|o Buginese||? ? |
Clockwise, from top left : Makassar Skyline Night, Bili-bili Reservoir, Tongkonan houses in Tana Toraja, Limestone hills in Maros, Rice fields in South Sulawesi, Floating houses on Lake Tempe, Tanjung Bira beach
Toddo' Puli /
(Keep the faith)
Location of South Sulawesi in Indonesia
|Founded||19 October 1669|
|Founded As Province||13 December 1960|
and largest city
|o Body||South Sulawesi Regional Government|
|o Governor||Nurdin Abdullah|
|o Vice Governor||Andi Sudirman Sulaiman|
|o Total||46,717.48 km2 (18,037.72 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,478 m (11,411 ft)|
|o Density||190/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|o Ethnic groups||Bugis (41.9%), Makassarese (25.43%), Toraja (9.02%), Mandar (6.1%)|
|o Religion||Islam (89.62%), Protestantism (7.62%), Roman Catholicism (1.54%), Buddhism (0.24%), Hinduism (0.72%), Confucianism (0.004)|
|o Languages||Indonesian (official)|
|Time zone||UTC+08 (Indonesia Central Time)|
90xxx, 91xxx, 92xxx
|Area codes||(+62) 4xx|
|ISO 3166 code||ID-SN|
|Vehicle sign||DD, DP, DW|
|HDI rank||14th (2014)|
|Website||Government official site|
South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan, abbreviated as Sulsel; Buginese: ? ?) is a province in the southern peninsula of Sulawesi. The Selayar Islands archipelago to the south of Sulawesi is also part of the province. The capital is Makassar. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi to the north, the Gulf of Bone and Southeast Sulawesi to the east, Makassar Strait to the west, and Flores Sea to the south.
The 2010 census estimated the population as 8,032,551 which makes South Sulawesi the most populous province on the island (46% of the population of Sulawesi is in South Sulawesi), and the sixth most populous province in Indonesia. By mid 2019 this was estimated to have risen to 8,819,500. The main ethnic groups in South Sulawesi are the Buginese, Makassarese, Toraja, and Mandar. The economy of the province is based on agriculture, fishing, and mining of gold, magnesium, iron and other metals. The pinisi, a traditional Indonesian two-masted sailing ship, is still used widely by the Buginese and Makassarese, mostly for inter-insular transportation, cargo, and fishing purposes within the Indonesian archipelago.
During the golden era of the spice trade, from the 15th to 19th centuries, South Sulawesi served as the gateway to the Maluku Islands. There were a number of small kingdoms, including two prominent ones, the Kingdom of Gowa near Makassar and the Bugis kingdom located in Bone. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) began operating in the region in the 15th century. VOC later allied with the Bugis prince, Arung Palakka, and they defeated the kingdom of Gowa. The king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign a treaty which greatly reduced the power of Bungaya Gowa.
Sulawesi was first inhabited by humans about 30,000 years ago. The archaeological remains of the earliest inhabitants were discovered in caves near limestone hills around Maros, about 30 km northeast of Makassar, the capital of the South Sulawesi province. Pebble and flake stone tools have been collected from the river terraces in the valley of Walanae, among Soppeng and Sengkang, including the bones from giant pig and elephant species that are now extinct. Hand print paintings, estimated to be around 35,000 to 40,000 years old, have been found in the Pettakere cave, located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the town of Maros and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Makassar.
During the golden era of the spice trade, from the 15th to 19th centuries, South Sulawesi served as the gateway to the Maluku Islands.
At around the 14th century in South Sulawesi there were a number of small kingdoms, including two prominent ones, the Kingdom of Gowa near Makassar and the Bugis kingdom located in Bone. In 1530, the kingdom of Gowa began development and in the mid 16th century, Gowa become one of the most important trade centers in eastern Indonesia. In 1605, the King of Gowa embraced Islam and made the kingdom of Gowa Islamist and between the years 1608 and 1611, the Kingdom of Gowa conquered the kingdom of Bugis so that Islam could be spread to the regions of Makassar and Bone.
Dutch East India Company began operating in the region in the 17th century and saw the Kingdom of Gowa as an obstacle to its desire for control of the spice trade in this area. VOC later allied with the Bugis prince, Arung Palakka, who was living in exile after the fall of the Bugis. After a year-long battle, they defeated the kingdom of Gowa. And the king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign a treaty which greatly reduced the power of Bungaya Gowa. Furthermore, Palakka became ruler in South Sulawesi.
A Bugis queen later emerged to lead the resistance against the Dutch, who were busy dealing with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Yet once past the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch returned to South Sulawesi and eradicated the queen's rebellion. But resistance of the Bugis people against colonial rule continued until 1905. In 1905, the Dutch also managed to conquer Tana Toraja.
Before the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia, South Sulawesi consisted of a number of independent kingdoms' territory and was inhabited by four ethnic groups namely the Bugis, Makassar, Mandar, and Toraja.
South Sulawesi is located at 4°20'S 120°15'E and covers an area of 45,764.53 square kilometres. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi to the north, the Gulf of Bone and Southeast Sulawesi to the east, Makassar Strait to the west, and Flores Sea to the south.
Five years after independence, the government issued Law No. 21 of 1950, which became the basis of the legal establishment for the Sulawesi province. Ten years later, the government passed Law No. 47 of 1960 which endorsed the formation of the South/Southeast Sulawesi province. Four years after that, with Act No. 13 of 1964, the provinces of South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi were separated.
Forty years later, the South Sulawesi government was split into two, with the regencies of Majene, Mamasa, Mamuju, Pasangkayu, and Polewali Mandar were separated off into a new West Sulawesi province on 5 October 2004 under Act No. 26 of 2004.
The remaining South Sulawesi Province is divided into 21 regencies and three independent cities, listed below with their areas and their populations as of the 2010 Census and according to official statistics for 1 January 2014.
|Makassar (city)||175.77||1,100,019||1,339,374||1,398,804||Makassar||0.793 (High)|
|Palopo (city)||247.52||#||148,033||154,579||Palopo||0.756 (High)|
|Parepare (city)||99.33||108,258||129,542||135,069||Parepare||0.756 (High)|
|Bantaeng Regency||395.83||158,632||176,984||184,637||Bantaeng||0.657 (Medium)|
|Barru Regency||1,174.71||151,085||165,900||173,440||Barru||0.679 (Medium)|
|Bone Regency||4,559.00||648,089||717,268||749,925||Watampone||0.620 (Medium)|
|Bulukumba Regency||1,154.67||352,419||394,757||412,286||Bulukumba||0.652 (Medium)|
|East Luwu Regency
|Enrekang Regency||1,786.01||166,307||190,175||198,795||Enrekang||0.693 (Medium)|
|Gowa Regency||1,883.32||512,876||652,329||682,275||Sungguminasa||0.661 (Medium)|
|Jeneponto Regency||749.79||317,588||342,222||358,096||Bontosunggu||0.614 (Medium)|
|Luwu Regency||3,000.25||398,131||332,863||347,419||Belopa||0.673 (Medium)|
|Maros Regency||1,619.12||272,116||318,238||333,334||Maros||0.666 (Medium)|
|North Luwu Regency
|North Toraja Regency
|Pangkajene and Islands Regency
(Pangkajene Dan Kepulauan)
|Pinrang Regency||1,961.77||310,833||351,161||366,892||Pinrang||0.689 (Medium)|
|Selayar Islands Regency
|Sidenreng Rappang Regency||1,883.25||238,419||271,801||284,127||Pangkajene Sidenreng||0.681 (Medium)|
|Sinjai Regency||819.96||204,385||228,936||239,162||Sinjai||0.638 (Medium)|
|Soppeng Regency||1,359.44||219,505||223,757||233,882||Watansoppeng||0.647 (Medium)|
|Takalar Regency||566.51||229,718||269,171||281,715||Pattallassang||0.635 (Medium)|
|Tana Toraja Regency||2,054.30||392,726||221,795||231,013||Makale||0.650 (Medium)|
|Wajo Regency||2,056.20||357,720||384,694||402,410||Sengkang||0.664 (Medium)|
|Province Total||46,717.48||7,159,170||8,032,551||8,395,747||Makassar||0.684 (Medium)|
South Sulawesi has a diverse range of ethnic groups. The main three are:
There are various languages and dialects spoken in South Sulawesi. The majority of them belong to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of Austronesian languages. Below is the list of major languages spoken in the province.
3,921,543 males and 4,111,008 females with 1,848,132 housing units with an average of 4.34 people per unit versus national average of 3.86. Some 13.3 percent of the population was under the national poverty line.
The main religion in South Sulawesi is Islam at 89.62% (7,200,938). Other major religions include Protestantism 7.62% (612,751), Roman Catholicism 1.54% (124,255), Buddhism 0.24% (19,867), Hinduism 0.72% (58,393), and Confucianism 0.004% (367).
The Sulawesi economy grew 7.78 percent in 2008 and grew by 6.20 percent in 2009. Economic Growth in the First Quarter of 2010 reached 7.77 percent. The GDP in 2009 (ADHK) amounted to Rp 47.31 trillion and 99.90 Trillion (ADHB).
As one of the national rice granaries, South Sulawesi annually produces 2,305,469 tons of rice. Of that amount, rice designated for local consumption is around 884,375 tons and 1,421,094 tons of reserves remain for distribution to other eastern areas. Rice is even exported to Malaysia, to the Philippines, and to Papua New Guinea. The locations of the largest rice production are in the Bone regency, in Soppeng, in Wajo, in Sidrap, in Pinrang, and in Luwu (Bodowasipilu Area).
In addition to corn, the South Sulawesi region also produces cassavas, sweet potatoes, green beans, peanuts. and soybeans. Some luxuries such as hybrid coconuts, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, tea, cashews, and cotton are also produced.
The Tata Guna Horan Agreement (TGHK) of 2004 protects a lot of the forest in South Sulawesi creating a limited output of timber related products.
Tuna and snapper-grouper are caught in large proportions and seaweed is grown to eat. Farms also have all of the typical animals such as chickens, cows, pigs, goats, etc.
One of the factors that contributes to the high GRDP of South Sulawesi is the mining sector. Gold, magnesium, iron, granite, lead, nickel, and stone products are mined.
Trans-Sulawesi Railway is being constructed. It will connect Makassar and Parepare. 44 km of the railway, connecting Barru to Palanro is targeted to operate in the end of 2018. The entire Makassar-Parepare railway, with a length of 150 km, will be completed in 2019.
Culture Siri 'Na Pacce (? ? ) is one cultural philosophy of the Bugis-Makassar Society which must be upheld. If one is a siri 'na pacce (not a person), then that person doesn't exceed the behavior of animals, because it has no sense of shame, self-esteem, and social concerns. The people of Bugis-Makassar, they teach morality in the form of advice about decency, prohibition, and the rights and obligations that dominate human action to preserve and defend himself and his honor. They have a very strong relationship with the view of Islam in terms of spirituality, where the strength of the soul can conquer the body. The core concept of siri 'a pace covers all aspects of community life and is the identity of the Bugis-Makassar.
Baju bodo ( ?) is the traditional costume of the women. Baju bodo is rectangular and is usually short sleeved. According to customs, every color of the clothes worn by women shows the age or the dignity of the wearer. Clothing is often used for ceremonies such as weddings. But now, baju bodo is worn in other events such as dance competitions or to welcome guests.
The pinisi or phinisi () is a traditional Indonesian two-masted sailing ship. It was mainly built by the Konjo tribe, a sub-ethnic group but was, and still is used widely by the Buginese and Makassarese, mostly for inter-insular transportation, cargo, and fishing purposes within the Indonesian archipelago.
The hull of the ships looks similar to that of a dhow while the fore-and-aft rigging is similar to that of western schooners, although it might be more correctly termed to resemble a ketch, as the front mast is the larger. The large mainsails differ from western style gaff rigs though, as they often do not have a boom and the sail is not lowered with the gaff. Instead it is reefed towards the mast, much like a curtain, thus allowing the gaff to be used as deck crane in the harbor. The lower part of the mast itself may resemble a tripod or is made of two poles. Pinisi may be 20 to 35 meters long and can weigh up to 350 tons. The masts may be as high as 30 meters above the deck.
South Sulawesi has three types of traditional houses. The most known are the Rumah Panggung (Balla'/Bola) from Bugis Makassar and the Tongkonan from Toraja.
Usually a good day or a month to build the house is determined by those who have the skill in that regard. Building the house is preceded by a ritual ceremony.
Makassar Traditional Songs (Kelong)
Bugis Traditional Songs (Dendang)
Toraja Traditional Songs
In South Sulawesi, the traditional food is diverse, ranging from soup to traditional cakes. This is a chart with some of the traditional food of South Sulawesi:
As with other blades in the Malay Archipelago, traditionally-made badik are believed to be imbued with a supernatural force during the time of their forging. The pamor in particular is said to affect its owner, bringing either well-being and prosperity or misfortune and poverty. Aside from being used as a weapon and hunting tool, the badik is a symbol of cultural identity in Sulawesi. The Bugis and Makassar people still carry badik as part of their daily attire. The badik is worn on the right side, with the butt end of the handle pointing to the rear.
|Bosowa FM Makassar||88.5||FM|
|Fajar FM Makassar||89.3||FM|
|Medika FM Makassar||90.1||FM|
|Radio Suara Celebes FM||90.9||FM|
|RRI Pro 2 FM Makassar||96.8||FM|
|Delta FM Makassar||99.2||FM|
|Anak Muda FM Makassar||100.0||FM|
|Suara Celebes FM Makassar||100.4||FM|
|Telstar FM Makassar||102.7||FM|
|Radio SPFM Citra Wanita Makassar||103.5||FM|
|Merkurius FM Makassar||104.3||FM|
|Prambors FM Makassar||105.1||FM|
|Gamasi FM Makassar||105.9||FM|
|Savana FM Makassar||106.5||FM|
|Syiar FM Radio||107.1||FM|
|ACCa FM Palopo||101.2||FM|
|Radio As' Adiyah Sengkang||103.2||FM|
|Radio Adiafiry Watansoppeng||100.8||AM|
|Station||Frequency||Networks||District / City|
|TVRI Sulawesi Selatan||37 UHF||TVRI||Makassar|
|Kompas TV Makassar||23 UHF||Kompas TV||Makassar|
|Fajar TV||49 UHF||JPMC||Makassar|
|SUN TV Makassar||51 UHF||SINDOtv||Makassar|
|Celebes TV||31 UHF||Bosowa Corporation||Makassar|
|RTV Makassar||55 UHF||RTV||Makassar|
|Cakrawala TV(NET)||57 UHF||B-Channel||Makassar|
|SaktiTV Makassar||53 UHF||SaktiTV||Makassar|
|MCTV PARE||24 UHF||Pare-Pare|
|SINJAI TV||51 UHF||Sinjai|