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The relation between properties of mass and their associated physical constants. Every massive object is believed to exhibit all five properties. However, due to extremely large or extremely small constants, it is generally impossible to verify more than two or three properties for any object.
In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild obtained the exact solution to Einstein's field equations for the gravitational field outside a non-rotating, spherically symmetric body with mass (see Schwarzschild metric). The solution contained terms of the form and , which become singular at and respectively. The has come to be known as the Schwarzschild radius. The physical significance of these singularities was debated for decades. It was found that the one at is a coordinate singularity, meaning that it can be removed by a change of coordinates, while the one at is physical, and cannot be removed. The Schwarzschild radius is nonetheless a physically relevant quantity, as noted above and below.
This expression had previously been calculated, using Newtonian mechanics, as the radius of a spherically symmetric body at which the escape velocity was equal to the speed of light. It had been identified in the 18th century by John Michell and by 19th century astronomers such as Pierre-Simon Laplace.
The Schwarzschild radius of an object is proportional to the mass. Accordingly, the Sun has a Schwarzschild radius of approximately 3.0 km (1.9 mi), whereas Earth's is only about 9 mm (0.35 in) and the Moon's is about 0.1 mm (0.0039 in). The observable universe's mass has a Schwarzschild radius of approximately 13.7 billion light-years.
Any object whose radius is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius is called a black hole. The surface at the Schwarzschild radius acts as an event horizon in a non-rotating body (a rotating black hole operates slightly differently). Neither light nor particles can escape through this surface from the region inside, hence the name "black hole".
Black holes can be classified based on their Schwarzschild radius, or equivalently, by their density. As the radius is linearly related to mass, while the enclosed volume corresponds to the third power of the radius, small black holes are therefore much more dense than large ones. The volume enclosed in the event horizon of the most massive black holes has an average density lower than main sequence stars.
Supermassive black hole
A supermassive black hole (SMBH) is the largest type of black hole, though there are few official criteria on how such an object is considered so, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. (Supermassive black holes up to 21 billion (2.1 × 1010) M☉ have been detected, such as NGC 4889.) Unlike stellar mass black holes, supermassive black holes have comparatively low average densities. (Note that a black hole is a spherical region in space that surrounds the singularity at its center; it is not the singularity itself.) With that in mind, the average density of a supermassive black hole can be less than the density of water.
The Schwarzschild radius of a body is proportional to its mass and therefore to its volume, assuming that the body has a constant mass-density. In contrast, the physical radius of the body is proportional to the cube root of its volume. Therefore, as the body accumulates matter at a given fixed density (in this example, 997 kg/m3, the density of water), its Schwarzschild radius will increase more quickly than its physical radius. When a body of this density has grown to around 136 million solar masses (1.36 × 108) M☉, its physical radius would be overtaken by its Schwarzschild radius, and thus it would form a supermassive black hole.
It is thought that supermassive black holes like these do not form immediately from the singular collapse of a cluster of stars. Instead they may begin life as smaller, stellar-sized black holes and grow larger by the accretion of matter, or even of other black holes.
Stellar black holes have much greater average densities than supermassive black holes. If one accumulates matter at nuclear density (the density of the nucleus of an atom, about 1018kg/m3; neutron stars also reach this density), such an accumulation would fall within its own Schwarzschild radius at about 3 M☉ and thus would be a stellar black hole.
Primordial black hole
A small mass has an extremely small Schwarzschild radius. A mass similar to Mount Everest[note 1] has a Schwarzschild radius much smaller than a nanometre.[note 2] Its average density at that size would be so high that no known mechanism could form such extremely compact objects. Such black holes might possibly be formed in an early stage of the evolution of the universe, just after the Big Bang, when densities were extremely high. Therefore, these hypothetical miniature black holes are called primordial black holes.
In gravitational time dilation
Gravitational time dilation near a large, slowly rotating, nearly spherical body, such as the Earth or Sun can be reasonably approximated using the Schwarzschild radius as follows:
tr is the elapsed time for an observer at radial coordinate r within the gravitational field;
t is the elapsed time for an observer distant from the massive object (and therefore outside of the gravitational field);
r is the radial coordinate of the observer (which is analogous to the classical distance from the center of the object);
rs is the Schwarzschild radius.
The results of the Pound-Rebka experiment in 1959 were found to be consistent with predictions made by general relativity. By measuring Earth's gravitational time dilation, this experiment indirectly measured Earth's Schwarzschild radius.
In Newtonian gravitational fields
The Newtonian gravitational field near a large, slowly rotating, nearly spherical body can be reasonably approximated using the Schwarzschild radius as follows:
Therefore, on dividing above by below:
g is the gravitational acceleration at radial coordinate r;
rs is the Schwarzschild radius of the gravitating central body;
^K. Schwarzschild, "Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie", Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse fur Mathematik, Physik, und Technik (1916) pp 189.
^K. Schwarzschild, "Über das Gravitationsfeld einer Kugel aus inkompressibler Flussigkeit nach der Einsteinschen Theorie", Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse fur Mathematik, Physik, und Technik (1916) pp 424.