In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation. In linguistics, a silent letter is often symbolised with a null sign ∅ EMPTY SET. Null is an unpronounced or unwritten segment. The symbol resembles the Scandinavian letter Ø and other symbols.
One of the noted difficulties of English spelling is a high number of silent letters. Edward Carney distinguishes different kinds of "silent" letters, which present differing degrees of difficulty to readers.
The distinction between "endocentric" digraphs and empty letters is somewhat arbitrary. For example, in such words as little and bottle, one might view ⟨le⟩ as an "endocentric" digraph for /?l/, or view ⟨e⟩ as an empty letter; similarly, with ⟨bu⟩ or ⟨u⟩ in buy and build.
Not all silent letters are completely redundant:
Silent letters arise in several ways:
Since accent and pronunciation differ, letters may be silent for some speakers, but not others. In non-rhotic accents, ⟨r⟩ is silent in such words as hard, feathered; in h-dropping accents, ⟨h⟩ is silent. A speaker may or may not pronounce ⟨t⟩ in often, the first ⟨c⟩ in Antarctic, ⟨d⟩ in sandwich, etc.
In the US, the h in herb is silent (an herb), but in the UK, it is pronounced (a herb). The same is true for the l in solder.
In parts of the UK, the a in dictionary and secretary is silent, but in the US, it is pronounced.
In US spellings, silent letters are sometimes omitted (e.g., acknowledgment / UK acknowledgement, ax / UK axe, catalog / UK catalogue, program / UK programme outside computer contexts), but not always (e.g., dialogue is the standard spelling in the US and the UK; dialog is regarded as a US variant; the spelling axe is also often used in the US). In most words, silent letters are written in both styles (e.g., debt, guard, house).
The Danish language has two different letters that can be silent.
The letter ⟨h⟩ is silent in most dialects if followed by ⟨v⟩, as in hvad ('what'), hvem ('who'), hvor ('where').
The letter ⟨d⟩ is usually (but not necessarily) silent if preceded by a consonant, as in en mand ('a man'), blind ('blind'). Many words ending in ⟨d⟩ are pronounced with a stød, but it is still considered a silent letter.
The Faroese language has two silent letters.
The letter edd ⟨ð⟩ is almost always silent. It is rendered in orthography for historical reasons (e.g. faðir 'father' ['f?aj], cf. Old Norse faðir). In some cases, however, the letter edd is pronounced , as in veðrið 'the weather' ['v].
The letter ge ⟨g⟩ (i.e. continuant of Old Norse [?]) is usually silent between vowels or when following a vowel before a pause (e.g. dagur 'day' ['dav], cf. Old Norse dagr ['da]; eg 'I' ['e:], cf. Old Norse ek). Use of the silent letter ge in Faroese is the same as for the letter edd - it is written for historical reasons as Faroese orthography was based on normalised spelling of Old Norse and Icelandic language.
In German, silent letters are extremely rare and occur usually in loanwords, rather than German words.[example needed]
The long ⟨i⟩ sound is sometimes written ⟨ie⟩, with a silent ⟨e⟩, as in Wien ('Vienna') or in the verb ending ⟨-ieren⟩ (e.g. appellieren, organisieren).
In some words of foreign origin, the ⟨e⟩ after ⟨i⟩ is pronounced, e.g. Ambiente, Bakterien (plural of Bakterium), Hygiene, Klient, Spermien (plural of Spermium), but is silent in e.g. Kurier, Papier, Turnier and all the -ieren verbs already mentioned. In Zeremonie, the final ⟨e⟩ is usually silent but always pronounced in its plural form Zeremonien.
Words ending in ⟨-ie⟩ can be somewhat tricky to learners:
For example, the final ⟨e⟩ is pronounced in the words Akazie, Aktie, Aktinie, Begonie, Familie, Folie, Geranie, Grazie, Hortensie, Hostie, Immobilie, Kastanie, Komödie, Kurie, Lilie, Linie, Orgie, Pinie, Serie, Studie, Tragödie,
while it is silent in the words Akademie, Allergie, Amnesie, Amnestie, Apathie, Artillerie, Batterie,Blasphemie, Chemie, Chirurgie, Demokratie, Energie, Epidemie, -gamie, Garantie, Genie, Geometrie, -grafie/-graphie, Harmonie, Hysterie, Infanterie, Ironie, Kavallerie, Knie, Kompanie, Kopie, -logie, Liturgie, Magie, Manie, Melodie, Monotonie, Nostalgie, Orthopädie, Partie, Phantasie, Philantropie, Philatelie, Philosophie, Poesie (but the e after the o is pronounced), Psychiatrie, Rhapsodie, Sinfonie, -skopie, Theorie, Therapie, Utopie.
In the female names Amalie, Emilie, Otilie, Zäzilie, the final e is pronounced, but it is silent in Leonie, Marie (but in compound words such as Marienplatz [a place in Munich], Marienstatue [statue of the Virgin Mary], the e is pronounced; the Virgin Mary is called Maria in German), Nat(h)alie, Rosalie, Rosemarie, Stefanie (or: Stephanie), Valerie.
The e is pronounced in the names Ariel(le), Daniel,Daniela, Gabriel, Gabriel(l)e (in Gabriele, the final e is pronounced), Gabriella, Mariele (the final e is pronounced), Mariella, Muriel,, but it is silent in Dieter, Frieda, Friederich, Siegfried, Siegrid, Sieglinde (the final e is pronounced), Wieland.
In country names ending in -ien , the e is pronounced: Australien, Brasilien, Indien, Kroatien, Serbien, Slowenien. In city names, the pronunciation of e after i varies: In Wien (Vienna), the e is silent, but in Triest, it is pronounced.
A silent h sometimes indicates vowel length, as in Stuhl ('chair'), or a hiatus, as in drehen ('to turn'). That h derives from an old /x/ in some words such as sehen ('to see') zehn ('ten'), but in other words, it has no etymological justification such as gehen ('to go') or mahlen ('to mill').
Silent letters are common in French, including the last letter of most words. Ignoring auxiliary letters that create digraphs (such as ⟨ch⟩, ⟨gn⟩, ⟨ph⟩, ⟨au⟩, ⟨eu⟩, ⟨ei⟩, and ⟨ou⟩, and ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ as signals for nasalized vowels), they include almost every possible letter except ⟨j⟩ and ⟨v⟩.
Final ⟨e⟩ is silent or at least (in poetry and song) a nearly-silent schwa /?/; it allows the preservation of a preceding consonant, often allowing the preservation of a grammatical distinction between masculine and feminine forms in writing, e.g., in vert and verte (both 'green'); the ⟨t⟩ is pronounced in the latter (feminine) but not the former. Furthermore, the schwa can prevent an awkward ending of a word ending in a consonant and a liquid (peuple, sucre).
After ⟨é⟩, ⟨i⟩, or ⟨u⟩, a final ⟨e⟩ is silent. The spelling ⟨eau⟩ is pronounced just the same as that for ⟨au⟩ and is entirely an etymological distinction, so in that context, the ⟨e⟩ is silent.
After ⟨g⟩ or ⟨q⟩, ⟨u⟩ is almost always silent.
In most dialects, the letter ⟨r⟩ is almost always silent. However, in some words, an initial letter ⟨r⟩ marks an audible hiatus that prevents liaison, cf. words starting with an aspirated r. Numerous doubled consonants exist; French does not distinguish doubled consonants from single consonants in pronunciation as Spanish does. A marked distinction exists between a single and doubled ⟨s⟩: doubled ⟨ss⟩ is always voiceless , while an intervocalic single ⟨s⟩ is silent .
The nasal consonant ⟨m⟩ when final or preceding a consonant ordinarily nasalizes a preceding vowel but is not itself pronounced (faim, tomber). Initial and intervocalic ⟨n⟩, even before a final silent ⟨e⟩, is pronounced: jaune.
Most final consonants are silent, usual exceptions to be found with the letters ⟨c⟩, ⟨f⟩, ⟨l⟩, and ⟨t⟩ (the English word cateful is mnemonic for this set). But even this rule has its exceptions: final ⟨er⟩ is usually pronounced /e/ (=⟨é⟩) rather than the expected //. Final ⟨l⟩ is silent after ⟨i⟩ even in a diphthong (travail). Final -ent is pronounced as a third-person plural verb ending, though it is silent in other cases.
Final consonants that might be silent in other contexts (finally or before another consonant) may seem to reappear in pronunciation in liaison: ils ont [ilz?at] "they have", as opposed to ils sont [il sat] "they are"; liaison is the retention (between words in certain syntactic relationships) of a historical sound otherwise lost, and often has grammatical or lexical significance.
The letter ⟨h⟩ most often marks a ⟨c⟩/⟨g⟩ as hard (velar), as in spaghetti, where it would otherwise be soft (palatal), as in cello, because of a following front vowel (⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩). Conversely, a silent ⟨i⟩ marks a ⟨c⟩/⟨g⟩ as soft where it would otherwise be hard because of a following back vowel (⟨a⟩, ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩ or ⟨u⟩), as in ciao, Perugia.
Silent ⟨h⟩ is also used in forms of the verb avere ('have') - ho, hai and hanno - to distinguish these from their homophones o ('or'), ai ('to the') and anno ('year'). The letter ⟨h⟩ is also silent at the beginning of words borrowed from other languages, such as hotel.
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In the vast majority of cases, Czech pronunciation follows the spelling rather closely. There are only three exceptions:
In most present forms of the verb být ("to be"), namely jsem, jsi, jsme, jste and jsou (i.e. all persons but the 3rd person singular je), the initial cluster /js/ is regularly simplified to a mere /s/. This pronunciation is considered correct and neutral when the verb is unstressed and used as an auxiliary. When stressed or used lexically, only the full /js/ pronunciation is considered correct. In casual speech, however, a few other highly frequent words commonly undergo similar simplification, namely all present forms of jít ("to walk") beginning with /jd/ (that is jdu, jde?, jde, jdeme, jdete, jdou), the noun jméno ("name") and the verb jmenovat (se) ("to name, to (be) call(ed)").
Several words in Russian omit written consonants when spoken. For example, "" (chuvstvovat') is pronounced ['tustv?v?t?] and "" (solntse) is pronounced ['sont?s?].
In Hebrew language, almost all cases of silent letters are silent aleph - ?. Many words that have a silent aleph in Hebrew, have an equivalent word in Arabic language, that is written with a mater lectionis alif -? ; a letter that indicates the long vowel "aa". Examples:
The explanation for this phenomenon is that the Hebrew language had a sound change of all the mater lectionis aleph letters into silent ones (see Canaanite shift). Due to that sound change, in Hebrew language, there are only two kinds of aleph - the glottal stop (/?/) and the silent one, while in Arabic language all three kinds still exist.
The silent Arabic alif is marked with a wasla sign above it (see picture), in order to differentiate it from the other kinds of alifs. An Arabic alif turns silent, if it fulfils three conditions: it must be in a beginning of a word, the word must not be the first one of the sentence, and the word must belong to one of the following groups:
Besides the alif of the Arabic word (?al, meaning "the"), its l?m (the letter L) can also get silent. It gets silent if the noun that word is related to, starts with a "sun letter". A sun letter is a letter that indicates a consonant that is produced by stopping the air in the front part of the mouth (not including the consonant M). The Hebrew equivalent to the Arabic word (?al, meaning "the") had totally lost its L.
In Maltese g? can be silent e.g. g?ar - meaning cave - and pronounced "ahr", or a voiced HH if it is followed by the or if it is at the end of a word e.g. qlug? (q-glottal stop: qluh).
Unconventional to Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European root languages, some Indic languages have silent letters. Among Dravidian languages, Tamil and Malayalam have certain distinct styles of keeping few of their letters silent.
Tamil is a classical language phonetically characterized by allophones, approximants, nasals and glottalised sounds. Some words, however, have silent letters in them. The words ? (while that is), and (that) contain the ?ytam or '?', which is not pronounced in Modern Tamil. It is explained in the Tolk?ppiyam that ?ytam could have the glottalised the sounds it was combined with, though some may argue it sounded more like the Arabic '?' (/x/). That being said, modern words like (Office) use '?' and '?' in sequence to represent the sound, as the ?ytam is nowadays also used to transcribe it and other foreign phonemes.
Another convention in Middle Tamil (Sen-Tamil) is the use of silent vowels to address a mark of respect when beginning proper nouns. The Ramayana was one such text where the word Ramayana in Tamil always began with '?', as in (/:m?:jm/), though it was not pronounced. The name ? (/?o:b?:l/) was so written as prefixed with an '?'.
Malayalam is a Sanskritized language in which speakers always pronounce all letters. The only known exception for consonants in the language is (/n?an?i/, thank you), where '?' (/d?a/) is never pronounced.
Inheriting elision, approximants and allophones from Tamil, in Malayalam, except for Sanskrit words, words ending in the vowel '?' (/u/) become silent at the end and if not compounded with words succeeding them, replace the '?' vowel by the schwa /?/. However, it is considered disrespectful to change this pronunciation in the simple present verbs, when using imperatives and using what can be termed as Imperative-Active voice in Malayalam, where the second person is respectfully addressed with his or her name instead of (/n?i:/, you) or (/n?i?a?/, yourselves). For example, in the sentence, ? (/a:ke: pa?i ti:ku/, Rakesh, finish your work), the use of the second personal pronoun is avoided with the name (/a:ke:?/, Rakesh), but this sentence sounds less respectful if the '?' in ? (/ti:ku/, finish} is replaced by the schwa or /?/, as in "?!" (/ti:k?/, Finish!) which sounds like an order. Notice the /?/ at the end of the name Rakesh which is pronounced after being added to the Sanskritic name.