Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Roman Polanski|
|Produced by||William Castle|
|Screenplay by||Roman Polanski|
|Based on||Rosemary's Baby|
by Ira Levin
|Music by||Krzysztof Komeda|
|Cinematography||William A. Fraker|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
|Box office||$33.4 million|
Rosemary's Baby is a 1968 American psychological supernatural horror film written and directed by Roman Polanski, based on Rosemary's Baby by Ira Levin. The cast features Mia Farrow, John Cassavetes, Ruth Gordon, Sidney Blackmer, Maurice Evans, Ralph Bellamy, Angela Dorian, Clay Tanner, and, in his feature film debut, Charles Grodin. The film chronicles the story of a pregnant woman who suspects that an evil cult wants to take her baby for use in their rituals.
Rosemary's Baby deals with themes related to paranoia, women's liberation, Christianity (Catholicism), and the occult. The film earned almost universal acclaim from film critics and won numerous nominations and awards. In 2014, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."
In 1965, Guy and Rosemary Woodhouse move into the Bramford apartment building in New York City. While touring the apartment for the first time, they notice that a large cabinet is moved in front of a door in the hallway. They move the cabinet and open the door, only to find a plain closet. Their friend Hutch tries to dissuade them from taking the apartment, informing them of the Bramford's association with cannibalism and murder.
Rosemary meets a young woman, Terry Gionoffrio, a recovering drug addict whom Minnie and Roman Castevet, the Woodhouses' elderly new neighbors, took in from the street. As Rosemary admires a pendant necklace the Castevets gave to Terry, she notices its strange smell. Returning home one night, Guy and Rosemary find that Terry apparently threw herself to her death from the window of the Castevets' seventh-floor apartment.
Rosemary and Guy are quickly befriended by the Castevets. Minnie gives Terry's pendant to Rosemary, telling her it is a good luck charm and the odd smell is "tannis root". Guy lands a role in a play when the actor who was originally cast inexplicably goes blind. Guy suggests to Rosemary that they have a baby.
On the night they plan to conceive, Minnie brings them individual cups of chocolate mousse. Rosemary complains that her cup has an "undertaste" and only eats a small portion before throwing the rest away. Rosemary passes out and experiences a dreamlike vision in which she is raped by a demonic presence in front of Guy, the Castevets, and other Bramford tenants, all of whom are naked. When she wakes the following morning, she finds scratches on her body. Guy tells her that he had sex with her while she was unconscious because he did not want to pass up the opportunity for her to conceive. Rosemary insists that he could have waited until the morning or that evening to conceive. Rosemary learns that she is pregnant and is due on June 28, 1966. When she tells Guy, she insists that this be a new start for them where they can communicate more openly. She plans to receive obstetric care from Dr. Hill, who is recommended to her by her friend Elise. However, the Castevets insist she see their good friend, Dr. Abraham Sapirstein, who says that Minnie will make Rosemary a daily health drink.
For the first three months of her pregnancy, Rosemary suffers severe abdominal pains, loses weight, becomes unusually pale, and craves raw meat and chicken liver. When Hutch sees Rosemary's gaunt appearance and hears that she is being fed tannis root, he is disturbed enough to do some research. Before he can tell Rosemary his findings, he falls into a coma. Rosemary tells Guy that she plans to see Dr. Hill, which angers Guy. However, the abdominal pains suddenly disappear and Rosemary feels the baby move for the first time.
Three months later, Hutch dies. Before dying, he manages to briefly regain consciousness, directing his friend Grace Cardiff to give Rosemary a book about witchcraft along with the cryptic message: "The name is an anagram". Rosemary deduces that Roman Castevet is really an anagram for Steven Marcato, the son of a former resident of the Bramford who was accused of being a Satanist. She suspects her elderly neighbors and Dr. Sapirstein are part of a Satanic coven with sinister designs for her baby, and that Guy is cooperating with them in exchange for help in advancing his acting career.
Rosemary becomes increasingly disturbed and shares her fears and suspicions with Dr. Hill, who, assuming she is delusional, calls Dr. Sapirstein and Guy. They tell her that if she cooperates, neither she nor the baby will be harmed. Rosemary attempts to lock Guy and Dr. Sapirstein out of the apartment, but coven members have already infiltrated and restrain her. Rosemary goes into labor and is sedated by Dr. Sapirstein. When she wakes, she is told the baby has died, which she refuses to believe. She hears a baby cry in the Castevets' apartment and secretly stops taking the pills the coven has been forcing her to consume post-birth.
In the hall closet (the closet that was blocked by the cabinet at the start of the film), Rosemary discovers a secret door leading into the Castevets' apartment and hears the baby's cries again. She finds a congregation made up of the building's tenants, as well as Dr. Sapirstein, gathered around her newborn son. It is remarked upon that the baby has "his father's eyes," to which Rosemary protests that the baby's eyes are nothing like Guy's.
Roman then explains to Rosemary that Guy is not the child's true father. Her newborn child, named Adrian by the coven, is actually the son of the Devil. Roman urges her to become a mother to her son, as the other women are too old. Guy attempts to calm a horrified Rosemary by explaining to her that they will be generously rewarded, and that they can conceive a second child that will truly be theirs, but Rosemary spits in his face. Minnie tells Rosemary that she should be honored to be the woman chosen to bear a child for Satan. One of the coven members rocks the crying baby's cradle too quickly, causing him to cry harder. Initially reluctant, Rosemary goes to the cradle and gently rocks him, with a small smile on her face.
In Rosemary's Baby: A Retrospective, a featurette on the DVD release of the film, screenwriter/director Roman Polanski, Paramount Pictures executive Robert Evans, and production designer Richard Sylbert reminisce at length about the production. Evans recalled William Castle brought him the galley proofs of the book and asked him to purchase the film rights even before Random House released the publication. The studio head recognized the commercial potential of the project and agreed with the stipulation that Castle, who had a reputation for low-budget horror films, could produce but not direct the film adaptation. He makes a cameo appearance as the man at the phone booth waiting for Mia Farrow to finish her call.
Evans admired Polanski's European films and hoped he could convince him to make his American debut with Rosemary's Baby. He knew the director was a ski buff who was anxious to make a film with the sport as its basis, so he sent him the script for Downhill Racer along with the galleys for Rosemary. Polanski read the latter book non-stop through the night and called Evans the following morning to tell him he thought Rosemary was the more interesting project, and would like the opportunity to write as well as direct it.
The script was modeled very closely on the original novel and incorporated large sections of the novel's dialogue and details, so much so that nearly every line of dialogue was taken from the novel's text. Author Ira Levin claimed that during a scene in which Guy mentions wanting to buy a particular shirt advertised in The New Yorker, Polanski was unable to find the specific issue with the shirt advertised and phoned Levin for help. Levin, who had assumed while writing that any given issue of The New Yorker would contain an ad for men's shirts, admitted that he had made it up.
Polanski envisioned Rosemary as a robust, full-figured, girl-next-door type, and he wanted Tuesday Weld or his own then-fiancée Sharon Tate for the role. Since the book had not reached bestseller status yet, Evans was unsure the title alone would guarantee an audience for the film, and he felt a bigger name was needed for the lead. Mia Farrow - with only a supporting role in Guns at Batasi (1964) and the then-unreleased A Dandy in Aspic (1968) as her only feature film credits - had an unproven box office track record, but her role as Allison MacKenzie in the popular television series Peyton Place and her unexpected marriage to Frank Sinatra had made her a household name.
Patty Duke auditioned for the role of Rosemary Woodhouse but lost out to Mia Farrow.
Despite her waif-like appearance (which would ultimately prove beneficial, as Rosemary became more frail as her pregnancy progressed), Polanski agreed to cast her. Her acceptance incensed Sinatra, who had demanded she forgo her career when they wed, and he served her divorce papers via a corporate lawyer in front of the cast and crew midway through filming. In an effort to salvage her relationship, Farrow asked Evans to release her from her contract, but he persuaded her to remain with the project after showing her an hour-long rough cut and assuring her she would receive an Academy Award nomination for her performance. Farrow was not nominated for the award, but stayed with the film, which pleased Evans, Polanski and the entire cast.
Sylbert was a good friend of Garson Kanin, who was married to Ruth Gordon, and he suggested her for the role of Minnie Castevet. He also suggested that the Dakota, an Upper West Side apartment building known for its show business tenants, be used for the Bramford. Its hallways were not as worn and dark as Polanski wanted, but when the building's owners would not allow interior filming, it became a moot point and was used for exterior shots only.
Polanski wanted to cast Hollywood old-timers as the coven members but did not know any by name. He drew sketches of how he envisioned each character, and they were used to fill the roles. In every instance, the actor cast strongly resembled Polanski's drawing. They included Ralph Bellamy, Patsy Kelly, Elisha Cook, Jr., Phil Leeds and Hope Summers.
When Rosemary calls Donald Baumgart, the actor who goes blind and is replaced by Guy, the voice heard is that of actor Tony Curtis. Farrow, who had not been told who would be reading Baumgart's lines, recognized the voice but could not place it. The slight confusion she displays throughout the call was exactly what Polanski hoped to capture by not revealing Curtis' identity in advance.
When Farrow was reluctant to film a scene that depicted a dazed and preoccupied Rosemary wandering into the middle of a Manhattan street into oncoming traffic, Polanski pointed to her pregnancy padding and reassured her, "no one's going to hit a pregnant woman". The scene was successfully shot with Farrow walking into real traffic and Polanski following, operating the hand-held camera since he was the only one willing to do it.
One scene that was shot but was later deleted involved Farrow's character attending an Off-Broadway production of The Fantasticks and encountering Joan Crawford and Van Johnson, who were playing themselves.
From contemporary reviews, Renata Adler wrote in The New York Times that "The movie--although it is pleasant--doesn't seem to work on any of its dark or powerful terms. I think this is because it is almost too extremely plausible. The quality of the young people's lives seems the quality of lives that one knows, even to the point of finding old people next door to avoid and lean on. One gets very annoyed that they don't catch on sooner."Variety stated, "Several exhilarating milestones are achieved in Rosemary's Baby, an excellent film version of Ira Levin's diabolical chiller novel. Writer-director Roman Polanski has triumphed in his first US-made pic. The film holds attention without explicit violence or gore... Farrow's performance is outstanding." The Monthly Film Bulletin stated that "After the miscalculations of Cul de Sac and Dance of the Vampires" Polanski had "returned to the rich vein of Repulsion". The review noted that "Polanski shows an increasing ability to evoke menace and sheer terror in familiar routines (cooking and telephoning, particularly)" and Polanski has shown "his transformation of a cleverly calculated thriller into a serious work of art."
Ruth Gordon won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in this film. Farrow's performance garnered numerous awards, including the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year - Actress, and established her as a leading actress.
Today, the film is widely regarded as a classic; it has an approval rating of 97% on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on 69 reviews, with an average rating of 8.83/10. The site's critics' consensus describes it as "A frightening tale of Satanism and pregnancy that is even more disturbing than it sounds thanks to convincing and committed performances by Mia Farrow and Ruth Gordon."Metacritic reports a weighted average score of 96 out of 100 based on 15 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".
American Film Institute Lists
Following the film's premiere, a string of other films focusing on Satan worshippers and black magic appeared, including The Brotherhood of Satan, Mark of the Devil, Black Noon, and The Blood on Satan's Claw.
30 years after he wrote Rosemary's Baby, Ira Levin wrote Son of Rosemary - a sequel which he dedicated to the film's star, Mia Farrow (but bearing no connection to Look What's Happened to Rosemary's Baby). Reaction to the book was mixed, but it made the best seller lists nationwide.
The Rosemary's Baby DVD, released in 2000 by Paramount Home Video, contains a 23-minute documentary film, Mia and Roman, directed by Shahrokh Hatami, which was shot during the making of the film. The title refers to Mia Farrow and Roman Polanski. The film features footage of Roman Polanski directing the film's cast on set. Hatami was an Iranian photographer who befriended Polanski and his wife Sharon Tate.Mia and Roman was screened originally as a promo film at Hollywood's Lytton Center, and later included as a featurette on the Rosemary's Baby DVD. It is described as a "trippy on-set featurette" and "an odd little bit of cheese."
In the 1976 television film Look What's Happened to Rosemary's Baby, Patty Duke starred as Rosemary Woodhouse and Ruth Gordon reprised her role of Minnie Castevet. The film introduced an adult Andrew/Adrian attempting to earn his place as the Antichrist. It was disliked as a sequel by critics and viewers, and its reputation deteriorated over the years.