Reiwa Period
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Reiwa Period
Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga announcing the name of the new Imperial era at a press conference
Japanese office workers watching the announcement on a live television broadcast

Reiwa (Japanese: , pronounced [?e:?a] )[1] is the current era of Japan. It began on 1 May 2019, the day on which Emperor Akihito's elder son, Naruhito, ascended the throne as the 126th Emperor of Japan. The day before, then-Emperor Akihito abdicated the Chrysanthemum Throne, marking the end of the Heisei era. The year 2019 corresponds with Heisei 31 from 1 January through 30 April, and with Reiwa 1 (?, Reiwa gannen, 'the first year of Reiwa') from 1 May.[2]Reiwa is interpreted as "beautiful harmony".[3]

Background

Announcement

The Japanese government on 1 April 2019 announced the name during a live televised press conference, as Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga traditionally revealed the kanji calligraphy on a board. Prime Minister Shinz? Abe said that Reiwa represents "a culture being born and nurtured by people coming together beautifully".[4]

Name selection

A shortlist of names for the new era was drawn up by a nine-member expert panel comprising seven men and two women, and the cabinet selected the final name from the shortlist.[5] The nine experts were:[6][4]

The day after the announcement, the government revealed that the other candidate names under consideration had been Eik? ([7]), Ky?ka[8] (), K?shi or K?ji[7][9] (), Banna or Banwa[7][9] (), and Banpo or Banh?[7][9] (),[10] three of which were sourced from two Japanese works, the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki.[11] Official pronunciations of these names were not released, although the reading of Eik? was leaked; the other readings are speculative.[9] Predicted guess names include An'ei () and Heiwa ().[12][13]

A crowd watching the televised announcement on a giant screen next to Shinjuku Station

Origin and meaning

Plum blossoms in Minabe, Wakayama

The kanji characters for Reiwa are derived from the Man'y?sh?, an eighth-century (Nara period) anthology of waka poetry. The kotobagaki (headnote) attached to a group of 32 poems (815-846) in Volume 5 of the collection, composed on the occasion of a poetic gathering to view the plum blossoms, reads as follows:[]

Original Kanbun text:

??[14]

Classical Japanese translation (kanbun kundoku):

???
Toki ni, shoshun no reigetsu ni shite, kiyoku kaze yawaragi, ume wa ky?zen no ko o hiraki, ran wa haigo no k? o kaorasu.

[15]

English translation:

It was in new spring, in a fair (rei) month,
When the air was clear and the wind a gentle (wa) breeze.
Plum flowers blossomed a beauty's charming white
And the fragrance of the orchids was their sweet perfume.

The Japanese Foreign Ministry provided an English-language interpretation of Reiwa as "beautiful harmony", to dispel reports that "Rei" (?) translated as "command" or "order"[16][3][17] - though in modern Japanese the most common meaning of the character is indeed "[to] order" or "command", as in "meirei" ().[17] As this is the most common understanding of the character, it drew some criticism for having a cold or authoritarian flavour.[18] The Foreign Ministry also noted that "beautiful harmony" is neither an official translation nor legally binding.[17]

Novelty

Extract of Volume 5 of the Man'y?sh? from which the kanji characters for "Reiwa" are derived


In addition, "Reiwa" marks the first Japanese era name with characters that were taken from Japanese classical literature instead of classic Chinese literature.[4][19][20] The Chinese foreign ministry responded to a question from the Japanese media on this by saying that it is an internal matter for Japan to choose an era name, and expressing good wishes for Sino-Japanese relations.[21]

According to Masaaki Tatsumi (?) and Masaharu Mizukami (?), interviewed by the Asahi Shimbun shortly after the announcement was made, the phrase has an earlier source in ancient Chinese literature dating back to the second century AD, on which the Man'y?sh? usage is allegedly based:[22]

???,??;?,
Yù shì zhòng ch?n lìng yuè, shí qì q?ng; yuán xí yù mào, b?i c?o z? róng.

Then comes young spring, in a fine month,
When the wind is mild and the air clear.
Plains and swamps are overgrown with verdure
And the hundred grasses become rank and thick.

-- translation by Liu Wu-chi, An Introduction to Chinese Literature (1990)[23]

Robert Campbell, director-general of National Institute of Japanese Literature in Tokyo, provided an official televised interpretation to NHK, regarding the characters based on the poem,[clarification needed] noting that "Rei" is an auspicious wave of energy of the plum blossoms carried by the wind, and "Wa", the general character of peace and tranquility.[24][]

Accordingly, the name marks the 248th era name designated in Japanese history.[4][25] While the "wa" character ? has been used in 19 previous era names, the "rei" character ? has never appeared before.[26] The character appeared in a proposed era name in 1864--Reitoku ()--that the ruling Tokugawa shogunate rejected, as it could be interpreted as the emperor commanding the Tokugawa.[18]

Implementation

Currency

According to the Japan Mint, which is responsible for producing Japanese currency, all coins with the new era name will be released by October 2019. It takes three months to make preparations such as creating molds in order to input text or pictures. The Mint will prioritize creating 100- and 500-yen coins due to their high mintage and circulation, with an anticipated release by the end of July 2019.[27]

Technology

Anticipating the coming of the new era, in September 2018, the Unicode Consortium reserved a code point ( SQUARE ERA NAME REIWA)[28] for a new glyph which will combine half-width versions of Reiwa kanji, ? and ?, into a single character; similar code points exist for earlier era names, including Sh?wa ( SQUARE ERA NAME SYOUWA) and Heisei ( SQUARE ERA NAME HEISEI) periods.[29] The resulting new version of Unicode, 12.1.0, was released on 7 May 2019.[30][31]

Conversion table

To convert any Gregorian calendar year from 2019 to Japanese calendar year in Reiwa era, 2018 needs to be subtracted from the year in question.

Reiwa AD
1 2019

References

  1. ^ "()? " (in Japanese). 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ "New Japanese imperial era Reiwa takes name from ancient poetry". Reuters. 2019-04-01. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b "Government says Reiwa translates as 'beautiful harmony'". The Asahi Shimbun. April 3, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d "Japan names new imperial era beginning May 1 "Reiwa"". Kyodo News. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ Rich, Motoko (1 April 2019). "Japan's New Era Gets a Name, but No One Can Agree What It Means". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ "9 ". Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 1 April 2019. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d " 64 ?". NHK News Web (in Japanese). 2019-04-02. Retrieved .
  8. ^ "Banna, Banpo, Eiko, Koshi and Kyuka: The Japan eras that could have been, beaten out by Reiwa". The Japan Times. 2019-04-03. Retrieved .
  9. ^ a b c d Baseel, Casey (2019-04-03). "4 era names the gov't rejected before deciding on Reiwa". Japan Today. Retrieved .
  10. ^ " 6 ". NHK News Web (in Japanese). 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ " 3" (in Japanese).
  12. ^ !
  13. ^ ...
  14. ^ "?0815". ,?,?,?,,,?,,?,,?,?,,,,,,
  15. ^ "? ?". Nikkei (in Japanese). 2019-04-01. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Govt.: 'Reiwa' means 'beautiful harmony'". NHK World. April 3, 2019.
  17. ^ a b c "Japan assures world that Reiwa is all about 'beautiful harmony' and has nothing to do with 'command'". The Japan Times. April 3, 2019.
  18. ^ a b The Associated Press (2019-04-03). "Government says Reiwa translates as 'beautiful harmony'". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved .
  19. ^ {{cite news |last1=Osaki |first1=Tomohiro |title=Reiwa: Japan reveals name of new era ahead of Emperor's abdication[better source needed]
  20. ^ "() ". Asahi News Digital (in Japanese). 2019-04-01. Retrieved .
  21. ^ Zhang, Ao (2019-04-01). ",?". Global Times (in Chinese). Retrieved .
  22. ^ Ozawa, Satoshi (2019-04-01). " ". Asahi News Digital (in Japanese). Retrieved .
  23. ^ Liu, Wu-chi (1990). An Introduction to Chinese Literature. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press of Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 54. ISBN 0-313-26703-0.
  24. ^ "Japanese Literature Expert on New Era Name". NHK World Japan. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ "Japan announces "Reiwa" as new era name to begin under new emperor". Xinhua. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ "Japan's govt. chooses 'Reiwa' as new era name". NHK World Japan. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ "... | 2". bizSPA! (in Japanese). 2019-04-02. Retrieved .
  28. ^ Lunde, Ken (1 April 2019). "Adobe-Japan1-7 Published!". CJK Type Blog. Adobe. Retrieved 2019.
  29. ^ "New Japanese Era". The Unicode Blog. Unicode Consortium. 2018-09-06. Retrieved 2019.
  30. ^ "Unicode Version 12.1 released in support of the Reiwa Era". Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 2019.
  31. ^ "Unicode 12.1.0". The Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 2019.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of at Wiktionary
Preceded by
Heisei
Era of Japan
Reiwa

1 May 2019 - present
Most recent

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Reiwa_period
 



 



 
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