Siddha Medicine
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Siddha Medicine

Siddha medicine is a traditional medicine originating in Tamil Nadu in India.[1][2] The Supreme Court of India and Indian Medical Association regard Siddha medicine as quackery.[3][4][5] Practitioners of alternative medicine, including those practicing Siddha medicine, are not authorized to practice medicine in India unless trained at a qualified medical institution, registered with the government, and listed as physicians annually in The Gazette of India.[3][4] Identifying practitioners of Siddha medicine, the Supreme Court of India stated in 2018 that "unqualified, untrained quacks are posing a great risk to the entire society and playing with the lives of people without having the requisite training and education in the science from approved institutions".[3]

The Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy of the Government of India coordinates and promotes research in the fields of Ayurveda and Siddha medicine.[6] The Central Council of Indian Medicine, a statutory body established in 1971 under AYUSH, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine, including Siddha medicine.[7] To fight bioprospecting and unethical patents, India set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library in 2001 as a repository of 223,000 formulations of various systems of medicine common in India, such as Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine and homeopathy.[8][9]

History

Siddha is a traditional treatment system generated from Tamil culture.[] Siddha is focused on "Ashtamahasiddhi". Those who attained or achieved these powers are known as siddhars. There were 18 important Siddhars in olden days and they developed this system of medicine. Hence, it is called Siddha medicine. The siddhars wrote their knowledge in palm leaf manuscripts, fragments of which were found in parts of South India.[dubious ] It is believed that some families may possess more fragments but keep them solely for their own use.[] According to Manikandan, there were 22 principal siddhars. Of these 22, Agasthya is believed to be the father of siddha medicine. Siddhas believed that a healthy soul can only be developed through a healthy body. Men and women who dedicated their lives into developing the system were called Siddhars.[]

Most Siddha medical practitioners are traditionally trained, usually in families and by gurus (teachers). When the guru is a martial arts teacher, he is also known as an ashan.[] Traditionally, it is taught that the siddhars laid the foundation for this system of medication. Siddhars were spiritual adepts who possessed the ashta siddhis. Nandhisar is considered the first siddha and the guru of all siddhars.[dubious ]

Concept of disease and cause

When the normal equilibrium of the three humors -- Vaadham, Pittham and Kapam -- is disturbed, disease is caused.[dubious ] The factors assumed to affect this equilibrium are environment, climatic conditions, diet, physical activities, and stress. Under normal conditions, the ratio between Vaadham, Pittham, and Kapam are 4:2:1, respectively.[10]

According to the Siddha medicine system, diet and lifestyle play a major role in health and in curing diseases. This concept of the Siddha medicine is termed as pathiyam and apathiyam, which is essentially a rule based system with a list of "do's and don'ts".

Diagnosis

In diagnosis, examination of eight items is required which is commonly known as "enn vakaith thervu". These are:

  1. Na (tongue): black in Vaatham, yellow or red in pitham, white in kapam, ulcerated in anaemia.
  2. Varnam (colour): dark in Vaatham, yellow or red in pitham, pale in kapam.
  3. Kural (voice): normal in Vaatham, high-pitched in pitham, low-pitched in kapam, slurred in alcoholism.
  4. Kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitham, pale in kapam.
  5. Thodal (touch): dry in Vaatham, warm in pitham, chill in kapam, sweating in different parts of the body.
  6. Malam (stool): black stools indicate Vaatham, yellow pitham, pale in kapam, dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness.
  7. Neer (urine): early morning urine is examined; straw color indicates indigestion, reddish-yellow color in excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron color in jaundice, and looks like meat washed water in renal disease.
  8. Naadi (pulse): the confirmatory method recorded on the radial artery.[11]

Herbalism

The herbal agents used by the siddhars could be classified into three groups: thavaram (herbal product), thadhu (inorganic substances) and jangamam (animal products).[10] The thadhu agents are further classified as: uppu (water-soluble inorganic substances that give out vapour when put into fire), pashanam (agents not dissolved in water but emit vapour when fired), uparasam (similar to pashanam but differ in action), loham (not dissolved in water but melt when fired), rasam (substances which are soft), and ghandhagam (substances which are insoluble in water, like sulphur).[12]

Siddha today

The Tamil Nadu state runs a 5.5-year course in Siddha medicine (BSMS: Bachelor in Siddha Medicine and Surgery). The Indian Government also gives its focus on Siddha, by starting up medical colleges and research centers like National Institute of Siddha.[13] and Central Council for Research in Siddha.[14] Commercially, Siddha medicine is practiced by siddhars referred in Tamil as vaithiyars.

Regulation

Practicing Siddha medicine and similar forms of rural alternative medicine in India was banned in the Travancore-Cochin Medical Practitioners' Act of 1953,[15] then reinforced in 2018 by the Supreme Court of India which stated that "A number of unqualified, untrained quacks are posing a great risk to the entire society and playing with the lives of people."[3][5] The Act requires that qualified medical practitioners be trained at a recognized institution, and be registered and displayed on a list of valid physician practitioners, as published annually in The Gazette of India.[15] The Gazette list does not recognize practitioners of Siddha medicine because they are not trained, qualified or registered as valid physicians.[3][4][5]

Criticism

Since 2014, the Supreme Court of India and Indian Medical Association have described Siddha medicine as quackery,[3][4][5] and there is no governmental recognition of siddhars as legitimate physicians.[3][4] The Indian Medical Association regards the Indian institutions that train people in Siddha medicine, the supposed degrees granted, and the graduates of those programs as "fake".[4] Since 1953, the Indian national government has not recognized Siddha medicine or any alternative system of medicine as valid, and there is no proposal to integrate Siddha medicine into conventional medicine practiced in India.[3][4]

There may be as many as one million quack "doctors", including siddhars, practicing medicine in the rural regions of India, a condition not actively opposed by the Indian government out of concern for serving some health needs for the large rural population.[4][16][17] The Indian Medical Association emphatically opposed this position in 2014.[4] In 2018, licensed Indian physicians staged demonstrations and accused the government of sanctioning quackery by proposing to allow rural quacks to practice some aspects of clinical medicine without having complete medical training.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Recipes for Immortality : Healing, Religion, and Community in South India: Healing, Religion, and Community in South India, p.93, Wellington Richard S Weiss, Oxford University Press, 22-Jan-2009
  2. ^ The Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Massage, John Douillard, p. 3, North Atlantic Books, 2004
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Justice RK Agrawal (13 April 2018). "Judgment by the Supreme Court of India: Kerala Ayurveda Paramparya vs State Of Kerala". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "IMA Anti Quackery". Indian Medical Association. 2014. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d "Quacks practising medicine great risk to society: Supreme Court". Business Standard. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 2019. People having no recognised and approved qualifications, having little knowledge about the indigenous medicines are becoming medical practitioners and playing with the lives of thousands and millions of people. Sometimes such quacks commit blunders and precious lives are lost.
  6. ^ "About us". CCRAS.
  7. ^ CCIM Archived 26 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Traditional Knowledge Digital Library website.
  9. ^ "Know Instances of Patenting on the UES of Medicinal Plants in India". PIB, Ministry of Environment and Forests. 6 May 2010.
  10. ^ a b Master Murugan, Chillayah (20 October 2012). "Siddha Therapy, Natural Remedies and Self-Treatment". Varma Kalai. Retrieved 2013.
  11. ^ "Pulse Reading in Siddha | National Health Portal of India". www.nhp.gov.in. Retrieved 2017.
  12. ^ "Herbs used in Siddha medicine for arthritis - A review" (PDF). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. October 2007. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ "National Institute of Siddha". Chennai, India: NIS, Chennai. Retrieved 2010.
  14. ^ "Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha". India: CCRAS. Retrieved 2010.
  15. ^ a b "Travancore-Cochin Medical Practitioners' Act, 1953" (PDF). Medical Council of Kerala, Kerala Adaptation of Laws. 1956. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ a b Michael Safi (2 January 2018). "Indian doctors protest against plan to let 'quacks' practise medicine". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019. The government is giving sanction to quackery. If those doctors make mistakes and people pay with their lives, who is going to be held accountable?
  17. ^ Steven Novella (3 January 2018). "Indian doctors fight against quackery". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 2019.

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