Solar Term
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Solar Term
The 24 solar terms
(Twenty-four) solar terms
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese()
Simplified Chinese()
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet(hai mi t?/nh? th?p t?) ti?t khí
Ch? Nôm(/)
Korean name
Hangul()
Hanja()
Japanese name
Kanji()
Hiragana()

A solar term is any of twenty-four (24) periods in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon.[1] The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic[2] and are used by lunisolar calendars to stay synchronized with the seasons, which is crucial for agrarian societies. The solar terms are also used to calculate intercalary months in East Asian calendars;[3] which month is repeated depends on the position of the sun at the time.

According to the Book of Documents, the first determined term was the Winter Solstice, also named Dongzhi by Zhou Gong, while he was trying to locate the geological center of his kingdom, by measuring the length of the sun's shadow on an ancient timekeeper instrument named Tu Gui ().[4] Then four terms of seasons were set, which were soon evolved as eight terms; until 104 B. C. in the book Taichu Calendar, the entire twenty-four (24) solar terms were officially included in the Chinese calendar.[5]

Because the Sun's speed along the ecliptic varies depending on the Earth-Sun distance, the number of days that it takes the Sun to travel between each pair of solar terms varies slightly throughout the year. Each solar term is divided into three pentads [ja] (? hòu) (ja), so there are 72 pentads in a year. Each pentad consists of five, rarely six, days, and are mostly named after phenological (biological or botanical) phenomena corresponding to the pentad.

Solar terms originated in China, then spread to Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, countries in the East Asian cultural sphere. Although each term was named based on the seasonal changes of climate in North China Plain, peoples living in the different climates still use it with no changes.[6] This is exhibited by the fact that traditional Chinese, Hanja, and Kanji characters for most of the solar terms are identical.

On December 1, 2016, the Solar Terms were listed as UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage.

List of solar terms

Sun's ecliptic
longitude
Chinese
name[7]
Korean name[8] Vietnamese
name
Japanese
name
Ryukyuan
(Okinawan) name
Gregorian
Date[9]
(± 1 day)
Reference for
Month Intercalating
Remark[10][11][12] Chinese zodiac & Earthly Branch of Month Corresponding Astrological Sign
315°
lìch?n
(/)
ipchun/ripchun
L?p xuân () ()
risshun
()
risshun
Feb 4 1st month initial Spring Begins
(Spring Commences)
Tiger (?)
Yín (?)
Aquarius
()
330°
y?shu?[13]
()
usu
V? th?y () ()
usui
()
ushii
Feb 19 1st month midpoint More Rain Than Snow
(Spring Showers)
Pisces
()
345° ()
j?ngzhé[14]
()
gyeongchip
Kinh tr?p () (?)
keichitsu
()
uduruku

()
udurukuu (?)
mushi'uduruku

Mar 6 2nd month initial Hibernating Insects Awaken
(Insects Waken)
Rabbit (?)
M?o (?)

ch?nf?n
()
chunbun
Xuân phân () ()
shunbun
(?)
sunbun
Mar 21 2nd month midpoint Spring Center
(Vernal equinox)
Aries
()
15°
q?ngmíng[15]
()
cheongmyeong
Thanh minh () (?)
seimei
(?)
shiimii
Apr 5 3rd month initial Clear and Bright
(Bright and Clear, Qingming Festival)
Dragon (?)
Chén (?)
30° ()
g?y?[16]
()
gogu
C?c v? () ()
kokuu
()
kukuu
Apr 20 3rd month midpoint Wheat Rain
(Corn Rain)
Taurus
()
45°
lìxià
(/)
ipha/ripha
L?p h? () ()
rikka
(?)
rikkaa
May 6 4th month initial Summer Begins
(Summer Commences)
Snake (?)
Sì (?)
60° ()
xi?om?n
()
soman
Ti?u mãn () ()
sh?man
(?)
suuman
May 21 4th month midpoint Creatures Plenish
(Corn Forms)
Gemini
()
75° ()
mángzhòng
()
mangjong
Mang ch?ng () (?)
b?shu
(?)
boosuu
Jun 6 5th month initial Seeding Millet
(Corn On Ear)
Horse (?)
W? (?)
90°
xiàzhì
()
haji
H? chí () ()
geshi
(?)
kaachii
Jun 21 5th month midpoint Summer Maximum (Summer Solstice) Cancer
()
105°
xi?osh?
()
soseo
Ti?u th? () ()
sh?sho
()
kuu'achisa
Jul 7 6th month initial A bit Sweltering
(Moderate Heat)
Goat (?)
Wèi (?)
120°
dàsh?
()
daeseo
i th? () (?)
taisho
()
uu'achisa
Jul 23 6th month midpoint Most Sweltering
(Great Heat)
Leo
()
135°
lìqi?
(/)
ipchu/ripchu
L?p thu () ()
rissh?
(?)
rissuu
Aug 8 7th month initial Autumn Begins
(Autumn Commences)
Monkey (?)
Sh?n (?)
150° ()
ch?sh?
()
cheoseo
X? th? () (?)
shosho
(?)
tukuru'achisa
Aug 23 7th month midpoint Heat Withdraws
(End of Heat)
Virgo
()
165°
báilù
()
baekno/baekro
B?ch l? () ()
hakuro
()
fakuruu
Sep 8 8th month initial Dews
(White Dew)
Rooster (?)
Y?u (?)
180°
qi?f?n
()
chubun
Thu phân () ()
sh?bun
(?)
suubun
Sep 23 8th month midpoint Autumn Center
(Autumn Equinox)
Libra
()
195°
hánlù
()
hanlo
Hàn l? () ()
kanro
(?)
kanruu
Oct 8 9th month initial Cold Dews
(Cold Dew)
Dog (?)
X? (?)
210°
shu?ngjiàng
()
sanggang
Sng giáng () (?)
s?k?
()
shimukudari
Oct 23 9th month midpoint Frost Scorpio
()
225°
lìd?ng
(/)
ipdong/ripdong
L?p ?ông () (?)
ritt?
()
rittuu
Nov 7 10th month initial Winter Begins
(Winter Commences)
Pig (?)
Hài (?)
240°
xi?oxu?
()
soseol
Ti?u tuy?t () ()
sh?setsu
(?)
kuuyuchi
Nov 22 10th month midpoint Snows a bit
(Light Snow)
Sagittarius
()
255°
dàxu?
()
daeseol
i tuy?t () (?)
taisetsu
(?)
uuyuchi
Dec 7 11th month initial Snows a lot
(Heavy Snow)
Rat (?)
Z? (?)
270°
d?ngzhì
()
dongji
?ông chí () ()
t?ji
()
tunjii
Dec 22 11th month midpoint Winter Maximum
(Winter Solstice, Dongzhi Festival)
Capricorn
()
285°
xi?ohán
()
sohan
Ti?u hàn () ()
sh?kan
(?)
suukan
Jan 6 12th month initial A bit Frigid
(Moderate Cold)
Ox (?)
Ch?u (?)
300°
dàhán
()
daehan
i hàn () (?)
daikan
(?)
deekan
Jan 20 12th month midpoint Most Frigid
(Severe Cold)
Aquarius
()

The "Song of Solar Terms" (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: jiéqìg?) is used to ease the memorization of jiéqì:

Regional note

In Japan, the term Setsubun () originally referred to the eves of Risshun (, 315°, the beginning of Spring) Rikka (, 45°, the beginning of Summer), Rissh? (, 135°, the beginning of Autumn), and Ritt? (, 225°, the beginning of Winter), but currently mostly refers to the day before Risshun. The name of each solar term also refers to the period of time between that day and the next solar term, or 1/24th of a year.

See also

References

  1. ^ "24 Chinese Feasts (Jiéqì, ), equivalent to the 24 Chinese Solar Terms". Chinese calendar. asia-home.com.
  2. ^ Until 1644(Chinese Empire and its tributary states) or 1844(Japan) a period of time of the solar year itself had been equally divided instead of the spatial zodiac.
  3. ^ When a lunar month's end does not reach a midpoint of the solar terms, it is regarded as the last month's intercalary one instead of the true "next" month. It is called lit."midpoint intercalating system".
  4. ^ Book of Documents.
  5. ^ Ban, Gu. Book of Han.
  6. ^ (Why off-point? -solar terms and our real feeling of the seasons) An example in Japan. It compares the climate of Taiyuan with that of Tokyo and Kyoto. In maritime Japanese islands difference of the seasonal gap length is the main problem. In subtropical or tropical regions including southern China climate difference is more serious.
  7. ^ Simplified Chinese characters are shown in parentheses if they differ from the Traditional Chinese characters.
  8. ^ Hangul are shown in parentheses. For Hangul and romanisation, where the pronunciation differs between South Korea and North Korea, the South Korean pronunciation is given first before the slash, followed by the North Korean pronunciation.
  9. ^ Date can vary within a ±1 day range.
  10. ^ literal meaning based on the climate of North China
  11. ^ "24 solar terms24? Flashcards | Quizlet". quizlet.com. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "The 24 Solar Terms".
  13. ^ the Yushi and Jingzhe have been exchanged by Liu Xin in Han dynasty.
  14. ^ the Jingzhe and Yushi have been exchanged by Liu Xin in Han dynasty.
  15. ^ the Qingmin and Guyu have been exchanged by Liu Xin in Han dynasty.
  16. ^ the Guyu and Qingmin have been exchanged by Liu Xin in Han dynasty.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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