Rubab, robab or rabab (Urdu: ?, Hindi: , Azerbaijani: Rübab, Turkish: Rübab, Persian: rub?b, Tajik and Uzbek ) is a lute-like musical instrument originating from central Afghanistan. The rubab is mainly used by Pashtun, Tajik, Turkish, Kashmiri, Baluch, Azerbaijani, and Iranian Kurdish classical musicians. Rubab is one of the national musical instruments of Afghanistan. It has "proliferated throughout West, Central, South and Southeast Asia."
Rbab (Arabic: ?) is an Arabic word. According to the Arabic diacritics, vowels between consonants - apart from Alif (Aleph) are not written but articulates. Harakat (movement = inflection of vowels) with Fat?ah similar to Acute accent Rabab (Arabic: , with Kasrah Rebab (Arabic: ) and with ?ammah Rubab or Robab (Arabic: . In context, the inflections and thus with respect to the meanings of words John Richardson has written in 1777 the first English-Arabic-Persian dictionary. Here are just a few meanings mentioned. Rabab or Rubab as:
Since the introduction of the Arabic script in the main Iranian languages such as Persian, Pashto, Kurdish and Beluchi the original words are outdated for today's music instruments and are still only largely in dictionaries, et al listed by Thomas Hyde 50 Pharhang (Farhang is a Persian word meaning dictionary) in his major work, published in 1700 in Latin. In Latin writings before the time of Thomas Hyde terms like Persarum Pandura or Citara.
The Arabic terms Rabab, Rabab, etc. have become established for the Iranian musical instruments. Even Rudaki has not made of Rubab use, Al Farabi anyway! The first poet of Persian literature and author of Shahnama, Firdoussi from Khorassan has many times the instrument Rubab used in his work.But the European translator of Shahnama from Persian to German as Friedrich Rückert has the Proper nouns "Rubab" not adopted, but translates the name Rubab like lute, stringed lute, sound of Strings. Without exception, all Persian poet from Bach to India, from Kashgar to Iraq have written the name Rubab in their works.
Seven forms of Rubab. The number seven has the Iranian cultural area of great importance Rubab has regularly twice bodies.In many varieties the double-Corpus are close to each other, in some has moved away and again for some is just a body
The rubab is a short-necked lute whose body is carved out of a single piece of wood, with a membrane, covering the hollow bowl of the sound-chamber, upon which the bridge is positioned. It has three melody strings tuned in fourths, two or three drone strings and up to 15 sympathetic strings. The instrument is made from the trunk of a mulberry tree, the head from an animal skin such as goat, and the strings either gut (from the intestines of young goats, brought to the size of thread) or nylon.
The rubab is known as "the lion of instruments" and is one of the two national instruments of Afghanistan (with the zerbaghali). Classical Afghan music often features this instrument as a key component. Elsewhere it is known as the Kabuli rebab. In appearance, the Kabuli rubab looks slightly different from the Indian rubab. It is the ancestor of the South Asian sarod, though — unlike the sarod — it is a fretted instrument.
The rubab is attested from the 7th century CE. It is mentioned in old Persian books, and many Sufi poets mention it in their poems. It is the traditional instrument of Khorasan[vague] and today it is widely used in countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Kashmir, India, Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
The rubab holds as the first instrument used by Sikhism; it was used by Bhai Mardana the companion of Guru Nanak. Whenever a shabad was revealed to Guru Nanak he would sing it and Bhai Mardana would play it on his rubab; he was known as a rubabi. The rubab playing tradition is carried on by some Sikhs such as Namdharis
In Tajikistan a similar but somewhat distinct rubab-i-pamir (Pamiri rubab) is played, having a shallower body and neck. The rubab of the Pamir area has six gut strings, one of which, rather than running from the head to the bridge, is attached partway down the neck, similar to the fifth string of the American banjo.
The rubab of Kabul is very similar to the sarod. The Indian rubab looks different. The sarod is a blend of these two rubabs.