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Sh%C5%8Dgun

Shogun (, sh?gun, Japanese: [?o:] ; SHOH-gun[1]) was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor, shoguns were usually the de facto rulers of the country,[2] though during part of the Kamakura period shoguns were themselves figureheads. The office of shogun was in practice hereditary, though over the course of the history of Japan several different clans held the position. Shogun is the short form of Sei-i Taish?gun (, "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians"),[3] a high military title from the early Heian period in the 8th and 9th centuries; when Minamoto no Yoritomo gained political ascendency over Japan in 1185, the title was revived to regularize his position, making him the first shogun in the usually understood sense.

The shoguns officials were collectively referred to as the bakufu, or tent government; they were the ones who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the Imperial court retained only nominal authority.[4] The tent symbolized the shoguns role as the military's field commander, but also denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary. Nevertheless, the institution, known in English as the shogunate ( SHOH-g?-nayt[1]), persisted for nearly 700 years, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867 as part of the Meiji Restoration.[5]

Etymology

Kanji that makes up the word shogun

The term shogun (, lit. "army commander") is the abbreviation of the historical title "Seii Taish?gun." ? (sei,) means "conquer" or "subjugate," and ? (i, ?) means "barbarian" or "savage." ? (dai, ) means "great," ? (sh?, ) means "commander,"[6] and ? (gun, ) means "army." [7] Thus, a literal translation of Seii Taish?gun would be "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians."[3]

The term was originally used to refer to the general who commanded the army sent to fight the tribes of northern Japan, but after the twelfth century, the term was used to designate the leader of the samurai.[8]

Bakufu

The administration of a shogun is called bakufu () in Japanese and literally means "government from the maku (ja:?)." During the battles, the head of the samurai army used to be sitting in a scissor chair inside a semi-open tent called maku that exhibited its respective mon or blazon. The application of the term bakufu to the shogun government shows an extremely strong and representative symbolism.[9]

Titles

Historically, similar terms to Seii Taish?gun were used with varying degrees of responsibility, although none of them had equal or more importance than Seii Taish?gun.[] Some of them were:

History

First shogun

There is no consensus among the various authors since some sources consider Tajihi no Agatamori the first, others say ?tomo no Otomaro, other sources assure that the first was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, while others avoid the problem by just mentioning from the first Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo.

Heian period (794-1185)

Sakanoue no Tamuramaro (758-811) was one of the first shogun of the early Heian period

Originally, the title of Sei-i Taish?gun ("Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians")[3] was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. ?tomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taish?gun.[35] The most famous of these shoguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro.

In the later Heian period, one more shogun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taish?gun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune.

Sakanoue no Tamuramaro

Sakanoue no Tamuramaro (758-811)[24] was a Japanese general who fought against the tribes of northern Japan (settled in the territory that today integrates the provinces of Mutsu and Dewa). Tamarumaro was the first general to bend these tribes, integrating its territory to that of the Japanese State. For his military feats he was named Seii Taish?gun and probably because he was the first to win the victory against the northern tribes he is generally recognized as the first shogun in history.[24][36][37] (Note: according to historical sources ?tomo no Otomaro also had the title of Seii Taish?gun).

Kamakura shogunate (1192-1333)

Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun (1192-1199) of the Kamakura shogunate

In the early 11th century, daimy? protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.[38] Two of the most powerful families - the Taira and Minamoto - fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taish?gun by Emperor Go-Toba and the political system he developed with a succession of shoguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the H?j?, seized power from the Kamakura shoguns.[39] When Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shogun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the H?j? regents. The Kamakura shogunate lasted for almost 150 years, from 1192 to 1333.

The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, and the H?j? Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families - the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court - had a claim to the throne. The problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo (of the Southern Court) tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation. As a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334-1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped Daigo regain his throne.[40]

The fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor.[40]

During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shogun arose. Prince Moriyoshi (Morinaga), son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taish?gun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was later put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi.

Ashikaga shogunate (1336-1573)

Ashikaga Takauji (1338-1358) established the Ashikaga shogunate

In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taish?gun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which nominally lasted until 1573. The Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, and the time during which they ruled is also known as the Muromachi period.

Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573-1600)

While the title of shogun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who later obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers.

Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868)

Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo (now known as Tokyo) in 1600. He received the title sei-i taish?gun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.[41] The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shogun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji.[42] Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shogun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from behind the scenes as ?gosho [ja] (, cloistered shogun).[43]

During the Edo period, effective power rested with the Tokugawa shogun, not the Emperor in Kyoto, even though the former ostensibly owed his position to the latter. The shogun controlled foreign policy, the military, and feudal patronage. The role of the Emperor was ceremonial, similar to the position of the Japanese monarchy after the Second World War.[44]


Timelines

Timeline of the Kamakura shogunate

Prince MorikuniPrince HisaakiPrince KoreyasuPrince MunetakaKuj? YoritsuguKuj? YoritsuneMinamoto no SanetomoMinamoto no YoriieMinamoto no Yoritomo

Timeline of the Ashikaga shogunate

Ashikaga YoshiakiAshikaga YoshihideAshikaga YoshiteruAshikaga YoshiharuAshikaga YoshitaneAshikaga YoshizumiAshikaga YoshitaneAshikaga YoshihisaAshikaga YoshimasaAshikaga YoshikatsuAshikaga YoshinoriAshikaga YoshikazuAshikaga YoshimochiAshikaga YoshimitsuAshikaga YoshiakiraAshikaga Takauji

Timeline of the Tokugawa shogunate

Tokugawa YoshinobuTokugawa IemochiTokugawa IesadaTokugawa IeyoshiTokugawa IenariTokugawa IeharuTokugawa IeshigeTokugawa YoshimuneTokugawa IetsuguTokugawa IenobuTokugawa TsunayoshiTokugawa IetsunaTokugawa IemitsuTokugawa HidetadaTokugawa Ieyasu

Shogunate

The term bakufu (, "tent government") originally meant the dwelling and household of a shogun, but in time, became a metonym for the system of government of a feudal military dictatorship, exercised in the name of the shogun or by the shogun himself. Therefore, various bakufu held absolute power over the country (territory ruled at that time) without pause from 1192 to 1867, glossing over actual power, clan and title transfers.

The shogunate system was originally established under the Kamakura shogunate by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Although theoretically, the state (and therefore the Emperor) held ownership of all land in Japan. The system had some feudal elements, with lesser territorial lords pledging their allegiance to greater ones. Samurai were rewarded for their loyalty with agricultural surplus, usually rice, or labor services from peasants. In contrast to European feudal knights, samurai were not landowners.[45] The hierarchy that held this system of government together was reinforced by close ties of loyalty between the daimy?s, samurai and their subordinates.

Each shogunate was dynamic, not static. Power was constantly shifting and authority was often ambiguous. The study of the ebbs and flows in this complex history continues to occupy the attention of scholars. Each shogunate encountered competition. Sources of competition included the Emperor and the court aristocracy, the remnants of the imperial governmental systems, the daimy?s, the sh?en system, the great temples and shrines, the s?hei, the shugo and jit?, the jizamurai and early modern daimy?. Each shogunate reflected the necessity of new ways of balancing the changing requirements of central and regional authorities.[46]

Relationship with the emperor

Imperial Seal of Japan

Since Minamoto no Yoritomo turned the figure of the shogun into a permanent and hereditary position and until the Meiji Restoration there were two ruling classes in Japan: 1. the emperor or tenn? (, lit. "Heavenly Sovereign"),[47] who acted as "chief priest" of the official religion of the country, Shinto, and 2. the shogun, head of the army who also enjoyed civil, military, diplomatic and judicial authority.[48] Although in theory the shogun was an emperor's servant, it became the true power behind the throne.[49]

No shogun tried to usurp the throne, even when they had at their disposal the military power of the territory. There were two reasons primarily:[50]

  • Theoretically the shogun received the power of the emperor, so this was his symbol of authority.
  • There was a sentimentalist tradition created by priests and religious who traced the imperial line from the "age of the gods" into an "eternal line unbroken by the times." According to Japanese mythology, the emperor was a direct descendant of Amaterasu, goddess of the sun.

Unable to usurp the throne, the shoguns sought throughout history to keep the emperor away from the country's political activity, relegating them from the sphere of influence. One of the few powers that the imperial house could retain was that of being able to "control time" through the designation of the Japanese Neng? or Eras and the issuance of calendars.[51]

This is a highlight of two historical attempts of the emperor to recover the power they enjoyed before the establishment of the shogunate. In 1219 the Emperor Go-Toba accused the H?j? as outlaws. Imperial troops mobilized, leading to the J?ky? War (1219-1221), which would culminate in the third Battle of Uji (1221). During this, the imperial troops were defeated and the emperor Go-Toba was exiled.[52] With the defeat of Go-Toba, the samurai government over the country was confirmed.[52] At the beginning of the fourteenth century the Emperor Go-Daigo decided to rebel, but the H?j?, who were then regents, sent an army from Kamakura. The emperor fled before the troops arrived and took the imperial insignia.[53] The shogun named his own emperor, giving rise to the era Nanboku-ch? period (, lit. "Southern and Northern Courts").

During the 1850s and 1860s, the shogunate was severely pressured both abroad and by foreign powers. It was then that various groups angry with the shogunate for the concessions made to the various European countries found in the figure of the emperor an ally through which they could expel the Tokugawa shogunate from power. The motto of this movement was Sonn? j?i (?, "Revere the Emperor, Eject the Barbarians") and they finally succeeded in 1868, when imperial power was restored after centuries of being in the shadow of the country's political life.[54]

Legacy

Upon Japan's surrender after World War II, American Army General Douglas MacArthur became Japan's de facto ruler during the years of occupation. So great was his influence in Japan that he has been dubbed the Gaijin Sh?gun (?).[55]

Today, the head of the Japanese government is the Prime Minister; the usage of the term "shogun" has nevertheless continued in colloquialisms. A retired Prime Minister who still wields considerable power and influence behind the scenes is called a "shadow shogun" (, yami sh?gun),[56] a sort of modern incarnation of the cloistered rule. Examples of "shadow shoguns" are former Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and the politician Ichir? Ozawa.[57]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  2. ^ "Shogun". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ a b c The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary, ISBN 0-8048-0408-7
  4. ^ Beasley, William G. (1955). Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853-1868, p. 321.
  5. ^ Totman, Conrad (1966). "Political Succession in The Tokugawa Bakufu: Abe Masahiro's Rise to Power, 1843-1845". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 26: 102-124. doi:10.2307/2718461. JSTOR 2718461.
  6. ^ "Yamasa Online Kanji Dictionary". Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  7. ^ "Yamasa Online Kanji Dictionary". Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  8. ^ Turnbull, 2006a:21 & 22.
  9. ^ Turnbull, 2006a:207.
  10. ^ Friday, 2007:108.
  11. ^ Hall, 1991:241.
  12. ^ Adolphson, 2007:341.
  13. ^ Ishii, 2002:2396.
  14. ^ Ishii, 2002:2467.
  15. ^ There is no consensus among the various authors on this list since some sources consider Tajihi no Agatamori the first, some others take ?tomo no Otomaro, other sources assure that the first was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, while others avoid the problem by just mentioning from the first Kamakura shogun.
  16. ^ Cranston, 1998:361.
  17. ^ Samurai Archives. "Early Japan". Retrieved 2009.
  18. ^ Cranston, 1998:427.
  19. ^ Sansom, 1931:201.
  20. ^ a b Takekoshi, 2004:96.
  21. ^ Cambridge University Press. "Cambridge Histories Online". Retrieved 2009.
  22. ^ Caiger, 1997:339.
  23. ^ Shively, 1999:xviii.
  24. ^ a b c De Bary et al., 2001:266.
  25. ^ a b c d The history files. "Shoguns of Japan". Retrieved 2009.
  26. ^ Shively et al., 1999:30.
  27. ^ Adolphson et al, 2007:334.
  28. ^ Turnbull, 2005:16.
  29. ^ a b c Deal, 2007:100-101.
  30. ^ Perkins, 1998b:292.
  31. ^ a b Varley, 1994:243.
  32. ^ a b Perkins, 1998b:295.
  33. ^ a b c Murdoch, 1996:791.
  34. ^ Deal, 2007:48.
  35. ^ - (in Japanese). Books Kinokuniya. Retrieved 2011.
  36. ^ Andressen & Osborne, 2002:48.
  37. ^ Ramirez-faria, 283.
  38. ^ "Shogun". The World Book Encyclopedia. 17. World Book. 1992. pp. 432-433. ISBN 0-7166-0092-7.
  39. ^ "shogun | Japanese title". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved .
  40. ^ a b Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1134-1615. United States: Stanford University Press.
  41. ^ Titsingh, I. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, p. 409.
  42. ^ "Japan". The World Book Encyclopedia. World Book. 1992. pp. 34-59. ISBN 0-7166-0092-7.
  43. ^ Nussbaum, "Ogosho" at p. 738.
  44. ^ Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (Winter 1991). "In Name Only: Imperial Sovereignty in Early Modern Japan". Journal of Japanese Studies. 17 (1): 25-57. doi:10.2307/132906. JSTOR 132906.
  45. ^ Bentley, Jerry. Traditions and Encounters. pp. 301-302. ISBN 978-0-07-325230-8.
  46. ^ Mass, J. et al., eds. (1985). The Bakufu in Japanese History, p. 189.
  47. ^ Mitchelhill & Green, 2003:59.
  48. ^ Kuno, 2007:245.
  49. ^ Davis, 2001:205.
  50. ^ Roth, 2007:103.
  51. ^ Fiévé & Waley, 2003:235.
  52. ^ a b Turnbull, 2006a:41.
  53. ^ Turnbull, 2006a:43.
  54. ^ Fiévé & Waley, 2003:236.
  55. ^ Valley, David J. (April 15, 2000). Gaijin Shogun : Gen. Douglas MacArthur Stepfather of Postwar Japan. Title: Sektor Company. ISBN 978-0967817521. Retrieved 2017.
  56. ^ "". Kotobank.
  57. ^ Ichiro Ozawa: the shadow shogun. In: The Economist, September 10, 2009.

Bibliography

  • Adolphson, Mikael; Edward Kamens, Stacie Matsumoto (2007). Heian Japan: Centers and Peripheries. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-3013-X.
  • Friday, Karl (2007). The First Samurai: The Life and Legend of the Warrior Rebel, Taira Masakado. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-76082-X.
  • Hall, John Whitney; James L. McClain, Marius B. Jansen (1991). The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22355-5.
  • Iwao, Seiichi; Teiz? Iyanaga, Maison franco-japonaise T?ky?, Susumu Ishii, Sh?ichir? Yoshida (2002). Maisonneuve & Larose. ISBN 2-7068-1575-2.
  • Cranston, Edwin (1998). A Waka Anthology: Volume One: The Gem-Glistening Cup. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3157-8.
  • Sansom, George Bailey (1931). Japan: A Short Cultural History. Stanford University Pres. ISBN 0-8047-0954-8.
  • Takekoshi, Yosabur? (2004). The Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-32379-7.
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  • De Bary, William Theodore; Yoshiko Kurata Dykstra; George Tanabe; Paul Varley (2001). Sources of Japanese Tradition: From Earliest Times to 1600. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12139-3.
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2005). Samurai Commanders (1) 940-1576. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-743-3.
  • Deal, William (2007). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-533126-5.
  • Perkins, Dorothy (1998). The Samurai of Japan: A Chronology from Their Origin in the Heian Era (794-1185) to the Modern Era. Diane Publishing. ISBN 0-7881-4525-8.
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  • Murdoch, James (1996). A History of Japan: 1652-1868. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15417-0.

Further reading


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