Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas
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Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa?d ibn Ab? Waqq?s
   ?.png
Born595 AD
Mecca, Arabia
Died674 AD
Medina, Arabia
AllegianceRashidun Caliphate
Service/branchRashidun Army
Years of service636-644
RankCommander
Governor of Ctesiphon (637-638)
Governor of Busra (638-644), (645-646)
Commands heldRashidun conquest of Persian Empire
Sa?d ibn Abi Waqqas leads the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate during the Battle of al-Q?disiyyah from a manuscript of the Shahnameh.

Sa?d ibn Ab? Waqq?s (Arabic: ?‎) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet. Sa'd was the third or fourth person to embrace Islam at the age of seventeen. He is mainly known for his commandership in the Battle of Qadisiyyah and in the conquest of Persia in 636, governorship over it, and diplomatic sojourns to China in 651.

Biography

Family

Sa'd was born in Mecca, 595. His father was Abu Waqqas Malik ibn Uhayb ibn Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah from the Banu Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe.[1][2] Uhayb ibn Abd Manaf was the paternal uncle of Aminah bint Wahb,[3] mother of Muhammad. Sa'd's mother was Hamnah bint Sufyan ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf.[4]

He was seventeen years old when he accepted Islam. He had many children, among whom his sons Umar and Aamir and his daughter A'isha are the most well-known.

During Muhammad's era 610–632

Mothers reaction about Sa'd's conversion to Islam

He was one of the first to accept Islam.[1]

Sa?d relates:

This was referenced in the Quranic verse 31:14-15.[1]

Battles

Bow of Saad bin Abi-Waqqas at Medina railway museum

In 614, the Muslims were on their way to the hills of Mecca to offer prayer with Muhammad, when a group of polytheists observed them. They began to abuse and fight them. Sa`ad beat a polytheist and shed his blood, reportedly becoming the first Muslim to shed blood in the name of Islam.[1][5]

He fought at the battle of Badr with his young brother ?Umayr. Being only in his early teens, Umayr was denied access to battle, but after struggling and crying, he was later given permission by Muhammed to fight in battle. Sa?d returned to Medina alone; ?Umayr was one of the fourteen Muslims who died in the battle.

At the battle of Uhud, Sa?d was chosen as an archer together with Zayd, Sab (the son of Uthm?n ibn Maz?n) and others. Sa?d was among those who fought in defense of Muhammad after some Muslims had deserted their positions. Muhammad honoured him by declaring him one of the best archers of that time. During the battle, Muhammad gathered some arrows for him.

Farewell Pilgrimage

He fell ill during the Farewell Pilgrimage, and he had only a daughter during this period. Sa'ad said:

O Messenger of Allah. I have wealth and I only have one daughter to inherit from me.

Shall I give two thirds of my wealth as Sadaqah?" "No," replied the Prophet. "Then, (shall I give) a half?." asked Sa'ad and the Prophet again said 'no.' "Then, (shall I give) a third?' asked Sa'ad. "Yes," said the Prophet. "The third is much. Indeed to leave your heirs well-off is better than that you should leave them dependent on and to beg from people. If you spend anything seeking to gain thereby the pleasure of Allah, you will be rewarded for it even if it is a morsel which you place in your wife's mouth.[1]

During Caliph ?Umar's era 634–644

Sa` ad Ibn Abi Waqqas, was the one who built the city of Kufa in Iraq during the reign Umar ibn al-Khattab.

Sa?d also fought under ?Umar's command against the Sassanid army at the Battle of al-Q?disiyyah and Battle of Nah?vand. He was later appointed governor of Kufa and Nejd during the caliphate of ?Umar.

Some narrations state that although ?Umar deposed him from his post as governor, he recommended that the caliph who succeeded him reinstall Sa?d, since Umar had not deposed Sa?d due to any treachery.[6]

He was one of six people nominated by Umar ibn al-Khattab for the third caliphate.

During Caliph ?Uthman's era 644–656

?Uthman carried out ?Umar's recommendation and appointed Sa?d as governor of Kufa.[6]

Sa?d has been traditionally credited by Chinese Muslims with introducing Islam to China in 650, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang.[7][8] A mosque in the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh has also been found, which is said to be built by himself in 648, and also locally called after his name as Abu Akkas mosque.[9][10]

During Caliph Mu?awiyah's era 661–664

He outlived all ten blessed companions, and died wealthy man at the age of eighty, around the year 674. Sa'd is among the ten promised of paradise.[1]

Legacy

Sunni Muslims regard him as one of the ten to whom paradise was promised.

One Sunni source states: To urge him on [during Uhud], Muhammad said: "Shoot, Sa?d ...may my mother and father be your ransom.". This was also reported by ?Ali ibn Abi Talib who said that he had not yet heard Muhammad promising such a ransom to anyone except Sa'ad Bin Malik. Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 389. Sa'ad bin Malik and Sa?d bin abi Waqqas are the same person.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Sa'ad Ibn Abi Waqqas (radhi allahu anhu) Archived 10 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (1995). The History of al-Tabari. 28. SUNY Press. p. 146.
  3. ^ http://www.shiachat.com/forum/topic/26316-son-of-saad-bin-abi-waqas/
  4. ^ Short Biography of the Prophet & His Ten Companions. Darussalam. 2004. p. 80.
  5. ^ Nafziger & Walton 2003, p. 23
  6. ^ a b The Shi'a: The Real Followers of the Sunnah on al-Islam.org [1]
  7. ^ Wang, Lianmao (2000). Return to the City of Light: Quanzhou, an eastern city shining with the splendour of medieval culture. Fujian People's Publishing House. Page 99.
  8. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1997). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 29. ISBN 962-209-468-6.
  9. ^ Mahmood, Kajal Iftikhar Rashid (19 October 2012). " ? ? ? " [1350 Year-old Mosque]. Prothom Alo (in Bengali).
  10. ^ "History and archaeology: Bangladesh's most undervalued assets?". deutschenews24.de. 21 December 2012. Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 2014.

Further reading

External links


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