Ryman Auditorium
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Ryman Auditorium
Ryman Auditorium
"The Mother Church of Country Music"
"The Carnegie Hall of the South"
"The Ryman"
Ryman Auditorium.jpg
Ryman Auditorium, facing Nashville's Fifth Avenue North
Former names Union Gospel Tabernacle (1892-1904)
Grand Ole Opry House (1963-1974)
Location 116 Fifth Ave. N
Nashville, Tennessee
United States
Coordinates 36°9?40.6?N 86°46?42.6?W / 36.161278°N 86.778500°W / 36.161278; -86.778500
Owner Ryman Hospitality Properties, Inc.
Type Concert hall
Theatre
Broadcast venue
Seating type Pews
Capacity 2,362 (1994-present)
Construction
Built 1885-1892
Opened 1892
Renovated 1901, 1952, 1989, 1994, 2010
Expanded 1897, 1994, 2015
Construction cost US$100,000 (equivalent to $2,723,704 in 2017)
Website
www.ryman.com

Ryman Auditorium (formerly Grand Ole Opry House and Union Gospel Tabernacle) is a 2,362-seat live-performance venue located at 116 5th Avenue North, in Nashville, Tennessee. It is best known as the home of the Grand Ole Opry from 1943 to 1974 and is owned and operated by Ryman Hospitality Properties, Inc.

Ryman Auditorium was included in the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and was later designated a National Historic Landmark on June 25, 2001, for its pivotal role in the popularization of country music.[1][2]

History

Union Gospel Tabernacle

The auditorium opened as the Union Gospel Tabernacle in 1892. Its construction was spearheaded by Thomas Ryman (1843–1904), a Nashville businessman who owned several saloons and a fleet of riverboats. Ryman conceived the idea of the auditorium as a tabernacle for the influential revivalist Samuel Porter Jones.[3] He had attended one of Jones' 1885 tent revivals with the intent to heckle, but was instead converted into a devout Christian who pledged to build the tabernacle so the people of Nashville could attend large-scale revivals indoors. It took seven years to complete and cost US$100,000 (equivalent to $2,723,704 in 2017).[4] However, Jones held his first revival at the site on May 25, 1890, with only the building's foundation and six-foot (1.8 m) walls standing.[5]

Architect Hugh Cathcart Thompson designed the structure. Exceeding its construction budget, the tabernacle opened US$20,000 (equivalent to $544,741 in 2017) in debt. Jones sought to name the tabernacle in Ryman's honor, but Ryman denied the request several times. When Ryman died in 1904, his memorial service was held at the tabernacle. During the service, Jones proposed the building be renamed Ryman Auditorium, which was met with the overwhelming approval of the attendees.[4] Jones died less than two years later in 1906.

The building was originally designed to contain a balcony, but a lack of funds delayed its completion. The balcony was eventually built and opened in time for the 1897 gathering of the United Confederate Veterans, with funds provided by members of the group. As a result, the balcony was named the Confederate Gallery.[5] Upon the completion of the balcony, the Ryman's capacity rose to 6,000. A stage was added in 1901 that reduced the capacity to just over 3,000.

Statue of Thomas Ryman, outside the entrance to the auditorium which bears his name

Under the leadership of Lula C. Naff

Though the building was designed to be a house of worship - a purpose it continued to serve throughout most of its early existence - it was often leased to promoters for nonreligious events in an effort to pay off its debts and remain open. In 1904, Lula C. Naff, a widow and mother who was working as a stenographer, began to book and promote speaking engagements, concerts, boxing matches, and other attractions at the Ryman in her free time. In 1914, when her employer went out of business, Naff made booking these events her full-time job. She eventually transitioned into a role as the Ryman's official manager by 1920.[6][7] She preferred to go by the name "L.C. Naff" in an attempt to avoid initial prejudices as a female executive in a male-dominated industry. Naff gained a reputation for battling local censorship groups, who had threatened to ban various performances deemed too risqué. In 1939, Naff won a landmark lawsuit against the Nashville Board of Censors, which was planning to arrest the star of the play Tobacco Road due to its provocative nature. The court declared the law creating the censors to be invalid.[5]

Naff's ability to book stage shows and world-renowned entertainers in the city's largest indoor gathering place kept the Ryman at the forefront of Nashville's consciousness and enhanced the city's reputation as a cultural center for the performing arts, even as the building began to age.[7]W.C. Fields, Will Rogers, Charlie Chaplin, Bob Hope, Harry Houdini, and John Philip Sousa (among others) performed at the venue over the years, earning the Ryman the nickname, "The Carnegie Hall of the South".[8] The Ryman hosted lectures by U.S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft in 1907 and 1911, respectively. World-famous opera singer Enrico Caruso appeared in concert there in 1919. It also hosted the inaugurations of three governors of the state of Tennessee.[5]

The first event to sell out the Ryman was a lecture by Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan Macy in 1913.[5] While being a trailblazer for working women, Naff also championed the cause of diversity.[7] The building was used as a regular venue for the Fisk Jubilee Singers from nearby Fisk University, a historically black college. Jim Crow laws often forced Ryman audiences to be segregated, with some shows designated for "White Audiences Only" and others for "Colored Audiences Only". However, photographs show that Ryman audiences of the time were often integrated.[5] Naff retired in 1955 and died in 1960.[6]

Grand Ole Opry

The stage at the Ryman Auditorium where many of the legendary artists have performed

After debuting in 1925, the local country music radio program known as the Grand Ole Opry (originally called the WSM Barn Dance) became a Nashville institution. Broadcast over clear-channel AM radio station WSM, it could be heard in 30 states across the eastern part of the nation. Although not originally a stage show, the Opry began to attract listeners from around the region who would go to the WSM studio to see it live. When crowds got too large for the studio, WSM began broadcasting the show from the Hillsboro Theatre (now Belcourt Theatre) in 1934. The Opry moved to East Nashville's Dixie Tabernacle in 1936 and then to War Memorial Auditorium in 1939.

After four years - and several reports of upholstery damage caused by its rowdy crowds - the Opry was asked to leave War Memorial and sought a new home yet again. Thanks to its wooden pews and central location, Naff and other Ryman leaders thought the auditorium would be a perfect venue for such an audience and began renting the venue to WSM for its shows.[9] The Grand Ole Opry was first broadcast from the Ryman on June 5, 1943, and originated there every week for nearly 31 years thereafter. Every show sold out, and hundreds of fans were often turned away.[9]

During its tenure at Ryman Auditorium, the Opry hosted the biggest country music stars of the day and became a show known around the world. In addition to its home on WSM, portions of the show (at various times throughout its history) were also broadcast on network radio and television to a wider audience. Melding its then-current usage with the building's origins as a house of worship, the Ryman got the nickname "The Mother Church of Country Music", which it still holds to this day.

Because of the period during which it was constructed and because it was not designed to be a performance venue, the Ryman lacked a true backstage area. It had only one dressing room for the men, and women were relegated to an inadequate ladies' restroom.[10] The shortage of space forced performers to wait in the wings, the narrow hallways, and the alley behind the building's south wall. Thus, many performers often ventured across the alley to Tootsie's Orchid Lounge and other bars, where they drank alongside patrons and sometimes performed. This practice enhanced the notoriety and appeal of the honky-tonk bars along Nashville's Lower Broadway.[11]

Alley between Ryman Auditorium and the rear of Broadway "Honky Tonks", including Tootsie's Orchid Lounge

Prior to September 27, 1963, Ryman Auditorium had no singular owner, instead being an independent entity governed by a board of directors. That changed when WSM, Inc., purchased the building for US$207,500 (equivalent to $1,658,647 in 2017). Upon WSM assuming total control of the auditorium, it was renamed the Grand Ole Opry House, although the Ryman name proved difficult to shed after nearly 60 years in use.[5]

WSM financed minor upgrades to the Opry House in 1966 to maintain its functionality, but soon began making plans to move the Opry to a new location altogether. Despite the building's deteriorating condition, the lack of air conditioning, and the abundance of unsavory surroundings in its urban neighborhood, the show's increasing popularity often resulted in crowds too large to fit inside the venue.[9] Plans announced in 1969 centered around a larger, custom-built auditorium that would provide a more controlled and comfortable atmosphere for audiences and performers alike, as well as better radio and television production facilities. The company purchased a large tract of land in a then-rural area a few miles away, and the new Opry theater served as the anchor of a grand entertainment complex. The development became known as Opryland USA and eventually included the Opryland theme park and the Opryland Hotel.

The amusement park opened on May 27, 1972, and the new venue (also called the Grand Ole Opry House) debuted on Saturday, March 16, 1974. The last Opry show at the Ryman occurred the previous evening, on Friday, March 15. The final shows downtown were emotional. Sarah Cannon, performing as Minnie Pearl, broke character and cried on stage.[12] In an effort to maintain continuity with the Opry's storied past, a large circle was cut from the floor of the Ryman stage and inlaid into the center of the new Opry stage.[13] In another traditional holdover, the new Opry House was also designed to feature pew seating, although (unlike the Ryman) they are cushioned.

Eventually and without fanfare, the building resumed using the Ryman Auditorium name to differentiate it from the new Grand Ole Opry House.

Tennessee Historical Commission marker outside Ryman Auditorium, signifying the site as the birthplace of Bluegrass music

Facing demolition

When the plans for Opryland USA were announced, WSM president Irving Waugh also revealed the company's intent to demolish the Ryman and use its materials to construct a chapel called "The Little Church of Opryland" at the amusement park.[14][15] Waugh brought in a consultant to evaluate the building, noted theatrical producer Jo Mielziner, who had staged a production at the Ryman in 1935. He concluded that the Ryman was "full of bad workmanship and contains nothing of value as a theater worth restoring."[9] Mielziner suggested the auditorium be razed and replaced with a modern theater.[9] Waugh's plans were met with resounding resistance from the public, including many influential musicians of the time. Pulitzer Prize-winner Ada Louise Huxtable ridiculed the decision in The New York Times, writing: "First prize for the pious misuse of a landmark, and a total misunderstanding of the principles of preservation. Gentlemen, for shame."[9][10]

However, Roy Acuff, an Opry stalwart and a major stakeholder of Opryland USA, was purported to say, "I never want another note of music played in that building." He led the unsuccessful charge to tear down the Ryman.[16] Acuff, a staunch supporter of moving the Opry to a modern home, told The Washington Post in 1974, "Most of my memories of the Ryman auditorium are of misery, sweating out here on this stage, the audience suffering too... We've been shackled all of my career."[15] Acuff notably hated the dressing room situation at the Ryman so much that he bought a nearby building just to have a bigger one.[15] Ironically, a life-sized statue of Acuff (alongside one of Sarah Cannon as Minnie Pearl) now sits in Ryman Auditorium's lobby.

Members of historic preservation groups argued that WSM, Inc. (and Acuff, by proxy) exaggerated the Ryman's poor condition, saying the company was worried that attachment to the old building would hurt business at the new Opry House. Preservationists leaned on the building's religious history and gained traction for their case as a result. The outcry led to the building being added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. In 1974, United States Senators Howard Baker and Bill Brock (both representing Tennessee), along with the assistance of the United States Department of the Interior, pleaded with WSM, Inc. (and its parent company, NLT Corporation) to preserve the building. The company tabled the decision on the Ryman's fate, and the building was ultimately saved from demolition, although no active efforts were made to improve its condition.[5][10]

Ryman Auditorium
Ryman Auditorium is located in Tennessee
Ryman Auditorium
Location 116 Fifth Ave. N
Nashville, Tennessee
Coordinates 36°9?40.6?N 86°46?42.6?W / 36.161278°N 86.778500°W / 36.161278; -86.778500Coordinates: 36°9?40.6?N 86°46?42.6?W / 36.161278°N 86.778500°W / 36.161278; -86.778500
Area 1 acre (0.40 ha)
Built 1891
Architect Hugh Cathcart Thompson
Restored 1952, 1989, 1994
NRHP reference # 71000819
Significant dates
Added to NRHP May 6, 1971[17]
Designated NHL January 3, 2001[1]

Dormancy

Following the departure of the Opry, the Ryman sat mostly vacant and deteriorating for nearly 20 years, as the neighborhood surrounding it continued to see the increasing effects of urban decay. However, the building continued to stand with an uncertain future. Despite its regressing condition and the absence of performances, Ryman Auditorium was never shuttered, and it continued to hold such significance as an attraction that it remained open for tours.[10][14]

On August 30, 1979, following a tip from a citizen, the Nashville bomb squad discovered and disarmed a massive car bomb that threatened to damage or destroy a three-block area of downtown Nashville that included the Ryman. A nearby strip club was the actual target. The device was disarmed less than 20 minutes before it was timed to detonate.[18]

In September 1983, soon after NLT Corporation was acquired in a hostile takeover bid by American General Insurance, the building was included in the sale of all the WSM and Opryland properties to Oklahoma-based Gaylord Broadcasting Company (which later moved its headquarters to Nashville and was renamed Gaylord Entertainment Company) for US$250,000,000 (equivalent to $614,266,622 in 2017).[9][19] The company's chief executive, Ed Gaylord, became acquainted with many of the Opry stars during his involvement with the long-running television series Hee Haw. His fondness of the Opry and friendships with its personalities - particularly Sarah Cannon - are often cited as reasons for his interest in the acquisition.[9] Ryman Auditorium's inclusion in the sale was mostly considered an afterthought, although its new owner made no plans to demolish it, partly due to Mr. Gaylord's appreciation of its history.

In 1986, as part of the Grand Ole Opry 60th-anniversary celebration, CBS aired a special program that featured some of the Opry's legendary stars performing at the Ryman.[9] While the auditorium was dormant, major motion pictures continued to be filmed on location there, including John Carpenter's Elvis (1979), Coal Miner's Daughter (1980 - Loretta Lynn Oscar-winning biopic), Sweet Dreams (1985 - story of Patsy Cline), and Clint Eastwood's Honkytonk Man (1982). A 1978 television special, Dolly and Carol in Nashville, included a segment featuring Dolly Parton performing a gospel medley on the Ryman stage.

Revival and renovations

In 1989, Gaylord Entertainment began work to beautify the Ryman's exterior. The structure of the building was also improved, as the company installed a new roof, replaced broken windows, and repaired broken bricks and wood.[5] The building's interior, however, was left mostly untouched.

Stained glass windows on the north-facing exterior of Ryman Auditorium

From April 30 to May 2, 1991, Emmylou Harris and the Nash Ramblers performed three acoustic concerts at the dilapidated building, during which no one was allowed to sit on or beneath the balcony due to safety concerns.[20][21] Capacity was limited to around 200.[9] Some of the recordings were released as an album entitled At the Ryman, which won the Grammy Award for Best Country Performance by a Duo or Group at the 35th Annual Grammy Awards in 1993.[21] The concerts and album's high acclaim are given near-universal credit for the renewed interest in reviving Ryman Auditorium as an active venue.[20][21][22]

The Ryman hosted a concert and one-act play entitled The Ryman: The Tabernacle Becomes A Shrine on May 18, 1992, to celebrate the building's centennial.[5] In October 1992, executives of Gaylord Entertainment announced plans to renovate the entire building and expand it to create modern amenities for performers and audiences alike, as part of a larger initiative to invest in the city's efforts to revitalize the downtown area.[5]

In September 1993, renovations began to restore it into a world-class concert hall.[14] In the renovations, the auditorium's original wooden pews were removed, refurbished, and returned to the building to continue to serve as the auditorium's seating. Both far-reaching ends of the U-shaped balcony (which had previously extended all the way to the building's south wall) were removed, and new backstage facilities were built inside the original building, while a new structure containing a lobby, restrooms, concessions, offices, and a grand staircase leading to the balcony was constructed and attached to the east side of the auditorium. This also resulted in the Ryman's main entrance being moved from the west side of the building (Fifth Avenue North) to the east side (Fourth Avenue North), where an outdoor entry plaza, complete with a large statue of Thomas Ryman, also greeted visitors. Notably, the renovations resulted in Ryman Auditorium becoming air-conditioned for the first time.

Statues of Roy Acuff and Minnie Pearl seated on a pew in the lobby of Ryman Auditorium

The first performance at the newly renovated Ryman was a broadcast of Garrison Keillor's A Prairie Home Companion on June 4, 1994. Keillor said he was inspired to create A Prairie Home Companion while reporting on the final Opry show at the Ryman in 1974 for The New Yorker.[23] Following that, the Ryman hosted an extended residency of the original musical Always... Patsy Cline, which starred Mandy Barnett in the titular role about the life of the legendary singer.

The return of the Opry

On Sunday, October 18, 1998, the Opry held a benefit show at Ryman Auditorium, marking its return to the venue for the first time since its final show on March 15, 1974. The show was well received by fans, performers, and management alike, so the decision was made to host the Opry's regular shows there on January 15 and 16, 1999, as part of the celebration to commemorate 25 years at the new venue.[24]

Beginning in November 1999, the Opry was held at Ryman Auditorium for three months, mostly due to the success of the January shows, but partly due to the ongoing construction of Opry Mills shopping mall (which replaced the Opryland USA theme park in 2000) next door to the Grand Ole Opry House. The Opry has returned to the Ryman for all of its November, December, and January shows every year since then, allowing the production to acknowledge its roots while also taking advantage of a smaller venue during the off-peak season for tourism and freeing the Grand Ole Opry House for special holiday presentations.[24] While still officially the Grand Ole Opry, the shows there are billed Opry at the Ryman. The Ryman also served as the primary venue for the Opry in the summer of 2010 while the Grand Ole Opry House was undergoing repairs after damage from a devastating flood.

The interior of Ryman Auditorium before a show, as seen from the balcony behind section 15

The Ryman today

In January 2012, the Ryman's 61-year-old stage was announced to be replaced due to its deteriorating condition. Installed in 1951, the stage was the second for the Ryman, and it lasted far longer than Ryman officials had expected it to last. The stage was replaced with a medium-brown Brazilian teak.[25] It retained an 18-inch lip of the blonde oak at the front of the stage, similar to the way the Ryman stage was commemorated in a circle of wood at the new Opry House. Beneath the stage, the original hickory support beams were kept and reinforced with concrete foundations, crossbeams, and joist work that helped triple the stage's load capacity and ensure the venue would remain viable as a concert venue in the upcoming years.[25][26]

At the rear of the building, adjacent to 4th Avenue North, is an outdoor entry plaza leading to the building's main entrance and Cafe Lula. First constructed in 1994, this part of the property was renovated and expanded in 2015.

Gaylord Entertainment Company, the venue's owner since 1983, adopted the Ryman's name as its own when it transitioned into a real estate investment trust in 2012. The company is now known as Ryman Hospitality Properties, Inc., and Ryman Auditorium is contained within its Opry Entertainment Group division.

In 2015, the Ryman underwent another US$14,000,000 (equivalent to $14,454,022 in 2017) renovation and expansion, in which much of the 1994 expansion was gutted and remodeled.[27] The original building only received minor touch-ups and remained in use throughout the construction. The renovation and expansion includes more lobby space, plus expanded restrooms, concessions, and a gift shop, as well as a new quick-service restaurant called "Cafe Lula", named in memory of Lula C. Naff.[28] Also added in the 2015 renovations was a 100-seat theater that houses a short holographic film that serves as the first exhibit on the building's daily self-guided tours. Entitled The Soul Of Nashville, the film features an actress portraying Naff in a presentation of the history of the Ryman. It contains an original song performed by Darius Rucker, Sheryl Crow, Vince Gill, and the Fisk Jubilee Singers.[27]

Opry Entertainment Group stages weekly shows at the Ryman year-round. In addition to the Opry at the Ryman shows in the winter, the auditorium hosts Opry Country Classics each spring and autumn and Bluegrass Nights at the Ryman each summer. All are broadcast on WSM.

The Ryman has also served as a gathering place for the memorial services of many prominent country music figures. Tammy Wynette, Chet Atkins, Skeeter Davis, Harlan Howard, Waylon Jennings, Johnny Cash, Billy Block, George Hamilton IV, Earl Scruggs, and Jim Ed Brown have all been memorialized from the Ryman stage.[5]

The renovation of the Ryman, combined with the construction of other attractions such as Bridgestone Arena and Wildhorse Saloon, helped revitalize Nashville's downtown district into a destination for tourists and locals alike in the mid-1990s.[10] Since then, the Ryman has become one of the most venerable performance venues in Nashville. Experts have praised Ryman Auditorium's acoustics, calling them among the best in the world.[29]

In 2017, as part of the Ryman's 125th anniversary celebration, Little Big Town became its first artist-in-residence, performing 10 shows there over the course of the year.[30]

In 2018, the Ryman was named the most iconic structure in Tennessee by Architectural Digest.[31]

Notable events

The venue hosts alternative rock, bluegrass, blues, country, classical, folk, gospel, jazz, pop, and rock concerts, as well as musical theater and stand-up comedy.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Ryman Auditorium". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-05-09. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Frank J.J. Miele; Patty Henry; Kira Badamo & Shannon Davis (2000). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Ryman Auditorium / Union Gospel Tabernacle (pdf). National Park Service. and Accompanying eight photos from 2000 and two historic photos (see photo captions page 20 of text document) (32 KB)
  3. ^ Williams, Peter W. (2000). Houses of God: Region, Religion, and Architecture in the United States, p. 123. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06917-X.
  4. ^ a b "Captain Tom Ryman". Ryman.com. Retrieved 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Ryman Auditorium Timeline". Ryman.com. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Lula C. Naff". Ryman.com. Retrieved 2015.
  7. ^ a b c "Cafe Lula". CafeLula.net. Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ "The Story of Music City". VisitMusicCity.com. Retrieved 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Escott, Colin. The Grand Ole Opry: The Making of an American Icon. Books.google.com. Retrieved .
  10. ^ a b c d e Rau, Nate (July 14, 2014). "40 years after facing demolition, Ryman poised to grow". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ Hight, Jewly (November 4, 2010). "How Tootsie's Orchid Lounge helped change country music and Nashville in just 50 years". Nashville Scene. Nashville, Tennessee. Retrieved 2015.
  12. ^ Fay, Byron (March 9, 2002). "March 9, 1974-Final Saturday Night at the Ryman". Fayfare's Opry Blog. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ Smith, Loran (January 24, 2013). "A visit to the Grand Ole Opry brings precious memories". The News-Reporter. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ a b c The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Oxford University Press, USA. 4 January 2012. pp. 444-. ISBN 978-0-19-992083-9.
  15. ^ a b c Smyth, Jeannette (March 16, 1974). "The Grand Ole Opry Ain't Po' No Mo'" (PDF). The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ Lanham, Charmaine. "How Love Saved The Ryman". CharmaineLanham.com. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  18. ^ "Nashville Bomb Squad Disarms Bomb Found Near Old Opry House". Herald-Journal. Spartanburg, South Carolina. Associated Press. August 31, 1979. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ "Ryman Hospitality Properties". Answers.com. Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ a b Cooper, Peter (January 19, 2012). "Peter Cooper On Music: Emmylou Harris celebrates 20 years with Opry". Tennessean.com. Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ a b c Thanki, Juli (March 20, 2017). "Emmylou Harris, Nash Ramblers return to Ryman for 125th anniversary". Tennessean.com. Retrieved 2017.
  22. ^ "Emmylou Harris Revitalized the Ryman". Saving Country Music. October 4, 2010. Retrieved 2015.
  23. ^ Jensen, Elizabeth (May 13, 2011). "New Host Needed:Be Prepared To Fill Big Shoes". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 2015.
  24. ^ a b Fay, Byron (January 25, 2010). "Grand Ole Opry Ryman Reunion Celebration-October 18, 1998". Fayfare's Opry Blog. Retrieved 2015.
  25. ^ a b Paulson, Dave (January 30, 2012). "Ryman Auditorium to get new stage". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2015.
  26. ^ Smith, Hannah. "New Stage Coming to Nashville's Ryman Auditorium". Nashvilleonthemove.com. Retrieved 2012.
  27. ^ a b "Nashville's Historic Ryman Auditorium Unveils "Soul Of Nashville"". Ryman.com. June 8, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  28. ^ Paxman, Bob (June 9, 2015). "Holy Renovations! Ryman Auditorium Unveils Expansion and New Services". Country Weekly. Retrieved 2015.
  29. ^ "History". rymanauditorium.wordpress.com. June 25, 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  30. ^ Watts, Cindy (November 2, 2016). "Little Big Town to headline first Ryman residency". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. Retrieved 2016.
  31. ^ "The Most Iconic Building in Every State in America | Architectural Digest". Architectural Digest. Retrieved .
  32. ^ Edward Morris (2007-04-20). "News : Josh Turner Rocks Ryman Crowd for Live CD". CMT. Retrieved .
  • Eiland, William. Nashville's Mother Church: The History of the Ryman Auditorium. Nashville, 1992.
  • Graham, Eleanor, ed. Nashville, A Short History and Selected Buildings. Hist. Comm. of Metro-Nashville-Davidson Co., 1974.
  • Hagan, Chet. Grand Ole Opry. New York, 1989.
  • Henderson, Jerry. "A History of the Ryman Auditorium in Nashville, Tennessee, 1892-1920." (Ph. D. Diss., Louisiana State University) Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1962.
  • Baker, Anita: "Farewell Concert Series" Ryman Auditorium, Nashville, TN, 2018.

External links


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