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A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. "chip") designed to produce sound. It might do this through digital, analog or mixed-mode electronics. Sound chips normally contain things like oscillators, envelope controllers, samplers, filters and amplifiers. During the late 20th century, sound chips were widely used in arcade game system boards, video game consoles, home computers, and PC sound cards.
Programmable sound generators (PSG)
- General Instrument AY-3-8910, used in arcade boards (DECO,Taito Z80,Konami Scramble,Irem M27,Konami 6809,Capcom Z80), computers (Colour Genie, Oric 1, MSX, Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum with 128K RAM, Elektor TVGC and Mockingboard), and the Intellivision home console.
- General Instrument SP0250, LPC (linear predictive coding) speech synthesis chip used in the Sega G80 arcade system board.
- General Instrument SP0256, LPC speech synthesis chip.
- Texas Instruments SN76477, used in the Space Invaders arcade system board.
- Texas Instruments SN76489 "DCSG", used in various arcade system boards, the Sega SG-1000 console, and the BBC Micro, home computer Sharp MZ-800 and Texas Instruments TI-99/4A computers.
- Texas Instruments SN76489A "DCSG", used in the ColecoVision, Sega Master System and Mega Drive/Genesis consoles, and the Sega Game Gear and Pico handheld game consoles.
- Texas Instruments SN76496, used in the Tandy 1000 computer.
- Ensoniq 5503, used in the Apple IIgs computer.
- Konami SCC, used in certain arcade boards and game carts for the MSX.
Frequency modulation (FM) synthesis
- Jerry, used in the Atari Jaguar. Also supports single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis and PCM (sample-based synthesis).
- ESFM synthesizer, used in most ESS Tech sound chips, ES1868/69 being most common. Chip includes wavetable interface. Two modes, one "OPL2/3 compatible" and the other the native superset.
- Yamaha YM2151 (a.k.a. OPM), used in mid-80's to mid-90's arcade games (the most prolific FM chip used in arcades), the Sharp X68000 computer, and the Yamaha SFG-01 and SFG-05 FM Sound Synthesizer Unit cartridges for the MSX
- Yamaha YM2164 (a.k.a. OPP),
- Yamaha YM2203 (a.k.a. OPN), used in some 80's arcade games and the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 computers
- Yamaha YM2413 (a.k.a. OPLL), used in the Japanese Sega Master System, and in the MSX in MSX Music cartridges like the FM-PAC and internally in several Japanese models by Panasonic, Sony and Sanyo
- Yamaha YM2414 (a.k.a. OPZ),
- Yamaha YM2608 (a.k.a. OPNA), used in the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 computers
- Yamaha YM2610 (a.k.a. OPNB), used in the SNK Neo Geo console
- Yamaha YM2612 (a.k.a. OPN2), used in the Sega Mega Drive / Genesis console and FM Towns computer
- Yamaha YM3526 (a.k.a. OPL)
- Yamaha YM3812 (a.k.a. OPL2), used in AdLib and early Sound Blaster sound cards for the PC
- Yamaha Y8950 (a.k.a. MSX-AUDIO, very similar to Yamaha YM3526), used in MSX-Audio cartridges for the MSX: Panasonic FS-CA1, Toshiba HX-MU900, and Philips NMS-1205
- Yamaha YMF262 (a.k.a. OPL3), used in Sound Blaster Pro 2.0 and later cards for the PC
- Yamaha YMF278 (a.k.a. OPL4), used in the Moonsound cartridge for the MSX computer
- Yamaha YMF288 (a.k.a. OPN3), used in the NEC PC-98 computer
- Yamaha YMF7xx (Embedded audio chipset in some laptops and soundcards)
Pulse-code modulation (PCM, sample-based)
- Jerry, used in the Atari Jaguar. Also supports FM and single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis.
- SDMA, used in the Atari Falcon030.
- LMC1992, used in the Atari STE and Atari TT030
- VLM5030 Speech Synthesizer, a speech synthesis chip used in the arcade game Punch-Out!!