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Sümi, also Sema, is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Nagaland, India. It is spoken by the Sümi Naga people.
Sümi is spoken in central and southern
Nagaland, in Zunheboto district, Dimapur district, Kohima district, Mokokchung district, and Tuensang district, as well as in 7 villages of Tinsukia district, Assam ( Ethnologue).
lists the following dialects of Sümi.
Ethnologue Dayang (Western Sümi)
The transcriptions in this section use the
International Phonetic Alphabet.
The vowels of Sümi are as follows:
/i/ has been variously described as:
Near-close front unrounded ;
Close front unrounded .
/?/ has been variously described as:
Near-close central unrounded ;
Close central unrounded . In word-medial position,
/?/ can be realized as mid central unrounded .
/u/ is close back rounded . The mid vowels
/e, o/ can be realized as either close-mid [ or open-mid e, o] [. ?, ?] Teo (2012) describes the close-mid allophone of /o/ as slightly advanced [o?].
/a/ has been variously described as:
Near-open central unrounded ;
Open central unrounded . After uvular stops, /a/ can be realized as open back unrounded .
The consonants of Sümi are as follows (allophones that are represented in the orthographic system are given in parentheses):
Sreedhar, Mangadan Veetil (1976), Sema phonetic reader, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages
Sreedhar, Mangadan Veetil (1980), A Sema Grammar, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages
Teo, Amos B. (2012), "Sumi (Sema)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (3): 365-373, doi: 10.1017/S0025100312000254 Teo, Amos B. (2014), , Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5