|Srpski dinar / C (Serbian)|
|1/100||para / ? (defunct)|
|Plural||dinari / ("dinars")|
|Freq. used||10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 dinars|
|Rarely used||5000 dinars|
|Freq. used||5, 10, 20 dinars|
|Rarely used||1, 2 dinars|
|National Bank of Serbia|
|Printer||Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins - Top?ider|
|Mint||Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins - Top?ider|
The Serbian dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: , pronounced [dîna:r]; paucal: dinara / ; sign: din; code: RSD) is the official currency of Serbia. One dinar is subdivided into 100 para. The dinar was first used in Serbia in medieval times, its earliest use dates back to 1214.
The first mention of a "Serbian dinar" dates back to the reign of Stefan Nemanji? in 1214. Until the fall of Despot Stjepan Toma?evi? in 1459, most of the Serbian rulers minted silver dinar coins. The first Serbian dinars, like many other south-European coins, replicated Venetian grosso, including characters in Latin (the word 'Dux' replaced with the word 'Rex'). It was one of the main export articles of medieval Serbia for many years, considering the relative abundance of silver coming from Serbian mines. Venetians were wary of this, and Dante Alighieri went so far as to put the Serbian king of his time, Stephen Uro? II Milutin of Serbia, in Hell as forgerer (along with his Portuguese and Norwegian counterparts):
E quel di Portogallo e di Norvegia lì si conosceranno, e quel di Rascia che male ha visto il conio di Vinegia.
Following the Ottoman conquest, different foreign currencies were used up to the mid 19th century. The Ottomans operated coin mints in Novo Brdo, Ku?ajna and Belgrade. The subdivision of the dinar, the para, is named after the Turkish silver coins of the same name (from the Persian ? p?ra, "money, coin"). After the Principality of Serbia was formally established (1817), there were many different foreign coins in circulation. Eventually, Prince Milo? Obrenovi? decided to introduce some order by establishing exchange rates based on the groat (Serbian gro?, French and English piastre, Turkish kuru?) as money of account. In 1819 Milo? published a table rating 43 different foreign coins: 10 gold, 28 silver, and 5 copper.
After the last Ottoman garrisons were withdrawn in 1867, Serbia was faced with multiple currencies in circulation. Thus, the prince Mihailo Obrenovi? ordered a national currency be minted. The first bronze coins were introduced in 1868, followed by silver in 1875 and gold in 1879. The first banknotes were issued in 1876. Between 1873 and 1894, the dinar was pegged at par to the French franc. The Kingdom of Serbia also joined the Latin Monetary Union.
In 1868, bronze coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, and 10 paras. The obverses featured the portrait of Prince Mihailo Obrenovi? III. Silver coins were introduced in 1875, in denominations of 50 paras, 1 and 2 dinars, followed by 5 dinars in 1879. The first gold coins were also issued in 1879, for 20 dinars, with 10 dinars introduced in 1882. The gold coins issued for the coronation of Milan I coronation in 1882 were popularly called milandor (French Milan d'Or). In 1883, cupro-nickel 5, 10, and 20 para coins were introduced, followed by bronze 2 paras coins in 1904.
In 1876, state notes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 dinars. The Chartered National Bank followed these notes from 1884, with notes for 10 dinars backed by silver and gold notes for 50 and 100 dinars. Gold notes for 20 dinars and silver notes for 100 dinars were introduced in 1905. During World War I, silver notes for 50 and 5 dinars were introduced in 1914 and 1916, respectively. In 1915, stamps were authorized for circulation as currency in denominations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 50 paras.
In 1941, the Yugoslav dinar was replaced, at par, by a second Serbian dinar for use in the German occupied Serbia. The dinar was pegged to the German reichsmark at a rate of 250 dinars = 1 Reichsmark. This dinar circulated until 1944, when the Yugoslav dinar was reintroduced by the Yugoslav Partisans, replacing the Serbian dinar rate of 1 Yugoslav dinar = 20 Serbian dinars.
In 1942, zinc coins were introduced in denominations of 50 paras, 1 and 2 dinars, with 10 dinar coins following in 1943.
In May 1941, the Serbian National Bank introduced notes for 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 dinars. The 100 and 1000 dinar notes were overprints, whilst the 10 dinar design was taken from an earlier Yugoslav note. Other notes were introduced in 1942 and 1943 without any new denominations being introduced.
The Serbian dinar replaced the Yugoslav dinar in 2003 when the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was transformed into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Both Montenegro and the disputed territory of Kosovo had already adopted the Deutsche Mark and later the euro when the mark was replaced by it in 2002. The Serbs in North Kosovo and the enclaves within it continue to use the dinar.
Between 2003 and 2006, the Serbian dinar used the ISO 4217 code CSD, with CS being the ISO 3166-2 country code for Serbia and Montenegro. When the State Union was dissolved in 2006, the dinar's ISO 4217 code was changed to the current RSD.
Coins currently in circulation are 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 dinara coins. All coins feature identical inscriptions in Serbian, using the Cyrillic and Latin scripts. The 10 and 20 dinara coins are uncommon in circulation, as banknotes of the same value are used instead.
In 2003, banknotes of the (re-established) National Bank of Serbia were introduced in denominations of 100, 1000, and 5000 dinars. 500 dinars followed these in 2004, 50 dinars in 2005, 10 and 20 dinars in 2006, and 2000 dinars in 2011.
|Denomination||Obverse image||Reverse image||Main colour||Obverse||Reverse||Remark|
131 x 62 mm
|Ochre-yellow||Vuk Stefanovi? Karad?i? (1787 – 1864), philologist and linguist||Member of the First Prague Slavic Congress, 1848 and a vignette of the letters Vuk introduced.||Replaced with a slightly lighter 2006 issue. A revised issue entered circulation in 2011.|
135 x 64 mm
|Green||Petar II Petrovi?-Njego? (1813 – 1851), metropolitan, statesman, philosopher, and poet||His figure on the back, instead of the statue from the Mausoleum on Mount Lov?en.||Replaced with a slightly darker 2006 issue. A revised issue entered circulation in 2011.|
139 x 66 mm
|Violet||Stevan Stojanovi? Mokranjac (1856 – 1914), composer and music educator||Figure of Stevan Stojanovi? Mokranjac, a motif of Miroslav Gospels illumination scores.||Redesigned in 2005. A revised issue entered circulation in 2011.|
143 x 68 mm
|Blue||Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943), inventor||A detail from the Tesla electro-magnetic induction engine.||Redesigned in 2003, 2004 and 2006. A revised issue entered circulation in 2012.|
147 x 70 mm
|Brown||Nade?da Petrovi? (1873 – 1915), painter||Silhouette of the Gra?anica Monastery.||Redesigned in 2005. A revised issue entered circulation in 2011.|
147 x 70 mm
|Yellow||Jovan Cviji? (1865 – 1927), geographer||Stylized ethnic motifs.||Redesigned in 2007. A revised issue entered circulation in 2011.|
151 x 72 mm
|Red||?or?e Vajfert (1850 – 1937), industrialist||An outline of Weifert's beer brewery, hologram image of St. George slaying a dragon; details from the interior of the main building of the National Bank of Serbia.||Redesigned in 2003 and 2006. A revised issue entered circulation in 2011.|
155 x 74 mm
|Grey||Milutin Milankovi? (1879 – 1958), mathematician, astronomer and geophysicist||Milankovi?'s figures while at the desk (below: a graphical representation of his calculations of snow boundary movement for the past Quaternary) and from his student days in Vienna (behind: a stylised Sun disk drawing fragment and an illustration of Milankovi?'s work).||Entered circulation in 2011.|
159 x 76 mm
|Purple||Slobodan Jovanovi? (1869 – 1958), jurist, historian and politician||An ornamental detail from the building of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts; silhouette of the National Assembly.||Redesigned in 2010. A revised issue entered circulation in 2016.|