Bloom was born and died in New York City.
During his career, he worked with many well-known performers, including Bix Beiderbecke, Joe Venuti, Ruth Etting, Stan Kenton, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey. He collaborated with a wide number of lyricists, including Johnny Mercer, Ted Koehler, and Mitchell Parish.
During the 1920s he wrote many novelty piano solos which are still well regarded today. He recorded for the Aeolian Company's Duo-Art reproducing piano system various titles including his "Spring Fever". His first hit came in 1927 with "Soliloquy"; his last was "Here's to My Lady" in 1952, which he wrote with Johnny Mercer. In 1928, he made a number of records with Joe Venuti's blue Four for OKeh, including 5 songs he sang, as well as played piano.
Bloom formed and led a number of bands during his career, most notably "Rube Bloom and His Bayou Boys", which recorded three records in 1930 that are considered some of the best made early in the Depression. The Bayou Boys was an all-star studio group consisting of Benny Goodman, Adrian Rollini, Tommy Dorsey and Manny Klein). At other times, Bloom played with other bands, such as with Bix Beiderbecke and Frankie Trumbauer in the Sioux City Six and his frequent work with Joe Venuti's Blue Four.
Bloom published several books on piano method during his lifetime.
Rube Bloom is buried in Beth David Cemetery at Elmont, New York.