Satu Mare County
Jude?ul Satu Mare
|Historical region||Cri?ana, Maramure?|
|o Total||4,418 km2 (1,706 sq mi)|
|o Density||74/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|Telephone code||(+40) 261 or (+40) 361|
|ISO 3166 code||RO-SM|
|GDP (nominal)||US$ 2.150 billion (2015)|
|GDP/capita||US$ 6,533 (2015)|
Satu Mare County (Romanian: Jude?ul Satu Mare, pronounced [?satu 'mare]) is a county (jude?) of Romania on the border with Hungary and Ukraine. The capital city is Satu Mare. Besides Romanians (57.73% of the population), Satu Mare features a significant ethnic minority of Hungarians (34.5%).
Satu Mare is a multicultural city, with a population mix of Romanian, Hungarian, Roma, German, and other ethnicities.
Hungarians mostly reside along the border with Hungary, but some are also scattered throughout the whole county. Historically, Hungarians were concentrated in the cities, where administration resides, while the Romanian population was larger in the villages throughout the county. In 1930 the Hungarians were representing 41,9% of the urban population in Satu Mare County and only 20,0% of the population in the villages according to census data. The proportion of different ethnic groups varied throughout the history, due to regime and political changes. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the Hungarian population increased its proportion greatly, in 1880 representing 44.4% and in 1910 reaching 55.1% of the county population, according to Árpád E. Varga. After World War I the Hungarian and German population declined.
This county has a total area of 4,418 square kilometres (1,706 sq mi).
In the north are the Oa? Mountains, part of the Eastern Carpathians. This makes up around 17% of the area. The remainder is hills, forming 20% of the area, and plains. The western county takes up the Eastern part of the Pannonian Plain.
It is a member of the Carpathian euroregion.
The predominant industries in the county are:
The main tourist attractions in the county are:
|Democratic Alliance of Hungarians||13|
|Social Democratic Party||9|
|National Liberal Party||7|
|Alliance of Liberals and Democrats||4|
Satu Mare County has 2 municipalities, 4 towns and 59 communes:
Jude?ul Satu Mare
Satu Mare County prefecture building during the interwar period.
|Capital city (Re?edin de jude?)||Satu Mare|
|o Total||4,242 km2 (1,638 sq mi)|
|o Density||70/km2 (180/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
Historically, the county was located in the northwestern part of Greater Romania, stretching to its borders with Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Its territory lay in the historical Cri?ana region. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the name of the county remained as it was, but the territory was reorganized. It was bordered on the northwest by Hungary, on the north by Czechoslovakia, to the east by Maramure? County, to the southeast by Some? County, and to the south and southwest by S?laj County. Currently, its territory is included in the current counties of Satu Mare and Maramure?.
Prior to World War I, the territory of the county belonged to Austria-Hungary and mostly was contained in the Szatmár County of the Kingdom of Hungary. The territory of Satu Mare County was transferred to Romania from Hungary as successor state to Austria-Hungary in 1920 under the Treaty of Trianon.
In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, and subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed. 10 ?inuturi (approximate translation: "lands") were created (by merging the counties) to be ruled by reziden?i regali (approximate translation: "Royal Residents") - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Satu Mare County became part of ?inutul Cri?uri.
In 1940, the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated into Romania. Romanian jurisdiction over the county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. The county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, and re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system.
According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 294,875, 60.5% Romanians, 25.2% Hungarians, 8.1% Jews, 3.2% Germans, as well as other minorities. From a religious point of view, the population consisted of 59.0% Greek Catholics, 15.0% Roman Catholics, 8.6% Jewish, 4.4% Eastern Orthodox, as well as other minorities.
In 1930, the county's urban population was 69,526 inhabitants, 41.9% Hungarians, 35.0% Romanians, 18.6% Jews, 1.6% Germans, as well as other minorities. As a mother tongue in the urban area, Hungarian dominated (55.6%), followed by Romanian (31.1%), Yiddish (10.6%), German (1.4%), as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population consisted of 33.7% Greek Catholics, 23.0% Reformed, 20.0% Jewish, 19.6% Roman Catholic, 2.9% Eastern Orthodox, as well as other minorities.