A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are routinely used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles.
Shipyards are constructed near the sea or tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships. The United Kingdom, for example, has shipyards on many of its rivers.
The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, slipways, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities and extremely large areas for fabrication of the ships. After a ship's useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard, often on a beach in South Asia. Historically shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages and environmental regulations have resulted in movement of the industry to developing regions.
Welding, sandblasting, painting, and other maintenance work contribute pollution. Ship hulls are made of steel and have many layers of anti-fouling and anti-corrosion paint. Shipyards around the world paint ships, usually by airtight spraying or by thermal spraying.
Studies have shown that painting generates almost half of the dangerous waste at a shipyard due to using high-pressure equipment to wash or remove any unwanted material that is on it like rust. This material will eventually make its way to the water as water pollution. In a study in 2011 samples of sediments were collected from two sites in coastal marine area of Yongho Bay, one from the shipyard and the other 500m away. Both samples contained metals that included Al, Fe, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb. In addition, it had been confirmed that the concentration was higher in the first sample that was by the shipyard then the sample taking 500m away and was due to paint fragments applied to the steel ship hulls.
Ship breaking can release excessive amounts of pollution. Paints used for hulls are anti-fouling paints and most contain triphenyltetrazolium (TPT) and can be treated by using dolomitic sorbents. Over time weathering from ships will eventually sink to the bottom of the seabed. In 2005, a study showed the high level of toxicity of TBT compounds to organisms in the ocean and what can be done to reduce the pollution by using dolomitic sorbents. In the study, a sample of shipyard water was used in the experiment in a period over 14 days. At the end the experiment it was concluded that dolomites were successful in reducing the contaminants from the shipyard wastewater.
Welding is the most important factor in ship building and should be performed by qualified welders in order to protect the ship structure. It is achieved by heating the surfaces to the point of melting using oxy-acetylene, electric arc, or other means, and uniting them by pressing, hammering, etc. But in shipyards, there are times when the welder has to crawl into a confined space and weld. Welding can produce toxic fumes such as Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Phosgene, Hydrogen Fluoride, Carbon Dioxide can also result in serious damage to human health or death if ventilation is not present. A case study was performed to see where would be most effective place to exhaust the hull cells on the bulkhead in between two spaces using an air horn versus air with an electric blower. They used welders who were employees of the shipyard and asked them to weld in a specific space. One that had shipyard dilution ventilation(DV) and the other had local exhaust ventilation(LEV) then recorded to see which typed of ventilation worked the best. In the results, they found that local exhaust ventilation reduced particulate concentrations but also the efficiency of either method depended on equipment maintenance and their own work practices because everyone has a different way of getting things done.
Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade. The dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well.
The name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means "shipyard" (combination of the Greek words ? naus ship, boat and ? pêgnumi, pegnymi builder, fixer). Naupactus' reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus.
In the Spanish city of Barcelona, the Drassanes shipyards were active from at least the mid-13th century until the 18th century, although it at times served as a barracks for troops as well as an arsenal. During its time of operation it was continuously changed, rebuilt and modified, but two original towers and part of the original eight construction naves remain today. It is currently a maritime museum.
Lindstrom Shipyard 1899-1918 - (The shipyard was built in Aberdeen, Washington by John E. Lindstrom Jr. and associate Charles R. Green, Carl Almer Lindstrom (Designer), Andrew P. Lindstrom, John "Rigger" Johnson).
Fincantieri - Cantieri Navali Italiani S.p.A. is an Italian shipbuilding company based in Trieste, Italy. It was formed in 1959 and is the largest shipbuilder in Europe, and one of the largest in the world. The company has built both commercial and military vessels during its history.
The Meyer Werft GmbH is one of the major German shipyards, headquartered in Papenburg at the river Ems. Founded in 1795 and starting with small wooden vessels, today Meyer Werft is one of world's leading builders of luxury passenger ships. Altogether about 700 ships of different types have been built at the yard.
Navantia: major public Spanish shipbuilding firm, which offers its services to both military and civil sector in three industrial areas: Cartagena / Cádiz / Ferrol (headquarters: Madrid) and with recent important projects as F100 class frigate program and S80 class submarine program
Construcciones Navales del Norte LaNaval, Sestao (Bilbao)
Devonport Dockyard, located in the city of Plymouth, England in the county of Devon is the largest naval base in Western Europe. It has 15 dry docks, four miles (6 km) of waterfront, 25 tidal berths, five basins and covers 650 acres (2.6 km2). It is the main refitting base for Royal Navy nuclear submarines and also handles work on frigates. It is the base for seven of the Trafalgar class nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarines and many frigates, exploiting its convenient access to the Atlantic Ocean. It supports the Vanguard classTrident missile nuclear ballistic missile submarines in a custom-built refitting dock. It houses HMS Courageous, a nuclear-powered submarine used in the Falklands War and open to the general public. Facilities in the local area also include a major naval training establishment and a base for the Royal Marines.
Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway in Kent, was established as a royal dockyard by Queen Elizabeth I in 1567. For 414 years, the Dockyard provided over 500 ships for the Royal Navy, and was forefront of shipbuilding, industrial and architectural technology. At its height, it employed over 10,000 skilled artisans and covered 400 acres (1.6 km2). The dockyard closed in 1984, and most of the Georgian dockyard is now managed as a visitor attraction by the Chatham Historic Dockyard Trust.
Gala?i shipyard Gala?i is the largest naval shipyard on the Danube, given its strategic positioning inland but with access to the sea through either Sulina or Danube-Black Sea canal its output ranges from large tankers to research vessels, yachts and small coast guard patrol boats. The yard is known for taking on specialty projects and under Damen has completed over such 250 vessels since 1999.
Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding's Tamano Works builds bulk carriers, ore carriers, crude oil tankers, oil product carriers, LNG carriers, LPG carriers, reefers, container ships, pure car carriers, cargo ships, patrol vessels, ocean surveillance ships, training vessels, fishery patrol boats and fishing boats
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries's Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works primarily produces specialized commercial vessels, including LNG carriers, oil tankers and passenger cruise ships
Hyundai Heavy IndustriesUlsan Shipyard & Gunsan shipyard, in South Korea, is currently the largest in the world and has the capability to build a variety of vessels including Commercial Cargo, FPSO offshore, container ship, LNG Carrier, Car carriers, Tankers like VLCC & ULCC, Iron ore carrier and Naval vessels like Aegis destroyers & submarines.
CSBC Corporation, Taiwan,in Taiwan,is a private company that produces ships for civilian and military use. It was a state-owned enterprise of Taiwan (Republic of China) but transitioned to private ownership via an IPO in 2008. It is headquartered in Kaohsiung and shipyards in Kaohsiung and Keelung.
Yantai Raffles Shipyard, in Yantai, China, is that country's largest offshore builder. It employs the 20,000 ton crane Taisun, the holder of the Heavy Lift World Record. Yantai Raffles' portfolio includes offshore platforms, pipe lay and other specialized vessels.
Bason Shipyard, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is a long-standing builder that was established by the French government in April, 1863 to repair warships and merchant vessels. Aside from its main function of building and repairing naval vessels, Bason also offers service to local and foreign customers from Southeast Asia and Europe.
Khulna Shipyard is the oldest shipyard in Bangladesh, situated in Khulna. It mainly produces warships for Bangladesh Navy. Recently it also started to build commercial vessels like cargo ship, container, oil tanker for local buyers.
Pipavav Shipyard in Gujarat, India, is the leading, modern and largest engineering facility in the business of ships and offshore platforms construction, repair and conversion, heavy engineering and offshore engineering in South Asia.
Colombo Dockyard in Colombo, Sri Lanka, is the largest engineering facility in the business of ship repair, shipbuilding, heavy engineering and offshore engineering in Sri Lanka.
NorthStar Shipbuilding Pvt Limited in New Mumbai, India, is one of the leading shipyard in India for small and mid-size ships.
Sulkha Shipyard builds a wide variety of ships. It has been in operation for 500 years.
^ abChoi, J. Y., Hong, G. H., Ra, K., Kim, K., & Kim, K. (2014). "Magnetic characteristics of sediment grains concurrently contaminated with TBT and metals near a shipyard in Busan, Korea". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 85 (2): 679-685. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.03.029.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ abc Walker, G., Hanna, J., & Allen, S. (2005). "Treatment of hazardous shipyard wastewater using dolomitic sorbents". Water Research. 39 (11): 2422-2428. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.04.025.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ abcWurzelbacher, S. J., Hudock, S. D., Johnston, O. E., Blade, L. M., & Shulman, S. A. (2002). "A Pilot Study on the Effects of Two Ventilation Methods on Weld Fume Exposures in a Shipyard Confined Space Welding Task". Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 17 (11): 735-740. doi:10.1080/10473220290096069.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)