A retracted vowel is a vowel sound in which the body or root of the tongue is pulled back into the pharynx. The most retracted cardinal vowels are [? ?], which are so far back that the epiglottis may press against the back pharyngeal wall, and [? ?]. Raised or front vowels may be partially retracted, for example by an adjacent uvular consonant or by vowel harmony based on retracted tongue root. In both cases, /i y e ø a o u/, for example, may be retracted to [? ? ? oe ? ? ].