Shintaro Ishihara
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Shintaro Ishihara

Shintar? Ishihara
Shintaro Ishihara 2009828.JPG
Shintaro Ishihara in 2009
Member of the House of Representatives

2012-2014
ConstituencyTokyo PR block

1972-1995
ConstituencyTokyo 2nd district
Governor of Tokyo

23 April 1999 - 31 October 2012
Yukio Aoshima
Naoki Inose
Member of the House of Councillors

1968-1972
Personal details
Born (1932-09-30) 30 September 1932 (age 87)
Suma-ku, Kobe, Japan
Political partyLiberal Democratic (1968-1995)
Independent (1995-2012)
Sunrise (2012)
Japan Restoration (2012-2014)
Future Generations (2014)
Spouse(s)Noriko Ishihara
Children4 sons
Alma materHitotsubashi University
ProfessionNovelist, author

Shintaro Ishihara ( , Ishihara Shintar?, born 30 September 1932) is a Japanese politician and author who was Governor of Tokyo from 1999 to 2012. Being the former leader of right-leaning Japan Restoration Party, Ishihara is one of the most prominent conservative right-wing politicians in modern Japanese politics.

His arts career included a prize-winning novel, best-sellers and work also in theater, film and journalism. His 1989 book, The Japan That Can Say No, co-authored with Sony chairman Akio Morita (1991 in English), called on the authors' countrymen to stand up to the United States.

After an early career as a writer and film director, he served in the House of Councillors from 1968 to 1972, in the House of Representatives from 1972 to 1995, and as Governor of Tokyo from 1999 to 2012. He resigned from the governorship to briefly co-lead the Sunrise Party, then joined the Japan Restoration Party and returned to the House of Representatives in the 2012 general election.[1] He unsuccessfully sought re-election in the general election of November 2014, and officially left politics the following month.[2]

Early life and artistic career

Shintaro Ishihara was born in Suma-ku, Kobe. His father Kiyoshi was an employee, later a general manager, of a shipping company. Shintaro grew up in Zushi, Kanagawa. In 1952, he entered Hitotsubashi University, and he graduated in 1956. Just two months before graduation, Ishihara won the Akutagawa Prize (Japan's most prestigious literary prize) for the novel Season of the Sun.[3][4] His brother Yujiro played a supporting role in the movie adaptation of the novel (for which Shintaro wrote the screenplay), and the two soon became the center of a youth-oriented cult.[5] Ishihara had dabbled in directing a couple of films starring his brother. Regarding these early years as a filmmaker, he stated to a Playboy interviewer in 1990 that "If I had remained a movie director, I can assure you that I would have at least become a better one than Akira Kurosawa".[6][7]

In the early 1960s, he concentrated on writing, including plays, novels, and a musical version of Treasure Island. One of his later novels, Lost Country (1982), speculated about Japan under the control of the Soviet Union.[8] He also ran a theatre company, and found time to visit the North Pole, race his yacht The Contessa and cross South America on a motorcycle. He wrote a memoir of his journey, Nanbei Odan Ichiman Kiro.[9]

From 1966 to 1967, he covered the Vietnam War at the request of Yomiuri Shimbun, and the experience influenced his decision to enter politics.[10] He also was mentored by the influential author and political "fixer" Tsûsai Sugawara.[11]

Political career

In 1968, Ishihara ran as a candidate on the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) national slate for the House of Councillors. He placed first on the LDP list with an unprecedented 3 million votes.[12] After four years in the upper house, Ishihara ran for the House of Representatives representing the second district of Tokyo, and again won election.

In 1973, he joined with thirty other LDP lawmakers in the anti-communist Seirankai or "Blue Storm Group"; the group gained notoriety for sealing a pledge of unity in their own blood.[5]

Ishihara ran for Governor of Tokyo in 1975 but lost to the popular Socialist incumbent Ryokichi Minobe. Minobe was 71 at the time, and Ishihara criticized him as being "too old".[13]

Ishihara returned to the House of Representatives afterward, and worked his way up the party's internal ladder, serving as Director-General of the Environment Agency under Takeo Fukuda (1976) and Minister of Transport under Noboru Takeshita (1989). During the 1980s, Ishihara was a highly visible and popular LDP figure, but unable to win enough internal support to form a true faction and move up the national political ladder.[14] In 1983 his campaign manager put up stickers throughout Tokyo stating that Ishihara's political opponent was an immigrant from North Korea. Ishihara denied that this was discrimination, saying that the public had a right to know.[15]

In 1989, shortly after losing a highly contested race for the party presidency, Ishihara came to the attention of the West through his book The Japan That Can Say No, co-authored with Sony chairman Akio Morita. The book called on his fellow countrymen to stand up to the United States.

According to politician K?ichi Hamada, Ishihara gave financial and political support to Aum Shinrikyo, a religious cult that was involved in several murders and assassination attempts during the early 1990s.[16] Immediately after the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995, Ishihara dropped out of national politics, suddenly ending a 25-year career in the Diet.

Governor of Tokyo

Ishihara in 2006

In the 1999 Tokyo gubernatorial election, he ran on an independent platform and was elected as Governor of Tokyo. Among Ishihara's moves as governor, he:

  • Cut metropolitan spending projects, including plans for a new Toei Subway line, and proposed the sale or leasing out of many metropolitan facilities.[8]
  • Imposed a new tax on banks' gross profits (rather than net profits).[17]
  • Imposed a new hotel tax based on occupancy.[18]
  • Imposed restrictions on the operation of diesel-powered vehicles, following a highly publicized event where he held up a bottle of diesel soot before cameras and reporters.[19]
  • Imposed cap and trade energy tax.[20]
  • Proposed opening casinos in the Odaiba district.[8]
  • Declared in 2005 that Tokyo would bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics, which discouraged a bid by Fukuoka.[21] Tokyo's bid lost to that of Rio de Janeiro.
  • Set up the ShinGinko Tokyo bank to lend to SMEs (small medium enterprises) in Tokyo. This bank has lost approximately 1 billion dollars worth of taxpayer's money through inadequate customer risk assessments.[22]
  • Served as Chairman of Tokyo's successful bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics.[23]
  • Generated controversy from PETA for the culling of the 37,000 crows that populated Tokyo.[24]

He won re-election in 2003 with 70.2% of the vote, and re-election in 2007 with 50.52% of the vote. In the 2011 gubernatorial election, his share of the vote dipped to 43.4% against challenges by comedian Hideo Higashikokubaru and entrepreneur Miki Watanabe.

On October 25, 2012, Ishihara announced he would resign as Governor of Tokyo in order to form a new political party in preparation for upcoming national elections.[25] Following his announcement, the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly approved his resignation on October 31, 2012, officially ending his tenure as Governor of Tokyo for 4,941 days, the second-longest term after Shunichi Suzuki. His deputy Naoki Inose assumed the role of acting governor, and won the subsequent gubernatorial election of 2012.

Sunrise Party

Ishihara's new national party was expected to be formed with members of the right-wing Sunrise Party of Japan, which he had helped to set up in 2010.[13] When announced by co-leaders Ishihara and SPJ chief Takeo Hiranuma on November 13, 2012, Sunrise Party incorporated all five members of SPJ. SP would look to form a coalition with other small parties including Osaka Mayor Toru Hashimoto's Japan Restoration Party (Nippon Ishin no Kai).[26]

In November 2012, Ishihara and his co-leader Hiranuma said that the Sunrise Party would pursue "establishment of an independent Constitution, beefing up of Japan's defense capabilities, and fundamental reform of fiscal management and tax systems to make them more transparent". The future of nuclear power and the upcoming consumption tax hike were issues it would have to address with potential coalition partners.[26]

Sunrise Party merger with the Japan Restoration Party

Only four days after the Sunrise Party was launched, on November 17, 2012 Ishihara and T?ru Hashimoto, leader of the Japan Restoration Party (JRP), decided to merge their parties, with Ishihara becoming the head of the JRP. Your Party would not join the party, nor would Genzei Nippon, as the latter party's anti-consumption tax increase policy did not match the JRP's pro-consumption tax policy.[27]

Reporting on a poll in early December 2012, Asahi Shimbun characterized the merger with Japan Restoration Party as the latter having "swallowed up" Sunrise. The poll, in advance of the December 16 Lower House elections, also said the association with SP could hurt JRP's chances of forming a ruling coalition even though JRP was showing strength relative to the ruling DPJ.[28]

Party for Future Generations

In the December 2014 general elections he was a candidate for the Party for Future Generations, but was defeated. Following this, he retired from politics.

Political views

Ishihara is generally described as one of Japan's most prominent "far right" politicians.[29] He was called "Japan's Le Pen" on a program broadcast on Australia's ABC.[30] He is affiliated with the openly right-wing organization Nippon Kaigi.[31]

Foreign relations

Ishihara is a long term friend of the prominent Aquino family in the Philippines. He is credited as being the first person to inform future President Corazon Aquino about the assassination of her husband Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. on August 21, 1983.[]

Ishihara has often been critical of Japan's foreign policy as being non-assertive. Regarding Japan's relationship with the US, he stated that "The country I dislike most in terms of US-Japan ties is Japan, because it's a country that can't assert itself."[14] As part of the criticism, Ishihara published a book co-authored with then-Prime minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, titled "No" to ieru Ajia - tai Oubei e no h?saku in 1994.[32]

Ishihara has also long been critical of the Chinese government. He invited the Dalai Lama and the President of the Republic of China Lee Teng-hui to Tokyo.[8]

Ishihara is deeply interested in the North Korean abduction issue, and called for economic sanctions against North Korea.[33] Following Ishihara's campaign to bid Tokyo for the 2016 Summer Olympics, he eased his criticism of the Chinese government. He accepted an invitation to attend the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, and was selected as a torch-bearer for the Japan leg of the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay.[34]

Views on foreigners in Japan

On April 9, 2000, in a speech before a Self-Defense Forces group, Ishihara publicly stated that atrocious crimes have been committed repeatedly by illegally entered sangokujin (Japanese: (third country national); a term commonly viewed as derogatory) and foreigners, and speculated that in the event a natural disaster struck the Tokyo area, they would be likely to cause civil disorder.[35] His comment invoked calls for his resignation, demands for an apology and fears among residents of Korean descent in Japan.[8] Regarding this statement, Ishihara later said:

I referred to the "many sangokujin who entered Japan illegally." I thought some people would not know that word so I paraphrased it and used gaikokujin, or foreigners. But it was a newspaper holiday so the news agencies consciously picked up the sangokujin part, causing the problem.

... After World War II, when Japan lost, the Chinese of Taiwanese origin and people from the Korean Peninsula persecuted, robbed and sometimes beat up Japanese. It's at that time the word was used, so it was not derogatory. Rather we were afraid of them.

... There's no need for an apology. I was surprised that there was a big reaction to my speech. In order not to cause any misunderstanding, I decided I will no longer use that word. It is regrettable that the word was interpreted in the way it was.[14]

Much of the criticism of this statement involved the historical significance of the term: sangokujin historically referred to ethnic Chinese and Koreans, working in Japan, several thousand of whom were killed by mobs of Japanese people following the Great Kant? earthquake of 1923.[8]

On February 20, 2006, Ishihara also said: "Roppongi is now virtually a foreign neighborhood. Africans--I don't mean African-Americans--who don't speak English are there doing who knows what. This is leading to new forms of crime such as car theft. We should be letting in people who are intelligent.[36]

On April 17, 2010, Ishihara said "many veteran lawmakers in the ruling-coalition parties are naturalized or the offspring of people naturalized in Japan".[37]

Other controversial statements

In 1990, Ishihara said in a Playboy interview that the Rape of Nanking was a fiction, claiming, "People say that the Japanese made a holocaust but that is not true. It is a story made up by the Chinese. It has tarnished the image of Japan, but it is a lie."[38][39] He continued to defend this statement in the uproar that ensued.[40] He has also backed the film The Truth about Nanjing, which argues that the Nanking Massacre was propaganda.[41]

In 2000, Ishihara, one of the eight judges for a literary prize, commented that homosexuality is abnormal, which caused an outrage in the gay community in Japan.[42]

In a 2001 interview with women's magazine Shukan Josei, Ishihara said that he believed "old women who live after they have lost their reproductive function are useless and are committing a sin," adding that he "couldn't say this as a politician." He was criticized in the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly for these comments, but responded that the criticism was driven by "tyrant... old women."[43]

During an inauguration of a university building in 2004, Ishihara stated that French is unqualified as an international language because it is "a language in which nobody can count", referring to the counting system in French, which is based on units of twenty for numbers from 70 to 99 rather than ten (as is the case in Japanese and English). The statement led to a lawsuit from several language schools in 2005. Ishihara subsequently responded to comments that he did not disrespect French culture by professing his love of French literature on Japanese TV news.[44]

At a Tokyo IOC press briefing in 2009, Governor Ishihara dismissed a letter sent by environmentalist Paul Coleman regarding the contradiction of his promoting the Tokyo Olympic 2016 bid as 'the greenest ever' while destroying the forested mountain of Minamiyama, the closest 'Satoyama' to the centre of Tokyo, by angrily stating Coleman was 'Just a foreigner, it does not matter'. Then, on continued questioning by investigative journalist Hajime Yokata, he stated 'Minamiyama is a Devil's Mountain that eats children.' Then he went on to explain how unmanaged forests 'eat children' and implied that Yokota, a Japanese national, was betraying his nation by saying 'What nationality are you anyway?' This was recorded on film[45] and turned into a video that was sent around the world as the Save Minamiyama Movement[46]

In 2010, Ishihara claimed that Korea under Japanese rule was absolutely justified due to historical pressures from Qing Dynasty and Imperial Russia.[47]

In reference to the 2011 T?hoku earthquake and tsunami, Ishihara said "that the disaster was 'punishment from heaven' because Japanese have become greedy".[48][49][50]

America's identity is freedom. France's identity is freedom, equality and fraternity. Japan has no sense of that. Only greed. Material greed, monetary greed.[51]

This greed bounds with populism. These things need to be washed away with the Tsunami. For many years the heart of Japanese always bounded with devil.[52]

Japanese's identity is greed. We should avail of this tsunami to wash away this greed. I think this is a divine punishment.[53]

-- Ishihara Shintaro

However, he also commented that the victims of this disaster were pitiable.[54]

This speech quickly caused many controversies and critical responses from the public opinion, both inside and outside Japan. The governor of Miyagi expressed displeasure about Ishihara's speech, claimed that Ishihara should have considered about the victims of the disaster. Ishihara then had to apologize about his comments.[55]

During the 2012 Summer Olympics, Ishihara stated that "Westerners practicing judo resembles beasts fighting. Internationalized judo has lost its appeal." He added, "In Brazil they put chocolate in norimaki, but I wouldn't call it sushi. Judo has gone the same way."[56]

Ishihara has said that Japan ought to have nuclear weapons.[57]

Proposal to buy the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands

On April 15, 2012, Ishihara made a speech in Washington, USA, publicly stating his desire for Tokyo to purchase the Senkaku Islands, called the Diaoyu Islands by mainland China, on behalf of Japan in an attempt to end the territorial dispute between China and Japan, causing uproars in Chinese society and increasing tension between the governments of China and Japan.[58][59]

Family

Ishihara is married to Noriko Ishihara and has four sons. Members of the House of Representatives Nobuteru Ishihara and Hirotaka Ishihara are his eldest and third sons; actor and weatherman Yoshizumi Ishihara is his second son. His youngest son, Nobuhiro Ishihara, is a painter.[60] The late actor Yujiro Ishihara was his younger brother.

Books written by Ishihara

Shintaro Ishihara (upper) and Yukio Mishima (lower) in 1956
  • Taiy? no kisetsu (), Season of the Sun, 1956: Akutagawa Prize, The Best New Author of the Year Prize.
  • Kurutta kajitsu (), Crazed Fruit, 1956.
  • Kanzen Na Yuugi (), The Perfect Game, 1956.
  • Umi no chizu (?), Map of the sea, 1958.
  • Seinen no ki (?), Tree of the youth.
  • Gesshoku (), Lunar eclipse, 1959.
  • Nanbei ?dan ichi man kiro (?1), 10 thousand kilometers motoring across South America
  • Seishun to wa nanda (?), What does youth mean? .
  • ?inaru umi e (), To the great sea, 1965.
  • Kaeranu umi (?), Unretreating Sea 1966.
  • Suparuta ky?iku () Spartan education 1969.
  • Kaseki no mori(?), Petrified forest, 1970: Minister of Education Prize
  • Shintar? no seiji chousho (), Shintaro's political record 1970.
  • Shintar? no daini seiji chousho (?), Shintaro's second political record 1971.
  • Shin Wakan r?eish? (), New Wakan r?eish? (collection of Japanese and Chinese poems) 1973.
  • Yabanjin no daigaku (), University of barbarians .
  • Boukoku -Nihon no totsuzenshi ( -), The ruin of a nation -Japan's sudden death 1982.
  • 'N?' to ieru Nihon (?NO?), The Japan That Can Say No (in collaboration with Akio Morita), 1989.
  • Soredemo 'N?' to ieru Nihon. Nichibeikan no konponmondai (NO? --) The Japan That Still Can Say No. Principal problem of the Japan-US relations (in collaboration with Sh?ichi Watanabe and Kazuhisa Ogawa), 1990.
  • Waga jinsei no toki no toki (), The sublime moment of my life, 1990.
  • Danko 'No' to ieru Nihon (NO?) The Japan That Can Strongly Say No (in collaboration with Jun Et?) 1991.
  • Mishima Yukio no nisshoku (), The eclipse of Yukio Mishima 1991.
  • 'No' to ieru Asia (?NO), The Asia That Can Say NO (in collaboration with Mahathir Mohamad)
  • Kaze ni tsuite no kioku (), My memory about the wind, 1994.
  • Ot?to (?), Younger brother, 1996 : Mainichibungakusho Special Prize.
  • 'Chichi' nakushite kuni tatazu ("?"), No country can stand without "father", 1997.
  • Sensen fukoku 'N?' to ieru Nihon keizai -Amerika no kin'y? dorei kara no kaih?- (NO --), Declaration of War, Economy of Japan That Can Say No -Liberation from America's financial slavery, 1998.
  • Hokeky? o ikiru (?), To live the Lotus Sutra, 1998.
  • Seisan () , Eucharist, 1999.
  • Kokka naru gen'ei () , An illusion called nation , 1999.
  • Amerika shink? wo suteyo 2001 nen kara no nihon senryaku ( -2001), Stop worshipping America -Japan strategy from 2001, 2000.
  • Boku wa kekkon shinai (?) I won't marry, 2001.
  • Ima 'Tamashii' no ky?iku (), Now, 'spirit' education, 2001.
  • Ei'en nare, nihon -moto s?ri to tochiji no katariai (? -), Japan Forever - A talk between ex-premier and Tokyo governor (in collaboration with Yasuhiro Nakasone) , 2001.
  • Oite koso jinsei (?), To get old is the life, 2002.
  • Hi no shima (), Island of fire , 2008.
  • Watashi no suki na nihonjin (), My favorite Japanese persons, 2008.
  • Saisei (), Recovery, 2010.
  • Shin Darakuron -Gayoku to tenbatsu (-), New "On Decadance" -Greed and divine punishment ,2011

Translation work

Translations in English

  • The Japan That Can Say No (in collaboration with Akio Morita), Simon & Schuster, 1991, ISBN 0-671-72686-2. Touchstone Books, 1992, ISBN 0-671-75853-5. Cassette version ISBN 0-671-73571-3. Disk version, 1993, ISBN 1-882690-23-0.

Film career

He acted in six films, including Crazed Fruit (1956) and The Hole (1957), and co-directed the 1962 film Love at Twenty (with François Truffaut, Marcel Ophüls, Renzo Rossellini and Andrzej Wajda).[61]

Honours

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ex-Tokyo Gov. Ishihara set to secure lower house seat". Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Japan Times. December 16, 2012
  2. ^ [Full Report of Retirement Press Conference] (in Japanese). December 16, 2014. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ ":-". I-shintaro.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Profile of the Governor, Tokyo Metropolitan Government". Metro.tokyo.jp. Archived from the original on September 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Mayors: Shintaro Ishihara: Governor of Tokyo". Citymayors.com. Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ Playboy, Vol. 37, No. 10, p. 76.
  7. ^ Stonefish, Isaac (November 1, 2013) The Man Who Would Be Warlord. Foreign Policy.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Larimer, Tim (April 24, 2000) "Rabble Rouser" Archived April 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, TIME Asia.
  9. ^ "Profile of Shintaro Ishihara". Ezipangu.org. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ "Sensen Fukoku". Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), accessed December 22, 2010. (in Japanese)
  11. ^ Wani, Yukio (July 8, 2012). "Barren Senkaku Nationalism and China-Japan Conflict". The Asia-Pacific Journal. apjjf.org. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ Emmerson, John J., Arms, Yen & Power: The Japanese Dilemma, (Tokyo: C.E. Tuttle, 1971), p. 339.
  13. ^ a b Nagata, Kazuaki, "Ishihara leaves office with sights on Diet seat", The Japan Times, November 1, 2012.
  14. ^ a b c "'There's No Need For an Apology': Tokyo's boisterous governor is back in the headlines Archived April 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine," TIME Asia, April 24, 2000.
  15. ^ ?()
  16. ^ ?. ? (1995.7) ISBN 4-391-11762-2
  17. ^ DeWit, Andrew, and Masaru Kaneko, "Ishihara and the Politics of His Bank Tax", JPRI Critique 9:4, May 2002.
  18. ^ "Tokyo hotel tax plan enacted," Kyodo News International, December 24, 2001.
  19. ^ ""Diesels may return to Japan roads"". Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), Reuters, March 3, 2006.
  20. ^ Carbon Trades of Up to $212 Billion Opposed by Japan, South Korea Firms, Bloomberg, January 13, 2011.
  21. ^ "Tokyo governor suggests bid for 2016 Olympics Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine," Daily Times, August 6, 2005.
  22. ^ ""ShinGinko Tokyo: the crumbling icon of imbecility"". Archived from the original on June 24, 2009. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), Times Online, August 13, 2007.
  23. ^ "Japanese Olympic Committee To Appoint Chairman For Tokyo 2020 Bid". GamesBids.com. September 7, 2011. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  24. ^ ""Policy Speech by Governor of Tokyo, Shintaro Ishihara"". Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), First Regular Session of the Metropolitan Assembly, 2002. metro.tokyo.jp
  25. ^ "Ishihara resigns as Tokyo governor to launch new political party". Japan Today. October 25, 2012. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014.
  26. ^ a b Aoki, Mizuho (November 14, 2012) "Ishihara, Hiranuma unveil new party", The Japan Times.
  27. ^ New parties merge forces / Taiyo no To dissolves to join Ishin no Kai; Ishihara named chief. Daily Yomiuri. November 18, 2012
  28. ^ Matsumura, Ai (December 4, 2012) "Survey: DPJ snubbed, Japan Restoration Party favored as coalition partner" Archived December 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Asahi Shimbun.
  29. ^ "Shintaro Ishihara. (World Beaters). - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. December 1, 2002. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  30. ^ Hall, Eleanor (May 2, 2002). "The World Today Archive - Japan's Le Pen". Abc.net.au.
  31. ^ Norihiro Kato (September 12, 2014). "Tea Party Politics in Japan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015. Their vagueness reminds me of the title of a book that the conservative politician (and Nippon Kaigi officer) Shintaro Ishihara published in English in 1991...
  32. ^ Ishihara, Shintaro; Mohamad, Mahathir. ?NO (?) [The Asia that can say no] (in Japanese). ISBN 978-4-334-05217-1.
  33. ^ "Ishihara: Only Sanctions Will Force North Korea to Disarm; Japan Needs Its Own Missile Shield". New Perspectives Quarterly. October 22, 2003. Retrieved 2008.
  34. ^ ? (in Chinese). CCTV. January 11, 2008.
  35. ^ original in Japanese: "(=)1"
  36. ^ Japan Threatened by China, Its Own Timidity: Ishihara", Bloomberg, February 20, 2007.
  37. ^
  38. ^ Playboy, Vol. 37, No. 10, p. 63.
  39. ^ Historical Forces Drove U.S. and Japan to War; Rape of Nanking. New York Times. December 2, 1991 .
  40. ^ Chang, Iris (1997) The Rape of Nanking, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-06835-9, pp. 201-2.
  41. ^ Hongo, Jun (January 25, 2007)""Filmmaker to paint Nanjing slaughter as just myth"". Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , The Japan Times.
  42. ^ "Ishihara's homophobic remarks raise ire of gays". Japan Policy & Politics. 2000.
  43. ^ "Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, The Third Consideration of Japanese Governmental Report: Proposal of List of Issues for Pre-sessional Working Group". Japan Civil Liberties Union. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  44. ^ Reed, Robert (July 28, 2005) "The governor's artistic side"[permanent dead link], Daily Yomiuri.
  45. ^ "Tokyo Governor and His Shocking Response to a Question Regarding the 2016 Tokyo Olympic Bid". YouTube. July 7, 2009. Retrieved 2012.
  46. ^ "Minamiyama". Ning. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011.
  47. ^ ? ?. Tokyo Shimbun (in Japanese). April 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  48. ^ Alabaster, Jay & Pitman, Todd (March 14, 2011). "Tide of bodies overwhelms quake-hit Japan". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 18, 2011.
  49. ^ "asahi.com():? - ". Asahi.com. March 14, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  50. ^ "Tokyo Governor Ishihara says earthquake and tsunami was "divine punishment" - Worldnews.com". Article.wn.com. March 15, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  51. ^ ? (in Japanese). Asahi. March 14, 2011. Archived from the original on October 10, 2011. ?
  52. ^ "(untitled)" (in Japanese). ?. March 14, 2011. ()? Missing or empty |url= (help)
  53. ^ ? (in Japanese). March 14, 2011. 1? Missing or empty |url= (help)
  54. ^ "Asahi Shimbun" (in Japanese). March 14, 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  55. ^ "Ishihara apologizes over Divine punishment remark". Japan Today.[permanent dead link]
  56. ^ (in Japanese). The Daily Yomiuri. August 3, 2012. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012.
  57. ^ Herman, Steve (February 15, 2013) "Rising Voices in S. Korea, Japan Advocate Nuclear Weapons.". Voanews.com. Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  58. ^ "Tokyo governor seeks to buy islands disputed with China". Reuters. April 17, 2012.
  59. ^ "Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara riles Beijing with plan to buy islands in a disputed area of the East China Sea". GlobalPost. April 17, 2012.
  60. ^ Hongo, Jun (January 19, 2007). "Ishihara defiant, teflon to scandal". Japan Times. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007.
  61. ^ "Ishihara Shintar?" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved 2009.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Shigesada Marumo
Director General of the Environment Agency
1976–1977
Succeeded by
Hisanari Yamada
Preceded by
Ryutaro Hashimoto
Minister for Transport
1987–1988
Succeeded by
Shinji Sato
Preceded by
Yukio Aoshima
Governor of Tokyo
1999–2012
Succeeded by
Naoki Inose
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Tetsuo Kutsukake
Oldest member of the House of Representatives of Japan
2012–2014
Succeeded by
Shizuka Kamei

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