Shim?sa Province (?, Shim?sa no Kuni) was a province of Japan in the area modern Chiba Prefecture, and Ibaraki Prefecture. It lies to the north of the B?s? Peninsula (?), whose name takes its first kanji from the name of Awa Province and its second from Kazusa and Shim?sa Provinces. Its abbreviated form name was S?sh? () or Hokus? ().
Shim?sa is classified as one of the provinces of the T?kaid?. It was bordered by Kazusa Province to the south, Musashi and K?zuke Provinces to the west, and Hitachi and Shimotsuke Provinces to the north. Under the Engishiki classification system, Shim?sa was ranked as a "great country" () and a far country ().
Shim?sa was originally part of a larger territory known as Fusa Province (, occasionally , Fusa-no-kuni), which was divided into "upper" and "lower" portions (i.e. Kazusa and Shim?sa) during the reign of Emperor K?toku (645-654). It was well-known to the Imperial Court in Nara period Japan for its fertile lands, and is mentioned in Nara period records as having supplied hemp to the Court. Shim?sa was divided into 11 (later 12) counties. The exact location of the capital of Shim?sa is not precisely known, but is believed to have been somewhere within the borders of the modern city of Ichikawa, Chiba, near K?nodai Station where the ruins of the Kokubun-ji have been located. However, the Ichinomiya of Shim?sa Province is the Katori Jing? in what is now the city of Katori, Chiba, on the opposite coast of the province.
During the Heian period, the province was divided into numerous sh?en controlled by local samurai clans, primarily the Chiba clan, which sided with Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Genpei War. During the Kamakura period, much of the province was under the control of the Chiba clan. By the early Muromachi period, the area was a highly contested region highly fragmented by various samurai clans. By the Sengoku period, the Later H?j? clan held sway following the Battle of K?nodai (1538) against the Ashikaga clan and the Satomi clan.
Following the installation of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Edo, after the Battle of Odawara, he created eleven han within the borders of Shim?sa to reward his followers, with the remaining area retained as tenry? territory owned directly by the sh?gun and administered by various hatamoto. The entire province had an assessed revenue of 681,062 koku. Following the Meiji Restoration, these various domains and tenry? territories were transformed into short-lived prefectures in July 1871 by the abolition of the han system. Most of Shim?sa Province became part of the new Chiba Prefecture on June 15, 1873, with four districts (Y?ki, Toyoda, Sashima, Okada) going to the new Ibaraki Prefecture and the portion to the west of the Edogawa River going to the new Saitama Prefecture.
The area of former Shim?sa Province was organized into nine districts by the Meiji cadastral reforms, later reduced to five:
|Koga Domain ()||Doi||1590-1871||80,000||fudai|
|Sakura Domain ()||Hotta||1590-1871||110,000||fudai|
|Y?ki Domain ()||Mizuno||1590-1871||18,000||fudai|
|Sekiyado Domain ()||Kuze||1590-1871||43,000||fudai|
|Oyumi Domain ()||Morikawa||1627-1871||10,000||fudai|
|Takaoka Domain ()||Inoue||1640-1871||10,000||fudai|
|Tako Domain ()||Matsudaira (Hisamatsu)||1713-1871||10,000||fudai|
|Omigawa Domain (?)||Uchida||1594-1871||10,000||fudai|
|Sogano Domain (?)||Toda||1871-1871||12,000||fudai|
|Yahagi Domain ()||Miura||1590-1639||10,000||fudai|
|Iwatomori Domain ()||H?j?||1590-1613||10,000||fudai|
|Moriya Domain ()||Toki||1590-1617||10,000||fudai|
|Yamazaki Domain ()||Okabe||1590-1609||12,000||fudai|
|Kurihara Domain ()||Naruse||1600-1638||16,000||fudai|
|Usui Domain ()||Sakai||1690-1604||30,000||fudai|
|Yamakawa Domain ()||?ta||1635-1638||15,600||fudai|
|?wa Domain ()||Doi||1658-1677||10,000||fudai|
Media related to Shimosa Province at Wikimedia Commons