Get Raloxifene essential facts below. View Videos or join the Raloxifene discussion. Add Raloxifene to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Raloxifene Chemical Structure V.1.svg
Raloxifene molecule ball.png
Clinical data
Trade namesEvista, Optruma, others
Other namesKeoxifene; Pharoxifene; LY-139481; LY-156758; CCRIS-7129
License data
  • AU: X (High risk)
  • US: X (Contraindicated)
Routes of
By mouth
Drug classSelective estrogen receptor modulator
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding>95%[1][2]
MetabolismLiver, intestines (glucuro-
);[1][2][3]CYP450 system not involved[1][2]
Elimination Single-dose: 28 hours[1][2]
Multi-dose: 33 hours[1]
CAS Number
PubChem CID
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.212.655 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass473.584 g/mol g·mol-1
3D model (JSmol)

Raloxifene, sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and those on glucocorticoids.[4] For osteoporosis it is less preferred than bisphosphonates.[4] It is also used to reduce the risk of breast cancer in those at high risk.[4] It is taken by mouth.[4]

Common side effects include hot flashes, leg cramps, swelling, and joint pain.[4] Severe side effects may include blood clots and stroke.[4] Use during pregnancy may harm the baby.[4] The medication may worsen menstrual symptoms.[5] Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and therefore a mixed agonist-antagonist of the estrogen receptor (ER).[4] It has estrogenic effects in bone and antiestrogenic effects in the breasts and uterus.[4]

Raloxifene was approved for medical use in the United States in 1997.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[4][6] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 3.50 £ as of 2019.[6] In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about 16 USD.[7] In 2016 it was the 294th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than a million prescriptions.[8]

Medical uses

Raloxifene is used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.[9] It is also used for reduction of risk and treatment of invasive breast cancer, and it also reduces breast density.[10] The medication is used at a dosage of 60 mg/day for both the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and for prevention of breast cancer.[11] Raloxifene at a dosage of 60 mg/day is some amount less effective in the prevention of breast cancer than 20 mg/day tamoxifen.[12] For either osteoporosis treatment or prevention, supplemental calcium and vitamin D should be added to the diet if daily intake is inadequate.[13]

As with other SERMs,[14] raloxifene has been found to be effective in the treatment of gynecomastia (male breast development) in adolescents as well as adult men with prostate cancer treated with bicalutamide monotherapy.[15][16][17]


Raloxifene is contraindicated in lactating women or women who are or who may become pregnant[18]. It also may be of concern to women with active or past history of venous thromboembolic events, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and retinal vein thrombosis.[19]

Side effects

Common side effects of raloxifene include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and leg cramps.[18][1] Raloxifene does not cause breast tenderness, endometrial hyperplasia, menstrual bleeding, or endometrial cancer.[20] It does not appear to affect cognition or memory.[19] Raloxifene is a teratogen; i.e., it can cause developmental abnormalities such as birth defects.

Raloxifene may infrequently cause serious blood clots to form in the legs, lungs, or eyes.[1] Other reactions experienced include leg swelling/pain, trouble breathing, chest pain, and vision changes. Black box warnings were added to the label of raloxifene in 2007 warning of increased risk of death due to stroke for postmenopausal women with documented coronary heart disease or at increased risk for major coronary events, as well as increased risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.[18] The risk of venous thromboembolism with raloxifene is increased by several-fold in postmenopausal women (RR = 3.1).[21] Raloxifene has a lower risk of thromboembolism than tamoxifen.[12]

A report in September 2009 from Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality suggests that tamoxifen and raloxifene, used to treat breast cancer, significantly reduce invasive breast cancer in midlife and older women, but also increase the risk of adverse side effects.[22]

A recent human case report in July 2016 suggests that raloxifene may in fact, at some point, also stimulate breast cancer growth leading to a reduction of advanced breast cancer disease upon the withdrawal of the drug.[23]

Unlike other SERMs, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene has no risk of uterine hyperplasia or endometrial cancer (RR = 0.8).[1][21][12]



The biological actions of raloxifene are largely mediated through binding to estrogen receptors. This binding results in activation of estrogenic pathways in some tissues (agonism) and blockade of estrogenic pathways in others (antagonism). Its agonistic activity at some receptors and its antagonistic activity at others makes it a SERM. Raloxifene appears to act as an estrogen agonist in bone.[18]

Raloxifene has been found to disinhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and thereby increase total testosterone levels in men.[24][25][26][27] Due to a simultaneous increase in sex hormone-binding globulin levels however, free testosterone levels often remain unchanged.[24]

Raloxifene has been found to decrease insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in women and men.[25]

Raloxifene has been found to possess estrogenic effects in adipose tissue in women, promoting a shift from an android fat distribution to a gynoid fat distribution in postmenopausal women.[28][29]

Medication Breast Bone Liver Uterus Vagina Brain
Lipids Coagulation SHBG IGF-1 Hot flashes Antigonadotropic
Estradiol + + + + + + + + + +
"Ideal SERM" - + + - ± ± - + + ±
Bazedoxifene - + + + + ? - ± - ?
Clomifene - ? ? ? + + ? ? - ±
Lasofoxifene - + + + ? ? ± ± - ?
Ospemifene - + + + + + ± ± - ±
Raloxifene - + + + + + ± - - ±
Tamoxifen - + + + + + + - - ±
Toremifene - + + + + + + - - ±
Effect: + = Estrogenic / agonistic. ± = Mixed or neutral. - = Antiestrogenic / antagonistic. Sources: See template.


The absorption of raloxifene is approximately 60%.[1][2] However, due to extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of raloxifene is only 2.0%.[1][2] Raloxifene is rapidly absorbed from the intestines upon oral administration.[1]Peak plasma levels of raloxifene occur 0.5 to 6 hours after an oral dose.[1][2]

The volume of distribution of raloxifene with a single 30 to 150 mg mg oral dose is approximately 2348 L.[1][30] Raloxifene is widely distributed throughout the body.[1] There is extensive distribution of raloxifene into the liver, serum, lungs, and kidneys.[1] Both raloxifene and its metabolites show high plasma protein binding (>95%), including to both albumin and ?1 acid glycoprotein, but not to sex hormone-binding globulin.[1][2]

Raloxifene is metabolized in the liver and undergoes enterohepatic recycling.[2] It is metabolized exclusively by glucuronidation and is not metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system.[1][2] Less than 1% of radiolabeled material in plasma comprises unconjugated raloxifene.[2] The metabolites of raloxifene include several glucuronides.[1] The elimination half-life of raloxifene after a single dose is 27.7 hours (1.2 days), whereas its half-life at steady state at a dosage of 60 mg/day is 15.8 to 86.6 hours (0.7-3.6 days), with an average of 32.5 hours (1.4 days).[1][2] The extended half-life of raloxifene is attributed to enterohepatic recirculation and its high plasma protein binding.[1] Raloxifene and its glucuronide conjugates are interconverted by reversible metabolism and enterohepatic recycling, which prolongs the elimination half-life of raloxifene with oral administration.[2] The medication is deconjugated into its active form in a variety of tissues, including liver, lungs, spleen, bone, uterus, and kidneys.[1]

Raloxifene is mainly excreted in bile and is eliminated in feces.[1][2] Less than 0.2% of a dose is excreted unchanged in urine and less than 6% of a dose is excreted in urine as glucuronide conjugates.[2]


Raloxifene hydrochloride has the empirical formula C28H27NO4SoHCl, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 510.05 g/mol. Raloxifene hydrochloride is an off-white to pale-yellow solid that is slightly soluble in water.[18]

Raloxifene is a benzothiophene derivative and is structurally distinct from the triphenylethylene SERMs like tamoxifen, clomifene, and toremifene.[31] It is the only benzothiophene SERM to have been marketed.[31] A benzothiophene SERM that was not marketed is arzoxifene (LY-353381).[32]Bazedoxifene (Duavee, Viviant) and pipendoxifene (ERA-923) are structurally related to raloxifene but are technically not benzothiophenes and instead are indoles.[32]


Raloxifene was approved in the United States for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis in 1997, the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in 1999, and to prevent or reduce the risk of breast cancer in certain postmenopausal women in 2007.[33][34][35][36] It received orphan designation in 2005.[33]

Society and culture

A bottle of raloxifene.


Raloxifene is the generic name of the drug and its INN and BAN, while raloxifène is its DCF and raloxifene hydrochloride is its USAN, BANM, and JAN.[37][38][39][40] It has also been known by the name keoxifene.[37][38][40]

Raloxifene is sold mainly under the brand name Evista and to a lesser extent the brand name Optruma.[40][38] It is also sold under a variety of other brand names in various countries.[40]


Raloxifene is available widely throughout the world, including in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, elsewhere throughout Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Latin America, Southern, Eastern, and Southeastern Asia, and elsewhere in the world such as in Israel and Egypt.[40][38]

Raloxifene is provided in the form of 60 mg oral tablets.[11]


An editorial in Lancet Oncology criticized the way that research about the medication for breast cancer prevention was released.[41]


Raloxifene has been studied in men for a variety of purposes, such as for the treatment of schizophrenia, prostate cancer, and osteoporosis.[42][43][44][45][46][27][26][47][48][49]

Raloxifene has been studied as an adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia in postmenopausal women.[50] A 2017 meta-analysis concluded that it was safe and effective for this indication, although further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for confirmation.[50] It may be effective in women with less severe symptoms.[50]

A tissue-selective estrogen-receptor complex of estradiol and raloxifene has been studied in postmenopausal women.[51]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Morello, Karla C.; Wurz, Gregory T.; DeGregorio, Michael W. (2003). "Pharmacokinetics of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 42 (4): 361-372. doi:10.2165/00003088-200342040-00004. ISSN 0312-5963. PMID 12648026.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hochner-Celnikier D (1999). "Pharmacokinetics of raloxifene and its clinical application". Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 85 (1): 23-9. doi:10.1016/s0301-2115(98)00278-4. PMID 10428318.
  3. ^ Jeong, Eun Ju; Liu, Yong; Lin, Huimin; Hu, Ming (2005-03-15). "Species- and Disposition Model-Dependent Metabolism of Raloxifene in Gut and Liver: Role of UGT1A10". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. ASPET. 33 (6): 785-794. doi:10.1124/dmd.104.001883. PMID 15769887.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Raloxifene Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ Yang, Z. D.; Yu, J.; Zhang, Q. (August 2013). "Effects of raloxifene on cognition, mental health, sleep and sexual function in menopausal women: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Maturitas. 75 (4): 341-348. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.05.010. ISSN 1873-4111. PMID 23764354.
  6. ^ a b British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. pp. 736-737. ISBN 9780857113382.
  7. ^ "NADAC as of 2019-02-27". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". clincalc.com. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ "Raloxifene: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Jeon-Hor, Chen; et al. (September 15, 2003). "Reduction of Breast Density Following Tamoxifen Treatment Evaluated by 3-D MRI: Preliminary Study". Magn Reson Imaging. 29 (1): 91-8. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2010.07.009. PMC 3005955. PMID 20832226.
  11. ^ a b Mosby (5 March 2013). Mosby's Drug Reference for Health Professions - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 1379-. ISBN 978-0-323-18760-2.
  12. ^ a b c Kirby I. Bland; Edward M. Copeland; V. Suzanne Klimberg; William J Gradishar (29 June 2017). The Breast E-Book: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 231-. ISBN 978-0-323-51187-2.
  13. ^ Ohta, Hiroaki; Hamaya, Etsuro; Taketsuna, Masanori; Sowa, Hideaki (January 2015). "Quality of life in Japanese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with raloxifene and vitamin D: post hoc analysis of a postmarketing study". Current Medical Research and Opinion. 31 (1): 85-94. doi:10.1185/03007995.2014.975339. ISSN 1473-4877. PMID 25299349.
  14. ^ Kanakis, G. A.; Nordkap, L.; Bang, A. K.; Calogero, A. E.; Bártfai, G.; Corona, G.; Forti, G.; Toppari, J.; Goulis, D. G.; Jørgensen, N. (2019). "EAA clinical practice guidelines--gynecomastia evaluation and management". Andrology. 7 (6): 778-793. doi:10.1111/andr.12636. ISSN 2047-2919.
  15. ^ Nordt CA, DiVasta AD (2008). "Gynecomastia in adolescents". Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 20 (4): 375-82. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e328306a07c. PMID 18622190.
  16. ^ Leung KC, Leung AC (2017). "Gynecomastia in Infants, Children, and Adolescents". Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 10 (2): 127-137. doi:10.2174/1872214811666170301124033. PMID 28260521.
  17. ^ Ho, Thai H.; Nunez-Nateras, Rafael; Hou, Yue-Xian; Bryce, Alan H.; Northfelt, Donald W.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Wong, Bryan; Stanton, Melissa L.; Joseph, Richard W.; Castle, Erik P. (2017). "A Study of Combination Bicalutamide and Raloxifene for Patients With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer". Clinical Genitourinary Cancer. 15 (2): 196-202.e1. doi:10.1016/j.clgc.2016.08.026. ISSN 1558-7673.
  18. ^ a b c d e Raloxifene label Last updated 09/2007]
  19. ^ a b Gizzo S, Saccardi C, Patrelli TS, Berretta R, Capobianco G, Di Gangi S, Vacilotto A, Bertocco A, Noventa M, Ancona E, D'Antona D, Nardelli GB (2013). "Update on raloxifene: mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications". Obstet Gynecol Surv. 68 (6): 467-81. doi:10.1097/OGX.0b013e31828baef9. PMID 23942473.
  20. ^ Seeman E (2001). "Raloxifene". J. Bone Miner. Metab. 19 (2): 65-75. doi:10.1007/s007740170043. PMID 11281162.
  21. ^ a b Park, W (2002). "Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) and their roles in breast cancer prevention". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 8 (2): 82-88. doi:10.1016/S1471-4914(02)02282-7. ISSN 1471-4914.
  22. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. (September 2009). "Medications Effective in Reducing Risk of Breast Cancer But Increase Risk of Adverse Effects". Retrieved .CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Lemmo, W (2016). "Anti-Estrogen Withdrawal Effect With Raloxifene? A Case Report". Integrative Cancer Therapies. Published Online Before Print July 13 (3): 245-249. doi:10.1177/1534735416658954. PMC 5739193. PMID 27411856.
  24. ^ a b Corona G, Rastrelli G, Ratrelli G, Maggi M (February 2015). "The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 16 (3): 369-87. doi:10.1517/14656566.2015.993607. PMID 25523084.
  25. ^ a b Duarte FH, Jallad RS, Bronstein MD (November 2016). "Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly". Endocrine. 54 (2): 306-314. doi:10.1007/s12020-016-1118-z. PMID 27704479.
  26. ^ a b Birzniece V, Sutanto S, Ho KK (April 2012). "Gender difference in the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone axis by selective estrogen receptor modulators". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 97 (4): E521-7. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-3347. PMID 22319035.
  27. ^ a b Uebelhart B, Herrmann F, Pavo I, Draper MW, Rizzoli R (September 2004). "Raloxifene treatment is associated with increased serum estradiol and decreased bone remodeling in healthy middle-aged men with low sex hormone levels". J. Bone Miner. Res. 19 (9): 1518-24. doi:10.1359/JBMR.040503. PMID 15312253.
  28. ^ Xu, Beibei; Lovre, Dragana; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck (2016). "Effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on metabolic homeostasis". Biochimie. 124: 92-97. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.06.018. ISSN 0300-9084. PMID 26133657. In healthy postmemopausal women, raloxifene treatment for one year prevented body weight gain and abdominal adiposity by promoting a shift from an android to gynoid fat distribution [46].
  29. ^ Francucci, C. M.; Pantaleo, D.; Iori, N.; Camilletti, A.; Massi, F.; Boscaro, M. (2014). "Effects of raloxifene on body fat distribution and lipid profile in healthy post-menopausal women". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 28 (9): 623-631. doi:10.1007/BF03347261. ISSN 0391-4097. PMID 16218045. These results [...] suggest, for the first time, that RLX promotes the shift from android to gynoid fat distribution, and prevents the uptrend of abdominal adiposity and body weight compared with untreated women.
  30. ^ Snyder KR, Sparano N, Malinowski JM (September 2000). "Raloxifene hydrochloride". Am J Health Syst Pharm. 57 (18): 1669-75, quiz 1676-8. doi:10.1093/ajhp/57.18.1669. PMID 11006795.
  31. ^ a b Eric S. Orwoll; Michael Bliziotes (2 August 2002). Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Clinical Management. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 320-. ISBN 978-1-59259-278-4.
  32. ^ a b Stuart Silverman; Bo Abrahamsen (29 December 2015). The Duration and Safety of Osteoporosis Treatment: Anabolic and Antiresorptive Therapy. Springer. pp. 24-. ISBN 978-3-319-23639-1.
  33. ^ a b Institute of Medicine; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Committee on Accelerating Rare Diseases Research and Orphan Product Development (3 April 2011). Rare Diseases and Orphan Products: Accelerating Research and Development. National Academies Press. pp. 113-. ISBN 978-0-309-15806-0.
  34. ^ Reducing Breast Cancer Risk with Drugs. Am Cncl on Science, Health. pp. 10-. GGKEY:CBEALLAHP8W.
  35. ^ Sydney Lou Bonnick (10 November 2007). Bone Densitometry for Technologists. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 277-. ISBN 978-1-59259-992-9.
  36. ^ Jie Jack Li; Douglas S. Johnson (27 March 2013). Modern Drug Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 2-. ISBN 978-1-118-70124-9.
  37. ^ a b J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 1063-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  38. ^ a b c d Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. 2000. pp. 909-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  39. ^ I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (31 October 1999). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 245-. ISBN 978-0-7514-0499-9.
  40. ^ a b c d e "Raloxifene".
  41. ^ Thelancetoncology (2006). "A STARring role for raloxifene?". Lancet Oncol. 7 (6): 443. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70701-X. PMID 16750489.
  42. ^ Blum A, Hathaway L, Mincemoyer R, Schenke WH, Csako G, Waclawiw MA, Panza JA, Cannon RO (2000). "Hormonal, lipoprotein, and vascular effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene in hypercholesterolemic men". Am. J. Cardiol. 85 (12): 1491-4, A7. doi:10.1016/s0002-9149(00)00802-x. PMID 10856400.
  43. ^ Doran PM, Riggs BL, Atkinson EJ, Khosla S (2001). "Effects of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on bone turnover markers and serum sex steroid and lipid levels in elderly men". J. Bone Miner. Res. 16 (11): 2118-25. doi:10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.11.2118. PMID 11697809.
  44. ^ Dimaraki EV, Symons KV, Barkan AL (2004). "Raloxifene decreases serum IGF-I in male patients with active acromegaly". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 150 (4): 481-7. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1500481. PMID 15080777.
  45. ^ Duschek EJ, Gooren LJ, Netelenbos C (2004). "Effects of raloxifene on gonadotrophins, sex hormones, bone turnover and lipids in healthy elderly men" (PDF). Eur. J. Endocrinol. 150 (4): 539-46. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1500539. PMID 15080785.
  46. ^ Smith MR, Fallon MA, Lee H, Finkelstein JS (2004). "Raloxifene to prevent gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89 (8): 3841-6. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-032058. PMID 15292315.
  47. ^ Ho TH, Nunez-Nateras R, Hou YX, Bryce AH, Northfelt DW, Dueck AC, Wong B, Stanton ML, Joseph RW, Castle EP (2017). "A Study of Combination Bicalutamide and Raloxifene for Patients With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer". Clin Genitourin Cancer. 15 (2): 196-202.e1. doi:10.1016/j.clgc.2016.08.026. PMID 27771244.
  48. ^ Khodaie-Ardakani MR, Khosravi M, Zarinfard R, Nejati S, Mohsenian A, Tabrizi M, Akhondzadeh S (2015). "A Placebo-Controlled Study of Raloxifene Added to Risperidone in Men with Chronic Schizophrenia". Acta Med Iran. 53 (6): 337-45. PMID 26069170.
  49. ^ Weickert TW, Weinberg D, Lenroot R, Catts SV, Wells R, Vercammen A, O'Donnell M, Galletly C, Liu D, Balzan R, Short B, Pellen D, Curtis J, Carr VJ, Kulkarni J, Schofield PR, Weickert CS (2015). "Adjunctive raloxifene treatment improves attention and memory in men and women with schizophrenia". Mol. Psychiatry. 20 (6): 685-94. doi:10.1038/mp.2015.11. PMC 4444978. PMID 25980345.
  50. ^ a b c Wang Q, Dong X, Wang Y, Li X (2017). "Raloxifene as an adjunctive treatment for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Arch Womens Ment Health. 21 (1): 31-41. doi:10.1007/s00737-017-0773-2. PMID 28849318.
  51. ^ Carneiro AL, de Cassia de Maio Dardes R, Haidar MA (July 2012). "Estrogens plus raloxifene on endometrial safety and menopausal symptoms--semisystematic review". Menopause. 19 (7): 830-4. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e31824a74ce. PMID 22549172.

Further reading

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes