Roku
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Roku
Roku
Roku logo.svg
DeveloperRoku, Inc.
TypeDigital media player
Release dateMay 20, 2008
Operating systemRoku OS
Websitewww.roku.com/products

Roku ( ROH-koo) is a line of digital media players manufactured by American company Roku, Inc. The devices offer access to streaming media content from various online services.

The line was introduced in May 2008 with its first model, developed in collaboration with Netflix. The Roku series has been considered influential on the overall market for digital media players, helping to popularize the concept of low-cost, small form factor set-top boxes designed for over-the-top media consumption.[1]

History

Roku was founded by Anthony Wood in 2002, who had previously founded ReplayTV, a DVR company that competed with Tivo.[2] After ReplayTV failed in the marketplace, Wood worked for a while at Netflix. In 2007 Wood's company began working with Netflix on Project:Griftin, a set top box that would allow Netflix users to stream Netflix content to their TVs.[2] Only a few weeks before the project's launch, Netflix's founder Reed Hastings decided the project would hamper license arrangements with third parties potentially keeping Netflix off other similar platforms, and killed the project.[3] Fast Company would cite the decision to kill the project as "one of Netflix's riskiest moves". [3]

Netflix decided instead to spin the company off and Roku released their first set top box in 2008.[4] In 2010 they began offering multiple models with different capabilities which would eventually become their standard business model.[4] In 2014 Roku began to partner with Smart TV manufactures to produce RokuTV's TVs with Roku functionality built in.[2]

Roku streaming players

First generation

Original form factor XD/S

The first Roku model, the Roku DVP N1000, was unveiled on May 20, 2008. It was developed in partnership with Netflix, to serve as a standalone set-top box for its recently-introduced "Watch Instantly" service. The companies aimed to produce a device with small form factor that could be sold at a low cost, as opposed to larger digital video recorders and video game consoles. The device featured an NXP PNX8935 video decoder supporting both standard and high definition formats up to 720p, HDMI output, and was capable of automatic software updates--including the addition of new "channels" for other video services.[5][1][6]

Roku launched two new models in October 2009, the Roku SD (a cut-down version of the DVP with only analog AV outputs), and the Roku HD-XR, an updated version with 802.11n Wi-Fi, and a USB port for future functionality. The Roku DVP was retroactively renamed the Roku HD. By then, Roku had added support for other services, such as Amazon Video and MLB.tv. The following month, Roku introduced a new feature known as the "Channel Store", where users would be able to download third-party apps for other content services (including the possibility of private services for specific uses).[7][8]

Netflix support was initially dependent on a PC, requiring users to add content to their "Instant Queue" from the service's web interface before it could be accessed via the Roku. The channel was later updated in May 2010, to allow users to search the Netflix library from the device directly.[9]

In August 2010, Roku announced plans to add 1080p video support to the HD-XR.[10] The following month, Roku released a refreshed lineup of models with a thinner form factor, consisting of a new HD, the XD (with 1080p support), and the XDS (with optical audio, dual-band Wi-Fi, and a USB port). The XD and XDS also included a refreshed remote.[11]

Support for the first-generation Roku models ended September 2015.[12]

Second generation

A Roku 2 XS

On July 19, 2011, Roku unveiled its second generation of players, branded as Roku 2 HD, XD, and XS. All three models included 802.11n, and also added microSD slots and Bluetooth. The XD and XS support 1080p, and only the XS model includes an Ethernet connector and USB port. They also support the "Roku Game Remote"--a Bluetooth remote with motion controller support for games, which is bundled with the XS and sold separately for other models.[13] The Roku LT was unveiled in October 2011, as an entry-level model with no Bluetooth or microSD support.[14]

In January 2012, Roku unveiled the Streaming Stick--a new model condensed into a dongle form factor using Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL).[15][16] In October 2012, Roku introduced a new search feature to the second-generation models, aggregating content from services usable on the device.[17]

Third generation

On March 5, 2013, Roku unveiled its third-generation models, the Roku 3 and Roku 2. The Roku 3 contained an upgraded CPU over the 2 XS, and a Wi-Fi Direct remote with an integrated headphone jack. The Roku 2 was also updated with a faster CPU.[18][19]

Fourth generation

On October 6, 2015, Roku announced the Roku 4; the device contained upgraded hardware with support for 4K resolution video, as well as 802.11ac wireless.[20]

Fifth generation

On September 26, 2016, Roku revamped their entire streaming player line-up with five new models (low end Roku Express, Roku Express+, high end Roku Premiere, Roku Premiere+, and top-of-the-line Roku Ultra), while the Streaming Stick (3600) was held over from the previous generation (having been released the previous April) as a sixth option.[21] The Roku Premiere+ and Roku Ultra support HDR video using HDR10.[22]

Sixth generation

In October 2017, Roku introduced its sixth generation of products. The updates included the discontinuation of the Premiere and Premiere+ models, the introduction of the Streaming Stick+ (with an enhanced Wi-Fi antenna device), as well as new processors for the Roku Streaming Stick, Roku Express, and Roku Express+.[23]

Seventh generation

In September 2018, Roku introduced the seventh generation of products. Carrying over from the 2017 sixth-generation without any changes are the Express (3900), Express+ (3910), Streaming Stick (3800), and Streaming Stick+ (3810). The Ultra is the same hardware device from 2017, but it now comes with JBL premium headphones and is repackaged with the new model number 4661. Roku has resurrected the Premiere and Premiere+ names, but these two new models bear little resemblance to the 2016 fifth-generation Premiere (4620) and Premiere+ (4630) models. The new Premiere (3920) and Premiere+ (3921) are essentially based on the Express (3900) model with 4K support added.

Eighth generation

On September 19, 2019, Roku introduced the eighth generation of products.[24]

In 2019, Netflix announced that it will stop supporting older generations of Roku, including the Roku HD, HD-XR, SD, XD, and XDS, as well as the NetGear-branded XD and XDS. Roku had warned in 2015 that it would stop updating players made in May 2011 or earlier, and these vintage boxes are among them.[25]

Feature comparison

Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix with Profiles
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p,
1080p (HD)
2160p
(4K)
Analog Optical,
HDMI
Ethernet 802.11
wireless
First generation
Roku DVP (N1000) May 2008 Both Both Both 720p No Yes Both Yes b/g No IR PNX8935 400 MHz [26][27][28] 256 MB 64 MB[29] No No
Roku SD (N1050) Oct 2009 Composite Neither 480i Neither No Yes Neither Yes b/g No IR PNX8935 400 MHz[29][30] 256 MB 64 MB[29] No No
Roku HD (N1100) Nov 2009 Both Both Both 720p No Yes Both Yes b/g No IR PNX8935 400 MHz[29][30] 256 MB 64 MB[29] No No
Roku HD-XR (N1101) Oct 2009 Both Both Both Both[note 2] No Yes Both Yes a/b/g/n dual-band Yes IR PNX8935 400 MHz[29][30] 256 MB 256 MB[29] No No
Roku HD (2000) Sep 2010 Composite HDMI Both 720p No Yes HDMI Yes b/g No IR PNX8935 400 MHz[29] 256 MB 64 MB[29] No No
Roku XD (2050) Sep 2010 Composite HDMI Both Both[note 2] No Yes HDMI Yes b/g/n No IR PNX8935 400 MHz[29][31] 256 MB 64 MB[29] No No
Roku XDS (2100) Sep 2010 Composite Both[note 3] Both Both[note 2] No Yes Both Yes a/b/g/n dual-band Yes IR PNX8935 400 MHz[28][33] 256 MB 256 MB[29] No No
Second generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix with Profiles
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p,
1080p (HD)
2160p
(4K)
Analog Optical,
HDMI
Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku LT (2400) Nov 2011 Composite HDMI Both 720p No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR BCM2835 600 MHz[29][34] 256 MB 256 MB[29] No No
Roku LT (2450) Apr 2012 Composite HDMI Both 720p No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR BCM7208 405 MHz[29] 256 MB 256 MB[29] No No
Roku HD (2500) Apr 2012 Composite HDMI Both 720p No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR BCM7208 405 MHz[35] 256 MB[35] 256 MB[35] No No
Roku 2 HD (3000) Jul 2011 Composite HDMI Both 720p No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR[note 4] BCM2835 600 MHz[29][36] 256 MB 256 MB[29] Yes No
Roku 2 XD (3050) Jul 2011 Composite HDMI Both Both[note 5] No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR[note 4] BCM2835 600 MHz[29][36] 256 MB 256 MB[29] Yes No
Roku 2 XS (3100) Jul 2011 Composite HDMI Both Both[note 5] No Yes HDMI Yes b/g/n Yes IR, Bluetooth BCM2835 600 MHz [36][37] 256 MB 256 MB[29] Yes No
Roku Streaming Stick, MHL (3400, 3420) Oct 2012 Neither MHL only 480p Both[note 6] No No HDMI No b/g/n dual-band[38] No Wi-Fi Direct BCM2835 600 MHz[29] 256 MB[39] 512 MB No No
Roku Streaming Stick, HDMI (3500) Mar 2014[40] Neither HDMI Neither Both No No HDMI No a/b/g/n dual-band No Wi-Fi Direct BCM2835 600 MHz 512 MB 256 MB No Yes
Third generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix
with
Profiles[41]
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p,
1080p (HD)
2160p
(4K)
Analog Optical,
HDMI
Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku LT (2700) Sep 2013 Composite HDMI Both 720p No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR BCM7218 600 MHz 512 MB 256 MB No No
Roku 1, SE (2710) Sep 2013 Composite HDMI Both Both No Yes HDMI No b/g/n No IR BCM7218 600 MHz 512 MB 256 MB No No
Roku 2 (2720) Sep 2013 Composite HDMI Both Both No Yes & Remote HDMI No a/b/g/n dual-band No IR, Wi-Fi Direct BCM7218 600 MHz 512 MB 256 MB No No
Roku 3 (4200) Mar 2013 Neither HDMI Neither Both No Remote[note 7] HDMI Yes a/b/g/n dual-band Yes IR, Wi-Fi Direct BCM11130 900 MHz 512 MB 256 MB Yes Yes
Roku 2 (4210) Apr 2015 Neither HDMI Neither Both No No HDMI Yes a/b/g/n dual-band Yes IR[note 8] BCM11130 900 MHz 512 MB 256 MB Yes Yes
Roku 3 (4230) Apr 2015 Neither HDMI Neither Both No Remote[note 7] HDMI Yes a/b/g/n dual-band Yes IR, Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search BCM11130 900 MHz 512 MB 256 MB Yes Yes
Fourth generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix
with
Profiles[41]
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p,
1080p (HD)
2160p
(4K)
Analog Optical,
HDMI
Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku Streaming Stick (3600) [42] Apr 2016 Neither HDMI Neither Both No Stream to smartphone HDMI No a/b/g/n dual-band No Wi-Fi Direct BCM2836 900 MHz[43][44] 512 MB 256 MB No Yes
Roku 4 (4400) [45] Oct 2015 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes Remote[note 7] Optical & HDMI Yes, 10/100 Mbps a/b/g/n/ac dual-band Yes IR, Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search STV7723A01 [46] 1.5 GB 512 MB Yes Yes
Fifth generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix
with
Profiles[41]
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p60,
1080p60 (HD)
2160p60
(4K)
Analog Optical,
HDMI
Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku Express (3700) Oct 2016 Neither HDMI Neither Both No Stream to smartphone HDMI No b/g/n No IR MStar MSA3Z177Z1[47] 900 MHz 512 MB 256 MB No Yes
Roku Express+ (3710) Oct 2016 Composite HDMI 480i Both No Yes & Stream to smartphone HDMI No b/g/n No IR MSA3Z177Z1 900 MHz 512 MB 256 MB No Yes
Roku Premiere (4620) Oct 2016 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes Stream to smartphone HDMI No a/b/g/n/ac dual-band No IR MStar MSO9380 1.2 GHz 1 GB 512 MB No Yes
Roku Premiere+ (4630) Oct 2016 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes Remote[note 7] & Stream to smartphone HDMI Yes, 10/100 Mbps a/b/g/n/ac dual-band No IR, Wi-Fi Direct MStar MSO9380 1.2 GHz 1 GB 512 MB Yes Yes
Roku Ultra (4640) Oct 2016 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes Remote[note 7] & Stream to smartphone Optical & HDMI Yes, 10/100 Mbps a/b/g/n/ac dual-band Yes IR, Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search MStar MSO9380 1.2 GHz 1 GB 1 GB Yes Yes
Sixth generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions HDR format Audio output Network USB Remote Processor [48] Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix
with
Profiles[41]
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p60,
1080p60 (HD)
2160p60
(4K)
HDR10/Dolby Vision Analog Optical,
HDMI
Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku Express (3900)[49] Oct 2017 Neither HDMI Neither Both No No Stream to smartphone HDMI No b/g/n No IR ARM Cortex A53 512MB 256MB No Yes
Roku Express+ (3910)[50] Oct 2017 Composite HDMI 480i Both No No Yes & Stream to smartphone HDMI No b/g/n No IR ARM Cortex A53 512MB 256MB No Yes
Roku Streaming Stick (3800)[51] Oct 2017 Neither HDMI Neither Both No No Stream to smartphone HDMI No a/b/g/n/ac dual-band No Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 512MB 256MB No Yes
Roku Streaming Stick+ (3810)[52] Oct 2017 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Stream to smartphone HDMI No a/b/g/n/ac dual-band No Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 1GB 512MB No Yes
Roku Ultra (4660)[53] Oct 2017 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Remote[note 7] & Stream to smartphone HDMI Yes, 10/100 Mbps a/b/g/n/ac dual-band Yes IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 1GB 512MB Yes Yes
Seventh generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions HDR format Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix
with
Profiles[41]
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p60,
1080p60 (HD)
2160p60
(4K)
HDR10/Dolby Vision Analog Optical,
HDMI
DTS Dolby Atmos Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku Premiere (3920) Sep 2018 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Stream to smartphone HDMI Yes Yes No b/g/n No IR ARM Cortex A53 1 GB[38] 512MB No Yes
Roku Premiere+ (3921) Sep 2018 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Stream to smartphone HDMI Yes Yes No b/g/n No IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 1GB[54] 512MB[54] No Yes
Roku Ultra (4661) Sep 2018 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Remote[note 7] & Stream to smartphone HDMI Yes Yes Yes, 10/100 Mbps a/b/g/n/ac dual-band Yes IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 1GB 512MB Yes Yes
Eighth generation
Model Introduced Video outputs Video resolutions HDR format Audio output Network USB Remote Processor Memory Channel storage [note 1] micro
SD
slot
Netflix
with
Profiles[41]
Composite,
S-Video
Component,
HDMI
480i,
480p
720p60,
1080p60 (HD)
2160p60
(4K)
HDR10/Dolby Vision Analog Optical,
HDMI
DTS Dolby Atmos Ethernet 802.11
wireless
Roku Streaming Stick+ (3810) Sep 2019 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Stream to smartphone HDMI 2.0a Yes Yes No a/b/g/n/ac dual-band Yes*, for long-range wireless receiver IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 1GB 512MB No Yes
Roku Express (3930) Sep 2019 Neither HDMI Neither Both No No Stream to smartphone HDMI 1.4b Yes Yes No b/g/n Yes*, for power IR ARM Cortex A53 512MB 256MB No Yes
Roku Express+ (3931) Sep 2019 Neither HDMI Neither Both No No Stream to smartphone HDMI 1.4b Yes Yes No b/g/n Yes*, for power IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 512MB 256MB No Yes
Roku Premiere (3920) Sep 2019 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Stream to smartphone HDMI 2.0a Yes Yes No b/g/n Yes*, for power IR ARM Cortex A53 1GB 512MB[54] No Yes
Roku Ultra LT (4662) Sep 2019 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Remote & Stream to smartphone HDMI 2.0a Yes Yes Yes a/b/g/n/ac dual-band No IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 1GB 512MB Yes Yes
Roku Ultra (4670) Sep 2019 Neither HDMI Neither Both Yes HDR10 Remote & Stream to smartphone HDMI 2.0a Yes Yes Yes a/b/g/n/ac dual-band Yes IR,Wi-Fi Direct, Voice Search ARM Cortex A53 2GB 512MB Yes Yes

Roku TV

Roku announced its first branded Smart TV in early 2014 and it was released in late 2014. These TVs are manufactured by companies like TCL and Hisense, and use the Roku user interface as the "brain" of the TV. Roku TVs are updated just like the streaming devices.[55] More recent[vague] models also integrate a set of features for use with over-the-air TV signals, including a program guide that provides information for shows and movies available on local antenna broadcast TV, as well as where that content is available to stream, and the ability to pause live TV (although the feature requires a USB hard drive with at least 16GB storage).

In January 2020, Roku created a badge to certify devices as working with a Roku TV model.[56] The first certified brands were TCL North America, Sound United, Polk Audio, Marantz, Definitive Technology, and Classé.

Software

The Roku box runs a custom Linux distribution called Roku OS. Updates to the software include bug fixes, security updates, feature additions, and many new interface revisions. Roku pushes OS updates to supported devices in a staggered release. OS updates are rolled out to a percentage group of candidate devices to ensure the build is stable before being made available en masse.

Content and programming

Roku provides video services from a number of Internet-based video on demand providers.

Roku channels

Content on Roku devices are provided by Roku partners and are identified using the term channel. Users can add or remove different channels using the Roku Channel Store.

Service creation for Roku Player

The Roku is an open-platform device with a freely available software development kit that enables anyone to create new channels.[57] The channels are written in a Roku-specific language called BrightScript, a scripting language the company describes as 'unique', but "similar to Visual Basic" and "similar to JavaScript".[58]

Developers who wish to test their channels before a general release, or who wish to limit viewership, can create "private" channels that require a code be entered by the user in the account page of the Roku website. These private channels, which are not part of the official Roku Channel Store, are neither reviewed or certified by Roku.[59][60]

There is an NDK (Native Developer Kit) available, though it has added restrictions.[58]

The Roku Channel

Roku launched its own streaming channel on its devices in October 2017. It is ad-supported, but free. Its licensed content includes movies and TV shows from studios such as Lionsgate, MGM, Paramount, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Warner Bros., and Disney as well as Roku channel content publishers American Classics, FilmRise, Nosey, OVGuide, Popcornflix, Vidmark, and YuYu. It is implementing an ad revenue sharing model with content providers. On August 8, 2018, The Roku Channel became available on the web as well.[61] Roku also added the "Featured Free" section as the top section of its main menu from which users can get access to direct streaming of shows and movies from its partners.[62]

In January 2019, premium subscription options from select content providers were added to The Roku Channel.[63]

The Roku Channel used to only be available in the US.[64], but on April 7, 2020 it launched in the UK, with a different selection of movies and TV shows, and without premium subscription add-ons.[65]

Controversies

Non-certified channels

The Daily Beast observed that non-certified channels on Roku eased access to materials promoting conspiracy theories and terrorism content.[66]

In June 2017, a Mexico City court banned the sale of Roku products in Mexico, following claims by Televisa (via its Izzi cable subsidiary), that the devices were being used for subscription-based streaming services that illegally stream television content without permission from copyright holders. The devices used Roku's private channels feature to install the services, which were all against the terms of service Roku applies for official channels available in its store. Roku defended itself against the allegations as such, stating that these channels were not officially certified and that the company takes active measures to stop illegal streaming services.[67] The 11th Collegiate Court in Mexico City overturned the decision in October 2018, with Roku returning to the Mexican market soon after; Televisa's streaming service Blim TV would also launch on the platform.[68]

In August 2017 Roku began to display a prominent disclaimer when non-certified channels are added, warning that channels enabling piracy may be removed "without prior notice".[69][60][70] In mid-May 2018, a software glitch caused some users to see copyright takedown notices on legitimate services such as Netflix and YouTube. Roku acknowledged and patched the glitch.[71][72]

Carriage disputes

Pay television-styled carriage disputes emerged on the Roku platform in 2020, as the company requires providers to agree to revenue sharing for subscription revenue on services that are billed through the platform, and 30% of advertising inventory.[73] On September 18, 2020, Roku announced that NBCUniversal TV Everywhere services would be removed from its devices "as early as this weekend", due to its refusal to carry the company's streaming service Peacock under terms it deemed "unreasonable".[73] It reached an agreement with NBCUniversal later that day.[74]HBO Max has also been unavailable on Roku since its launch due to similar disputes over revenue sharing, particularly in regards to an upcoming ad-supported service.[75][76]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h In the first generation players, the size of flash memory limited the number of channels that could be installed. Later models (>2100) removed that limit.
  2. ^ a b c 1080p at p24 or p30 only.
  3. ^ The component video connector on the Roku XDS (2100X) is a nonstandard 3.5mm connector and a proprietary adapter cable, which is sold separately, is effectively required to use this.[32]
  4. ^ a b Bluetooth remote optional.
  5. ^ a b 1080p at p60 only.
  6. ^ 1080p at p24.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Analog audio output is available only through the headphone jack on the remote.
  8. ^ WiFi Direct Remote optional.

References

  1. ^ a b "The Consumer Electronics Hall of Fame: Roku DVP N1000". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b c Butler, Dave. "History of Roku: Timeline and Facts". TheStreet. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ a b Carr, Austin. "Inside Netflix's Project Griffin: The Forgotten History Of Roku Under Reed Hastings". Fastcompany. Archived from the original on 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ a b Bouma, Luke. "A Short History of The Roku Player". Cord Cutter News. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Hansell, Saul (2008-05-20). "Netflix to Sell a Device for Instantly Watching Movies on TV Sets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-01-05. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Dumas, Daniel (2008-05-20). "Review: Roku Netflix Set Top Box Is Just Shy of Totally Amazing". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Falcone, John. "Roku Player review: Roku Player". CNET. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Frakes, Dan (2009-11-22). "Hands on: Roku's updated Player software and new Channel Store". Macworld. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Krasnoff, Barbara (2010-05-27). "Roku makes its Netflix channel better -- a lot better". Computerworld. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Caldwell, Serenity (2010-08-30). "Roku cuts player prices, plans 1080p support for HD-XR model". Macworld. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Roku launches revamped HD, XD, and XDS players, starting at $59". Engadget. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Spangler, Todd (2015-09-02). "Roku Drops Support for 'Classic' Streaming Boxes". Variety. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Falcone, John. "Roku officially unveils new game-enabled video players". CNET. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Roku announces $50 LT model, will add HBO Go streaming to all of its boxes this month". Engadget. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Roku unveils Streaming Stick, squeezes box into MHL dongle". Engadget. Retrieved .
  16. ^ Isaac, Mike (2012-01-04). "New Roku Streaming Stick: Smart TV Sans Set-Top Box". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved .
  17. ^ Bishop, Bryan (2012-10-29). "Roku adds universal search channel for movies and TV". The Verge. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Roku PSA: Here's how to tell the new Roku 2 and Roku 3 from the old versions". TechHive. 2015-04-27. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "Roku 3, a faster and more powerful media player, to go on sale". Los Angeles Times. March 5, 2013.
  20. ^ "Roku Unveils Its 4K Streamer, The Roku 4, Plus New Software, Discovery Features, And Upgraded Mobile App". TechCrunch. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Roku Announces All-New Streaming Player Line Up Starting at $29.99 | Roku Online Newsroom". Roku.com. Retrieved .
  22. ^ Katzmaier, David (2016-09-26). "Roku unveils five new streaming boxes with prices as low as $30". CNET. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "Roku rolls out Roku OS 8, refreshes TV hardware with 4K and faster processors". The Verge. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Introducing the new Roku player lineup". Roku Blog. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "Netflix ends support for some older Roku players on December 1st". Engadget. Retrieved .
  26. ^ "NXP and Roku Enable Instant Enjoyment of New Release Movies" (Press release). March 4, 2009. Retrieved 2011. The Roku digital video player, powered by the PNX8935 multi-format source decoder from NXP
  27. ^ "Netflix Player source code released". Hack a Day. July 2, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  28. ^ a b Higgins, Tim (September 29, 2010). "Roku XDS Reviewed - Inside". SmallNetBuilder. Retrieved 2011. the original Roku and XDS, which both use Nexperia's PNX8935 multi-format source decoder. It's obvious that a newer version of the PNX8935 is used in the XDS, given the device's smaller size.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Developer Guide". roku.com. Retrieved 2015.
  30. ^ a b c "MIPS-Based Products". Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011. Roku HD-XR Digital Video Player ... Roku SD Digital Video Player ... Roku HD Digital Video Player ... Licensee Chip Used: PNX8935
  31. ^ Lueke, Alan (November 12, 2010). "Netgear Roku XD: Streaming for the Masses". AnandTech. Retrieved 2011. Looking inside, I discovered the NXP PNX8935 SoC.
  32. ^ "What is the component cable?". Roku. July 22, 2010.
  33. ^ Detwiler, Bill (January 14, 2011). "Roku XDS Teardown". TechRepublic. Retrieved 2011. XDS uses a Trident Microsystems / NXP Semiconductors PNX8935 multi-format source decoder.
  34. ^ O'Brien, Terrence (September 27, 2011). "Budget-friendly Roku LT pops up at the FCC as the 2400X (Updated with pics)". Engadget. Retrieved 2011. Inside is the same Broadcom 2835 SOC that powers the Roku 2 XD, XS, and HD
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