Soybean Oil
Get Soybean Oil essential facts below. View Videos or join the Soybean Oil discussion. Add Soybean Oil to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Soybean Oil
Soybean oil
Soybean Oil (10059657806).jpg
Bottles of soybean oil
Clinical data
Trade namesNutrilipid, Intralipid, others
AHFS/Drugs.comProfessional Drug Facts
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3[1]
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)[1]
Routes of
administration
Intravenous (IV)
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
UNII
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.029.340 Edit this at Wikidata

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max). It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils and the second most consumed vegetable oil.[2] As a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints.

History

Chinese records dating prior to 2000 B.C. mention use of cultivated soybeans to produce edible soy oil.[3] Ancient Chinese literature reveals that soybeans were extensively cultivated and highly valued as a use for the soybean oil production process before written records were kept.[4]

Production

Soybean oil, meal and beans

To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, heated to between 60 and 88 °C (140-190 °F), rolled into flakes, and solvent-extracted with hexanes. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as "vegetable oil," or are ingredients in a wide variety of processed foods. Most of the remaining residue (soybean meal) is used as animal feed.

In the 2002-2003 growing season, 30.6 million tons (MT) of soybean oil were produced worldwide, constituting about half of worldwide edible vegetable oil production, and thirty percent of all fats and oils produced, including animal fats and oils derived from tropical plants.[5] In 2018-2019, world production was at 57.4 MT with the leading producers including China (16.6 MT), US (10.9 MT), Argentina (8.4 MT), Brazil (8.2 MT), and EU (3.2 MT).[6]

Composition

Per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and 58 g of polyunsaturated fat.[7][8] The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid (C-18:3), 7-10%, and linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and the monounsaturate oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%.[9] It also contains the saturated fatty acids stearic acid (C-18:0), 4%, and palmitic acid (C-16:0), 10%.

The high-proportion of oxidation-prone polyunsaturated fatty acid is undesirable for some uses, such as cooking oils. Three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid. The resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If the hydrogenation is only partially complete, the oil may contain small amounts of trans fat.

Comparison to other vegetable oils

Properties of vegetable oils[10][11]
Type Processing
treatment[12]
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[10] Oleic
acid
(?-9)
Total[10] ?-Linolenic
acid
(?-3)
Linoleic
acid
(?-6)
?-6:3
ratio
Almond oil
Avocado[13] 11.6 70.6 52-66[14] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[15]
Brazil nut[16] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[17]
Canola[18] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[17]
Cashew oil
Chia seeds
Cocoa butter oil
Coconut[19] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[17]
Corn[20] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Cottonseed[22] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[21]
Flaxseed/Linseed[23] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F)[24]
Hemp seed[25] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[26]
Vigna mungo
Mustard oil
Olive[27] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[17]
Palm[28] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[29] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 0 31.4 very high 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Pecan oil
Perilla oil
Rice bran oil
Safflower[30] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F)[17]
Sesame[31] ? 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
Soybean[32] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
Soybean[33] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[21]
Walnut oil
Sunflower (standard)[34] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 very high 227 °C (440 °F)[21]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[35] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8 199:1
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[36] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 18:1 232 °C (450 °F)[37]
Cottonseed[38] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
Palm[39] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by weight of total fat.


Applications

Food

Soybean oil is mostly used for frying and baking. It is also used as a condiment for salads.

Properties of common cooking fats (per 100 g)
Type of fat Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Mono­unsaturated fat (g) Poly­unsaturated fat (g) Smoke point
Butter[40] 80-88 43-48 15-19 2-3 150 °C (302 °F)[41]
Canola oil[42] 100 6-7 62-64 24-26 205 °C (401 °F)[43][44]
Coconut oil[45] 99 83 6 2 177 °C (351 °F)
Corn oil[46] 100 13-14 27-29 52-54 230 °C (446 °F)[41]
Lard[47] 100 39 45 11 190 °C (374 °F)[41]
Peanut oil[48] 100 17 46 32 225 °C (437 °F)[41]
Olive oil[49] 100 13-19 59-74 6-16 190 °C (374 °F)[41]
Rice bran oil 100 25 38 37 250 °C (482 °F)[50]
Soybean oil[51] 100 15 22 57-58 257 °C (495 °F)[41]
Suet[52] 94 52 32 3 200 °C (392 °F)
Sunflower oil[53] 100 10 20 66 225 °C (437 °F)[41]
Sunflower oil (high oleic) 100 12 84[43] 4[43]
Vegetable shortening (hydrogenated)[54] 100 25 41 28 165 °C (329 °F)[41]

Drying oils

Soybean oil is one of many drying oils, which means that it will slowly harden (due to free-radical based polymerization) upon exposure to air, forming a flexible, transparent, and waterproof solid. Because of this property, it is used in some printing ink and oil paint formulations. However, other oils (such as linseed oil) may be superior for some drying oil applications.

Medical uses

Soybean oil is indicated for parenteral nutrition as a source of calories and essential fatty acids.[55][56]

Fixative for insect repellents

While soybean oil has no direct insect repellent activity, it is used as a fixative to extend the short duration of action of essential oils such as geranium oil in several commercial products.[57][58]

Trading

Soybean oil is traded at the Chicago Board of Trade in contracts of 60,000 pounds at a time. Prices are listed in cents and hundredths of a cent per pound.

References

  1. ^ a b "Fat emulsion Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ https://www.statista.com/statistics/263937/vegetable-oils-global-consumption/
  3. ^ Kleinman G (2013). Trading Commodities and Financial Futures: A Step-by-Step Guide to Mastering the Markets (4th ed.). Financial Times Press (published March 11, 2013). p. 100. ISBN 978-0134087184.
  4. ^ Min DB (1986). Smouse TH (ed.). Flavor Chemistry of Fats and Oils. American Oil Chemists Society (published January 1, 1986). p. 85. ISBN 978-0935315127.
  5. ^ United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics 2004 Archived 2013-03-02 at the Wayback Machine. Table 3-51.
  6. ^ "World Soy Oil Production". The Soybean Processors Association of India. Archived from the original on 2019-01-04. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Poth U (2001). "Drying Oils and Related Products". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a09_055. ISBN 3527306730.
  8. ^ "Oil, soybean, salad or cooking Nutrition Facts & Calories". www.nutritiondata.com. Archived from the original on 2010-03-30. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Ivanov DS, Levi? JD, Sredanovi? SA (2010). "Fatty acid composition of various soybean products". Journal of the Institute for Food Technology in Novi Sad. 37 (2): 65-70. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
  11. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  12. ^ "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
  13. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists' Society. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59-65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  18. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  20. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59-64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  25. ^ Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87-94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
  26. ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
  27. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  28. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  29. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  30. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  31. ^ "Soybean oil". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  32. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  33. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  34. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  36. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  37. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  39. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  40. ^ "Butter, stick, salted, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
  42. ^ "Oil, canola, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  43. ^ a b c "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture.
  44. ^ Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  45. ^ "Oil, coconut, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  46. ^ "Oil, corn, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ "Lard, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ "Peanut oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ "Oil, olive, extra virgin, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ "Rice Bran Oil FAQ's". AlfaOne.ca. Archived from the original on 2014-09-27. Retrieved .
  51. ^ "Oil, soybean, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  52. ^ "Beef, variety meats and by-products, suet, raw, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ "Sunflower oil, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ "Shortening, vegetable, nutrients". FoodData Central. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ "Nutrilipid I.V. fat emulsion- soybean oil injection, solution". DailyMed. 23 June 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  56. ^ "Intralipid- i.v. fat emulsion emulsion". DailyMed. 9 January 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  57. ^ Barnard DR, Xue RD (July 2004). "Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae)". Journal of Medical Entomology. 41 (4): 726-30. doi:10.1603/0022-2585-41.4.726. PMID 15311467.
  58. ^ Fradin MS, Day JF (July 2002). "Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mosquito bites". The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (1): 13-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011699. PMID 12097535.

External links

  • "Soybean oil". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Soybean_oil
 



 



 
Music Scenes