, which never occur in this position.[47]

Syllable finals, with pinyin spellings[48]
i ?e aa eiei aiai ouou auao ?nen anan eng a?ang ?er
ii ieie iaia iouiu iauiao inin ienian i?ing ia?iang
uu u?uo uaua ueiui uaiuai u?nun uanuan u?ong ua?uang
yü yeüe ynun yenuan iu?iong

The [] final, which occurs only after dental sibilant and retroflex initials, is a syllabic approximant, prolonging the initial.[49][50]

Relative pitch contours of the four full tones

The rhotacized vowel [?] forms a complete syllable.[51] A reduced form of this syllable occurs as a sub-syllabic suffix, spelled -r in pinyin and often with a diminutive connotation. The suffix modifies the coda of the base syllable in a rhotacizing process called erhua.[52]

Each full syllable is pronounced with a phonemically distinctive pitch contour. There are four tonal categories, marked in pinyin with iconic diacritic symbols, as in the words m? (?/? "mother"), (? "hemp"), m? (?/? "horse") and (?/? "curse").[53] The tonal categories also have secondary characteristics. For example, the third tone is long and murmured, whereas the fourth tone is relatively short.[54][55] Statistically, vowels and tones are of similar importance in the language.[a][57][dead link]

There are also weak syllables, including grammatical particles such as the interrogative ma (?/?) and certain syllables in polysyllabic words. These syllables are short, with their pitch determined by the preceding syllable.[58]

Regional accents

It is common for Standard Chinese to be spoken with the speaker's regional accent, depending on factors such as age, level of education, and the need and frequency to speak in official or formal situations. This appears to be changing, though, in large urban areas, as social changes, migrations, and urbanization take place.

Due to evolution and standardization, Mandarin, although based on the Beijing dialect, is no longer synonymous with it. Part of this was due to the standardization to reflect a greater vocabulary scheme and a more archaic and "proper-sounding" pronunciation and vocabulary.

Distinctive features of the Beijing dialect are more extensive use of erhua in vocabulary items that are left unadorned in descriptions of the standard such as the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, as well as more neutral tones.[59] An example of standard versus Beijing dialect would be the standard mén (door) and Beijing ménr.

Most Standard Chinese as spoken on Taiwan differs mostly in the tones of some words as well as some vocabulary. Minimal use of the neutral tone and erhua, and technical vocabulary constitute the greatest divergences between the two forms.

The stereotypical "southern Chinese" accent does not distinguish between retroflex and alveolar consonants, pronouncing pinyin zh [t?], ch [t], and sh [?] in the same way as z [ts], c [ts?], and s [s] respectively.[60] Southern-accented Standard Chinese may also interchange l and n, final n and ng, and vowels i and ü [y]. Attitudes towards southern accents, particularly the Cantonese accent, range from disdain to admiration.[61]


Chinese is a strongly analytic language, having almost no inflectional morphemes, and relying on word order and particles to express relationships between the parts of a sentence.[62] Nouns are not marked for case and rarely marked for number.[63] Verbs are not marked for agreement or grammatical tense, but aspect is marked using post-verbal particles.[64]

The basic word order is subject-verb-object (SVO), as in English.[65] Nouns are generally preceded by any modifiers (adjectives, possessives and relative clauses), and verbs also generally follow any modifiers (adverbs, auxiliary verbs and prepositional phrases).[66]


















? ?/? /

T? wèi t?-de péngy?u zuò-le zhè-ge g?ngzuò.

He for he-GEN friend do-PERF this-CL job

'He did this job for his friends.'[67]

The predicate can be an intransitive verb, a transitive verb followed by a direct object, a copula (linking verb) shì (?) followed by a noun phrase, etc.[68] In predicative use, Chinese adjectives function as stative verbs, forming complete predicates in their own right without a copula.[69] For example,








? ?

W? bú lèi.

I not tired

'I am not tired.'

Another example is the common greeting n? h?o (), literally "you good".

Chinese additionally differs from English in that it forms another kind of sentence by stating a topic and following it by a comment.[70] To do this in English, speakers generally flag the topic of a sentence by prefacing it with "as for". For example:























? ? ?, ?

M?ma g?i w?men de qián, w? y?j?ng m?i-le tánggu?(r)

Mom give us REL money I already buy-PERF candy

'As for the money that Mom gave us, I have already bought candy with it.'

The time when something happens can be given by an explicit term such as "yesterday," by relative terms such as "formerly," etc.[71]

As in many east Asian languages, classifiers or measure words are required when using numerals, demonstratives and similar quantifiers.[72] There are many different classifiers in the language, and each noun generally has a particular classifier associated with it.[73]
















, ?/?, ?/?

y?-d?ng màozi, s?n-b?n sh?, nèi-zh? b?

one-top hat three-volume book that-branch pen

'a hat, three books, that pen'

The general classifier ge (?/?) is gradually replacing specific classifiers.[74]


Many formal, polite and humble words that were in use in imperial China have not been used in daily conversation in modern-day Mandarin, such as jiàn (?/? "my humble") and guì (?/? "your honorable").

Although Chinese speakers make a clear distinction between Standard Chinese and the Beijing dialect, there are aspects of Beijing dialect that have made it into the official standard. Standard Chinese has a T-V distinction between the polite and informal "you" that comes from the Beijing dialect, although its use is quite diminished in daily speech. It also distinguishes between "zánmen" (we including the listener) and "w?men" (we not including the listener). In practice, neither distinction is commonly used by most Chinese, at least outside the Beijing area.

The following samples are some phrases from the Beijing dialect which are not yet accepted into Standard Chinese:[]

  • bèir means 'very much'; bànsuàn means 'stagger'; bù lìn means 'do not worry about'; ? cu? means 'eat'; ch?li? means 'slip'; (?) dà l?oyermenr means 'man, male'.

The following samples are some phrases from Beijing dialect which have become accepted as Standard Chinese:[]

  • èr b? d?o means 'not very skillful'; g?ménr means 'good male friend(s)', 'buddy(ies)'; k?u ménr means 'frugal' or 'stingy'.

Writing system

Standard Chinese is written with characters corresponding to syllables of the language, most of which represent a morpheme. In most cases, these characters come from those used in Classical Chinese to write cognate morphemes of late Old Chinese, though their pronunciation, and often meaning, has shifted dramatically over two millennia.[75] However, there are several words, many of them heavily used, which have no classical counterpart or whose etymology is obscure. Two strategies have been used to write such words:[76]

  • An unrelated character with the same or similar pronunciation might be used, especially if its original sense was no longer common. For example, the demonstrative pronouns zhè "this" and "that" have no counterparts in Classical Chinese, which used ? c? and ? b? respectively. Hence the character ? (later simplified as ?) for zhè "to meet" was borrowed to write zhè "this", and the character ? for , the name of a country and later a rare surname, was borrowed to write "that".
  • A new character, usually a phono-semantic or semantic compound, might be created. For example, g?n "pursue, overtake", is written with a new character ?, composed of the signific ? z?u "run" and the phonetic ? hàn "drought".[77] This method was used to represent many elements in the periodic table.

The government of the PRC (as well as some other governments and institutions) has promulgated a set of simplified forms. Under this system, the forms of the words zhèl? ("here") and nàl? ("there") changed from / and / to and .

Chinese characters were traditionally read from top to bottom, right to left, but in modern usage it is more common to read from left to right.


English Traditional characters Simplified characters Pinyin
Hello! ! N? h?o!
What is your name? ? ? N? jiào shénme míngzi?
My name is... ... W? jiào ...
How are you? ?/ ?/ N? h?o ma? / N? z?nmeyàng?
I am fine, how about you? , W? h?n h?o, n? ne?
I don't want it / I don't want to ? W? bú yào.
Thank you! ! ! Xièxie
Welcome! / You're welcome! (Literally: No need to thank me!) / Don't mention it! (Literally: Don't be so polite!) !/ !/ ! !/ !/ ! Hu?nyíng! / Búyòng xiè! / Bú kèqì!
Yes. / Correct. ?? / ??/ ?? / ??/ Shì. / Duì. / M.
No. / Incorrect. ?/ / ?/ / Búshì. / Bú duì. / Bù.
When? Shénme shíhou?
How much money? ? ? Du?sh?o qián?
Can you speak a little slower? Nín néng shu? de zài mànxi? ma?
Good morning! / Good morning! ! / ! Z?oshang h?o! / Z?o'?n!
Goodbye! ! ! Zàijiàn!
How do you get to the airport? ? ? Qù j?ch?ng z?nme z?u?
I want to fly to London on the eighteenth 18 18 W? xi?ng shíb? hào zuò f?ij? dào Lúnd?n.
How much will it cost to get to Munich? Dào Mùníh?i yào du?sh?o qián?
I don't speak Chinese very well. ? ? W? de Hàny? shu? de bú tài h?o.
Do you speak English? ? ? N? huì shu? Y?ngy? ma?
I have no money. W? méiy?u qián.

See also


  1. ^ "A word pronounced in a wrong tone or inaccurate tone sounds as puzzling as if one said 'bud' in English, meaning 'not good' or 'the thing one sleeps in.'"[56]


  1. ^ Norman (1988), pp. 251.
  2. ^ Liang (2014), p. 45.
  3. ^ a b Luo, Chris (22 September 2014). "One-third of Chinese do not speak Putonghua, says Education Ministry". South China Morning Post.
  4. ^ Only 7% of people in China speak proper Putonghua: PRC MOE, Language Log, 2014 Sept. 24
  5. ^ (Taiwan) Archived 10 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine (2009)
  6. ^ "Languages of ASEAN". Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ Archived 18 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Chinese)
  8. ^ a b c d Mair (2013), p. 737.
  9. ^ Kane, Daniel (2006). The Chinese Language: Its History and Current Usage. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 22-23, 93. ISBN 978-0-8048-3853-5.
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Works cited

Further reading

  • Chao, Yuen Ren (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese (2nd ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-00219-7.
  • Hsia, T., China's Language Reforms, Far Eastern Publications, Yale University, (New Haven), 1956.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; & Maddieson, Ian (1996). The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 978-0-631-19814-7 (hbk); ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4 (pbk).
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Wu, Zhongji (1984). "Places of articulation: An investigation of Pekingese fricatives and affricates". Journal of Phonetics. 12: 267-278.
  • Lehmann, W. P. (ed.), Language & Linguistics in the People's Republic of China, University of Texas Press, (Austin), 1975.
  • Lin, Y., Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1972.
  • Milsky, C., "New Developments in Language Reform", The China Quarterly, No. 53, (January-March 1973), pp. 98-133.
  • Seybolt, P. J. and Chiang, G. K. (eds.), Language Reform in China: Documents and Commentary, M. E. Sharpe (White Plains), 1979. ISBN 978-0-87332-081-8.
  • Simon, W., A Beginners' Chinese-English Dictionary of the National Language (Gwoyeu): Fourth Revised Edition, Lund Humphries (London), 1975.

External links

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