Get Qualcomm essential facts below. View Videos or join the Qualcomm discussion. Add Qualcomm to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Qualcomm Incorporated
FoundedJuly 1985; 35 years ago (1985-07)
FounderIrwin Jacobs
Andrew Viterbi
San Diego, California
Area served
Key people
Cristiano Amon, CEO
Mark D. McLaughlin, Chairman
ProductsIntellectual property and semiconductors
RevenueIncreaseUS$24.27 billion (2019)
IncreaseUS$7.67 billion (2019)
IncreaseUS$4.39 billion (2019)
IncreaseUS$32.96 billion (2019)
IncreaseUS$4.91 billion (2019)
Number of employees
37,000 (2019)

Qualcomm is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in San Diego, California, and incorporated in Delaware.[1] It creates intellectual property, semiconductors, software, and services related to wireless technology. It owns patents critical to the CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA and WCDMA mobile communications standards.

Qualcomm was established in 1985 by Irwin M. Jacobs and six other co-founders. Its early research into CDMA wireless cell phone technology was funded by selling satellite communications systems for commercial trucks. After a heated debate in the wireless industry, the 3G standard was adopted with Qualcomm's CDMA patents incorporated.[2] Afterwards there was a series of legal disputes about pricing for licensing patents required by the standard.

Over the years, Qualcomm has expanded into selling semiconductor products in a predominantly fabless manufacturing model. It also developed semiconductor components or software for vehicles, watches, laptops, wi-fi, smartphones, and other devices.

In January 2021, Qualcomm appointed its president and chip division head Cristiano Amon as its new chief executive.[3]

Corporate history

Early history

Qualcomm was created in July 1985[4][2] by seven former Linkabit employees led by Irwin Jacobs.[5] The company was named Qualcomm for "QUALity COMMunications."[6] It started as a contract research and development center[7] largely for government and defense projects.[5][8]

Qualcomm merged with Omninet in 1988 and raised $3.5 million in funding in order to produce the Omnitracs satellite communications system for trucking companies.[5] Qualcomm grew from eight employees in 1986 to 620 employees in 1991, due to demand for Omnitracs.[9] By 1989, Qualcomm had $32 million in revenues, 50 percent of which was from an Omnitracs contract with Schneider National.[5][10] Omnitracs profits helped fund Qualcomm's research and development into code-division multiple access (CDMA) technologies for cell phone networks.[7][11]


Qualcomm was operating at a loss in the 1990s due to its investment in CDMA research.[7][11] To obtain funding, the company filed an initial public offering in September 1991[12] raising $68 million.[5] An additional $486 million was raised in 1995 through the sale of 11.5 million more shares. The second funding round was done to raise money for the mass manufacturing of CDMA-based phones, base-stations, and equipment, after most US-based cellular networks announced they would adopt the CDMA standard.[7] The company had $383 million in annual revenue in 1995[13] and $814 million by 1996.[14]

In 1998, Qualcomm was restructured, leading to a 700-employee layoff. Its base station and cell-phone manufacturing businesses were spun-off in order to focus on its higher-margin patents and chipset businesses.[5][7]:310–311 Since the base station division was losing $400M a year (having never sold another base station after making its 10th sale), profits skyrocketed in the following year, and Qualcomm was the fastest growing stock on the market with a 2,621 percent growth over one year.[15][16][17] By 2000, Qualcomm had grown to 6,300 employees, $3.2 billion in revenues, and $670 million in profit. 39 percent of its sales were from CDMA technology, followed by licensing (22%), wireless (22%), and other products (17%).[7] Around this time, Qualcomm established offices in Europe, Asia Pacific, and Latin America.[7]:316 By 2001, 65 percent of Qualcomm's revenues originated from outside the United States with 35 percent coming from South Korea.[7]:19

In 2005, Paul E. Jacobs, son of Qualcomm founder Irwin Jacobs, was appointed as Qualcomm's new CEO.[18] Whereas Irwin Jacobs focused on CDMA patents, Paul Jacobs refocused much of Qualcomm's new research and development on projects related to the internet of things.[18] Qualcomm announced Steven Mollenkopf would succeed Paul Jacobs as CEO in December 2013.[19][20] Mollenkopf said he would expand Qualcomm's focus to wireless technology for cars, wearable devices, and other new markets.[21][22]

NXP and Broadcom

Qualcomm announced its intent to acquire NXP Semiconductors for $47 billion in October 2016.[23] The deal was approved by U.S. antitrust regulators in April 2017[24] with some standard-essential patents excluded to get the deal approved by antitrust regulators.[25][26]

As the NXP acquisition was ongoing, Broadcom made a $103 billion offer to acquire Qualcomm,[27][28] and Qualcomm rejected the offer.[29] Broadcom attempted a hostile takeover,[30] and raised its offer, eventually to $121 billion.[31] The potential Broadcom acquisition was investigated by the U.S. Committee on Foreign Investment[32] and blocked by an executive order from U.S. President Donald Trump, citing national security concerns.[33]

Qualcomm's NXP acquisition then became a part of the 2018 China-United States trade war.[34] U.S. President Donald Trump blocked China-based ZTE Corporation from buying American-made components, such as those from Qualcomm.[34][35] The ZTE restriction was lifted after the two countries reached an agreement,[36] but then Trump raised tariffs against Chinese goods.[34] Qualcomm extended a tender offer to NXP at least 29 times pending Chinese approval,[37] before abandoning the deal in July 2018.[38][39]

Wireless CDMA


Early history

In mid-1985, Qualcomm was hired by Hughes Aircraft to provide research and testing for a satellite network proposal to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[5]:38 The following year, Qualcomm filed its first CDMA patent (No. 4,901,307).[5] This patent established Qualcomm's overall approach to CDMA[5] and later became one of the most frequently cited technical documents in history.[40]:84 The project with the FCC was scrapped in 1988, when the FCC told all twelve vendors that submitted proposals to form a joint venture to create a single proposal.[5]:38

Qualcomm further developed the CDMA techniques for commercial use and submitted them to the Cellular Telephone Industries Association (CTIA) in 1989 as an alternative to the time division multiple access (TDMA) standard for second-generation cell-phone networks.[5]:49 A few months later, CTIA officially rejected Qualcomm's CDMA standard[41] in favor of the more established TDMA standard developed by Ericsson.[7][14]

At the time, CDMA wasn't considered viable in high-volume commercial applications due to the near-far field effect, whereby phones closer to a cell tower with a stronger signal drown out callers that are further away and have a weaker signal.[5]:54–55,62–65[42] Qualcomm filed three additional patents in 1989. They were for: a power management system that adjusts the signal strength of each call to adjust for the near-far field effect; a "soft handoff" methodology for transferring callers from one cell-tower to the next; and a variable rate encoder, which reduces bandwidth usage when a caller isn't speaking.[5]:54–55,62–65[42]

Holy wars of wireless

After the FCC said carriers were allowed to implement standards not approved by the CTIA, Qualcomm began pitching its CDMA technology directly to carriers.[5] This started what is often referred to as "the Holy Wars of Wireless," an often heated debate about whether TDMA or CDMA was better suited for 2G networks.[5]:117–120 Qualcomm-supported CDMA standards eventually unseated TDMA as the more popular 2G standard in North America, due to its network capacity.[14]

Qualcomm conducted CDMA test demonstrations in 1989[43] in San Diego and in 1990 in New York City.[44][45] In 1990, Nynex Mobile Communications and Ameritech Mobile Communications were the first carriers to implement CDMA networks instead of TDMA.[44]Motorola, a prior TDMA advocate, conducted CDMA test implementations in Hong Kong and Los Angeles.[46][42] This was followed by a $2 million trial network in San Diego for Airtouch Communications.[14][45]:177 In November 1991, 14 carriers and manufacturers conducted large-scale CDMA field tests.[14][47]

Results from the test implementations convinced CTIA to re-open discussions regarding CDMA and the 2G standard.[48] CTIA changed its position and supported CDMA in 1993,[14] adopting Qualcomm's CDMA as the IS-95A standard, also known as cdmaOne.[49] This prompted widespread criticism in forums, trade press, and conventions from businesses that had already invested heavily in the TDMA standard and from TDMA's developer, Ericsson.[14][48]

The first commercial-scale CDMA cellular network was created in Hong Kong in 1995.[49] On July 21, 1995, Primeco, which represented a consortium of Cox Communications, Comcast, Sprint and others, announced it was going to implement CDMA-based services[14] on networks in 15 states.[49] By this time, 11 out of 14 of the world's largest networks supported CDMA.[14][50] By 1997 CDMA had 57 percent of the US market, whereas 14 percent of the market was on TDMA.[14]


In 1991, Qualcomm and the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) agreed to jointly develop CDMA technologies for the Korean telecommunications infrastructure.[51][52] A CDMA standard was adopted as the national wireless standard in Korea in May 1993[5] with commercial CDMA networks being launched in 1996.[52][51] CDMA networks were also launched in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, India, and Venezuela.[53][54] Qualcomm entered the Russian and Latin American markets in 2005.[5] By 2007, Qualcomm's technology was in cell phone networks in more than 105 countries.[53] Qualcomm also formed licensing agreements with Nokia in Europe, Nortel in Canada, and with Matsushita and Mitsubishi in Japan.[7]

Qualcomm entered the Chinese market through a partnership with China Unicom in 2000,[7] which launched the first CDMA-based network in China in 2003.[54] China became a major market for Qualcomm's semiconductor products, representing more than fifty percent of its revenues,[55] but also the source of many legal disputes regarding Qualcomm's intellectual property.[56] By 2007, $500 million of Qualcomm's annual revenues were coming from Korean manufacturers.[57]


Initially, Qualcomm's manufacturing operations were limited to a small ASIC design and manufacturing team to support the Omnitracs system.[5] Qualcomm was forced to expand into manufacturing in the 1990s in order to produce the hardware carriers needed to implement CDMA networks that used Qualcomm's intellectual property.[5] Qualcomm's first large manufacturing project was in May 1993, in a deal to provide 36,000 CDMA phones to US West.[5][45]

For a time, Qualcomm experienced delays and other manufacturing problems, because it was in-experienced with mass manufacturing.[7] In 1994, Qualcomm partnered with Northern Telecom and formed a joint partnership with Sony, in order to leverage their manufacturing expertise.[43]Nokia, Samsung and Motorola introduced their own CDMA phones in 1997.[43] Qualcomm's manufacturing business was losing money due to large capital equipment costs and declining prices caused by competition.[43][40][5] Also, in March 1997, after Qualcomm introduced its Q phone, Motorola initiated a lawsuit (settled out of court in 2000) for allegedly copying the design of its Startac phone.[58][59]

In December 1999, Qualcomm sold its manufacturing interests to Kyocera Corporation, a Japanese CDMA manufacturer and Qualcomm licensee.[60][61] Qualcomm's infrastructure division was sold to competitor Ericsson in 1999 as part of an out-of-court agreement for a CDMA patent dispute that started in 1996.[62][63] The sale of the infrastructure division marked the beginning of an increase in Qualcomm's stock price and stronger financial performance, but many of the 1,200 employees involved were discontent with working for a competitor and losing their stock options.[62][64] This led to a protracted legal dispute regarding employee stock options, resulting in $74 million in settlements by 2005.[5]


3G standards were expected to force prior TDMA carriers onto CDMA, in order to meet 3G bandwidth goals.[40][65] The two largest GSM manufacturers, Nokia and Ericsson, advocated for a greater role for GSM,[66] in order to negotiate lower royalty prices from Qualcomm.[65] In 1998, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) voted in support of the WCDMA standard, which relied less on Qualcomm's CDMA patents.[67] Qualcomm responded by refusing to license its intellectual property for the standard.[65]

The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and the Third Generation Partnership Program 2, advocated for a competing CDMA-2000 standard developed primarily by Qualcomm.[68][69] American and European politicians advocated for the CDMA-2000 and WCDMA standards respectively.[5][65] The ITU said it would exclude Qualcomm's CDMA technology from the 3G standards entirely if a patent dispute over the technology with Ericsson was not resolved.[5][70] The two reached an agreement out-of-court in 1999, one month before a deadline set by the ITU. Both companies agreed to cross-license their technology to each other[70]:30 and to work together on 3G standards.[71]

A compromise was eventually reached whereby the ITU would initially endorse three standards: CDMA2000 1X, WCDMA and TD-SCDMA.[65] Qualcomm agreed to license its CDMA patents for variants such as WCDMA.[65] There were 240 million CDMA 3G subscribers by 2004 and 143 carriers in 67 countries by 2005.[45] Qualcomm claimed to own 38 percent of WCDMA's essential patents, whereas European GSM interests sponsored a research paper alleging Qualcomm only owned 19 percent.[40]

Qualcomm consolidated its interests in telecommunications carriers, such as Cricket Communications and Pegaso into a holding company, Leap Wireless, in 1998.[72][7] Leap was spun-off later that year[73] and sold to AT&T in 2014.[73]


Qualcomm initially advocated for the CDMA-based Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) standard for fourth generation wireless networks.[74] UMB wasn't backwards compatible with prior CDMA networks and didn't operate as well in narrow bandwidths as the LTE (long-term evolution) standard. No cellular networks adopted UMB.[75] Qualcomm halted development of UMB in 2005 and decided to support the LTE standard,[76][77] even though it didn't rely as heavily on Qualcomm patents.[78] Then, Qualcomm purchased LTE-related patents through acquisitions.[79] By 2012, Qualcomm held 81 seminal patents used in 4G LTE standards, or 12.46 percent.[80]

Qualcomm also became more focused on using its intellectual property to manufacture semiconductors in a fabless manufacturing model.[81] A VLSI Technology Organization division was founded in 2004, followed by a DFX group in 2006, which did more of the manufacturing design in-house.[82] Qualcomm announced it was developing the Scorpion central processing unit (CPU) for mobile devices in November 2005.[83][84] This was followed by the first shipments of the Snapdragon system-on-chip product, which includes a CPU, GPS, graphics processing unit, camera support and other software and semiconductors,[85] in November 2007.[86] The Gobi family of modems for portable devices was released in 2008.[87][88] Gobi modems were embedded in many laptop brands[89][90] and Snapdragon system on chips were embedded into most Android devices.[91]

Qualcomm won a government auction in India in 2010 for $1 billion in spectrum and licenses from which to offer broadband services. It formed four joint ventures with Indian holding companies for this purpose. A 49 percent stake in the holding companies was acquired by Bharti in May 2012 and the remaining was acquired in October 2012[92] by AT&T.[93]


According to Fortune Magazine, Qualcomm has been developing technologies for future 5G standards in three areas: radios that would use bandwidth from any network it has access to, creating larger ranges of spectrum by combining smaller pieces, and a set of services for internet of things applications.[94] Qualcomm's first 5G modem chip was announced in October 2016[95] and a prototype was demonstrated in October 2017.[96] Qualcomm's first 5G antennas were announced in July 2018.[97] As of 2018, Qualcomm has partnerships with 19 mobile device manufacturers and 18 carriers to commercialize 5G technology.[98] By late 2019, several phones were being sold with Qualcomm's 5G technology incorporated.[99]

Software and other technology

Early software

Qualcomm acquired an email application called Eudora in 1991.[100] By 1996, Eudora was installed on 63 percent of PCs.[101]Microsoft Outlook eclipsed Eudora, since it was provided for free by default on Windows-based machines.[102] By 2003 Qualcomm's Eudora was the most popular alternative to Microsoft Outlook, but still had only a five percent share of the market.[103] Software development for Eudora was retired in 2006.[102]

In 2001, Qualcomm introduced Brew, a smartphone app development service[104][105][106] with APIs to access contacts, billing, app-stores, or multimedia on the phone.[105] South Korean carrier KTFreeTel was the first to adopt the Brew system in November 2001, followed by Verizon in March 2002[107] for its "Get it Now" program. There were 2.5 million Brew users by the end of 2002 and 73 million in 2003.[45]

Other technology

In 2004, Qualcomm created a MediaFLO subsidiary to bring its FLO (forward link only) specification to market. Qualcomm built an $800 million MediaFLO network of cell towers to supplement carrier networks with one that is designed for multimedia.[108][109] In comparison to cellular towers that provide two-way communications with each cell phone individually, MediaFLO towers would broadcast multimedia content to mobile phones in a one-way broadcast.[110][111] Qualcomm also sold FLO-based semiconductors and licenses.[112][113]

Qualcomm created the FLO Forum standards group with 15 industry participants in July 2005.[114] Verizon was the first carrier to partner with MediaFlo in December 2005[111] for its Verizon Wireless' V Cast TV,[115] which was followed by the AT&T Mobile TV service a couple months later.[116][117] The MediaFlo service was launched on Super Bowl Sunday in 2007.[118] Despite the interest the service got among carriers, it was unpopular among consumers.[118][119][120] The service required users to pay for a subscription and have phones that were equipped with special semiconductors.[119][120] The service was discontinued in 2011 and its spectrum was sold to AT&T for $1.93 billion.[119][120] Qualcomm rebooted the effort in 2013 with LTE Broadcast, which uses pre-existing cell towers to broadcast select content locally on a dedicated spectrum, such as during major sporting events.[119][121]

Based on technology acquired from Iridigm in 2004 for $170 million,[122] Qualcomm began commercializing Mirasol displays in 2007, which was expanded into eight products in 2008.[123] Mirasol uses natural light shining on a screen to provide lighting for the display, rather a backlight, in order to reduce power consumption.[124] The amount of space between the surface of the display and a mirror within a 10 micron-wide "interferometric modulator" determines the color of the reflected light.[125] Mirasol was eventually closed down after an attempt to revive it in 2013 in Toq watches.[126]

In June 2011, Qualcomm introduced AllJoyn, a wireless standard for communicating between devices like cell phones, televisions, air-conditioners, and refrigerators.[127][128][129] The Alljoyn technology was donated to the Linux Foundation in December 2013. Qualcomm and the Linux Foundation then formed the Allseen Alliance to administer the standard[127][130] and Qualcomm developed products that used the AllJoyn standard[131][132][133] In December 2011, Qualcomm formed a healthcare subsidiary called Qualcomm Life. Simultaneously, the subsidiary released a cloud-based service for managing clinical data called 2net and the Qualcomm Life Fund, which invests in wireless healthcare technology companies.[134][135] The subsidiary doubled its employee-count by acquiring HealthyCircles Inc., a healthcare IT company, the following May.[136] Qualcomm life was later sold to a private equity firm, Francisco Partners, in 2019.[137]

Recent developments

In 2016, Qualcomm developed its first beta processor chip for servers and PCs called "Server Development Platform" and sent samples for testing.[138] In January 2017, a second generation data center and PC server chip called Centriq 2400 was released.[138]PC Magazine said the release was "historic" for Qualcomm, because it was a new market segment for the company.[139] Qualcomm also created a Qualcomm Datacenter Technologies subsidiary to focus on the PCs and servers market.[140] In 2017, Qualcomm introduced embedded technology for 3D cameras intended for augmented reality apps.[141] Qualcomm is also developing and demonstrating laptop processors and other parts, as of 2017.[142]

In 2000, Qualcomm formed a joint venture with Ford called Wingcast, which created telematics equipment for cars, but was unsuccessful and closed down two years later.[143][144][145] Qualcomm acquired the wireless electric car charging company, HaloIPT, in November 2011[146] and later sold the company to WiTricity in February 2019.[147] Qualcomm also started introducing Snapdragon system-on-chips[148] and Gobi modems[149] and other software or semiconductor products for self-driving cars and modern in-car computers.[150][151]

Patents and patent disputes

As of 2017, Qualcomm owns more than 130,000 current or pending patents.[2] By the early 2000s, Qualcomm had more than 1,000 patents.[152][153] As the sole early investor in CDMA research and development, Qualcomm's patent portfolio contains much of the intellectual property that is essential to CDMA technologies.[43]

Since many of Qualcomm's patents are part of an industry standard, the company has agreed to license those patents under "fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory" terms.[154] Qualcomm's royalties come out to about 5% or $30 per mobile device.[2] According to Fortune Magazine, this is about 5-10 times more than what is typically charged by other patent-holders.[154] Qualcomm says its patents are more expensive because they are more important and its pricing is within the range of common licensing practices.[154] However, competitors, clients, and regulators often allege Qualcomm charges unreasonable rates or engages in unfair competition for mandatory patents.[155]


In 2005, Broadcom and Qualcomm were unable to reach an agreement on cross-licensing their intellectual property,[156] and Broadcom sued Qualcomm alleging it was breaching ten Broadcom patents.[157][158] Broadcom asked the International Trade Commission to prohibit importing the affected technology.[157][159] A separate lawsuit alleged Qualcomm was threatening to withhold UMTS patent licenses against manufacturers that bought their semiconductors from competitors, in violation of the standards agreement.[160][161][162]

Qualcomm alleged Broadcom was using litigation as a negotiation tactic and that it would respond with its own lawsuits.[161][163] Qualcomm sued Broadcom, alleging it was using seven Qualcomm patents without permission.[164] By late 2006, more than 20 lawsuits had been filed between the two parties and both sides claimed to be winning.[165]

In September 2006, a New Jersey court judge ruled that Qualcomm's patent monopoly was an inherit aspect of creating industry standards and that Qualcomm's pricing practices were lawful.[165][166] In May 2007, a jury ordered Qualcomm to pay Broadcom $19.6 million for infringing on three Broadcom patents.[167] In June 2007, the ITC ruled that Qualcomm had infringed on at least one Broadcom patent and banned corresponding imports.[158][168] Qualcomm and Broadcom reached a settlement in April 2009, resulting in a cross-licensing agreement, a dismissal of all litigation and Qualcomm paying $891 million over four years.[169]

During the litigation, Qualcomm claimed it had never participated in the JVT standards-setting process.[170]:153 However, an engineer's testimony led to discovery of 21 JVT-related emails Qualcomm lawyers had withheld from the court, and 200,000 pages of JVT-related documents.[171] Qualcomm's lawyers said the evidence was overlooked by accident, whereas the judge said it was gross misconduct.[171][172][173] Qualcomm was fined $8.5 million for legal misconduct.[174] On appeal, the court held that Qualcomm could only enforce the related patents against non-JVT members, based on the agreements signed to participate in JVT.[170][175]:7

Nokia and Project Stockholm

Six large telecommunications companies[176] led by Nokia[177] filed a complaint against Qualcomm with the European Commission's antitrust division[177] in October 2005.[178] They alleged Qualcomm was abusing its market position to charge unreasonable rates for its patents.[179][180] Qualcomm alleged the six companies were colluding together under the code name Project Stockholm in a legal strategy to negotiate lower rates.[181][182][183] These events led to a protracted legal dispute.[176]

Qualcomm filed a series of patent-infringement lawsuits against Nokia in Europe, Asia, the US, and with the ITC.[184][185] The parties initiated more than one dozen lawsuits against one another.[185] Several companies filed antitrust complaints against Qualcomm with the Korean Fair Trade Commission,[186] who initiated an investigation into Qualcomm's practices in December 2006.[187] The dispute between Qualcomm and Nokia escalated, when their licensing agreement ended in April 2007.[188]

In February 2008, the two parties agreed to halt any new litigation until an initial ruling is made on the first lawsuit in Delaware.[171][185] Nokia won three consecutive court rulings with the German Federal Patent Court, the High Court in the United Kingdom, and the International Trade Commission respectively. Each found that Nokia was not infringing on Qualcomm's patents.[177][180][189] In July 2008, Nokia and Qualcomm reached an out-of-court settlement that ended the dispute and created a 15-year cross-licensing agreement.[177]

Recent disputes

ParkerVision filed a lawsuit against Qualcomm in July 2011 alleging that it infringed on seven ParkerVision patents related to converting electromagnetic radio signals to lower frequencies.[190] A $173 million jury verdict against Qualcomm was overturned by a judge.[191]

In November 2013, the China National Development and Reform Commission initiated an anti-trust investigation into Qualcomm's licensing division.[55][56] The Securities and Exchange Commission also started an investigation into whether Qualcomm breached antibribery laws through its activities in China.[56][192] The Chinese regulator raided Qualcomm's Chinese offices in August 2013.[193] The dispute was settled in 2015 for $975 million.[194]

In late 2016 The Korea Fair Trade Commission alleged Qualcomm abused a "dominant market position" to charge cell phone manufacturers excessive royalties for patents and limit sales to companies selling competing semiconductor products.[195] The regulator gave Qualcomm a fine of $854 million, which the company said it will appeal.[195]

In April 2017, Qualcomm paid a $814.9 million settlement with BlackBerry as a refund for prepaid licensing fees.[196]

In October 2017, Taiwan's Fair Trade Commission fined Qualcomm another $773 million.[197] In late 2018 Qualcomm paid a settlement to Taiwan for $93 million in fines and a promise to spend $700 million in the local Taiwan economy.[198][199]


In January 2017, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) initiated an investigation into allegations that Qualcomm charged excessive royalties for patents that are "essential to industry standards."[200] That same year, Apple initiated a $1 billion lawsuit against Qualcomm in the U.S. alleging Qualcomm overcharged for semiconductors and failed to pay $1 billion in rebates.[201][202] Apple also filed lawsuits in China[154] and the United Kingdom.[203]

Apple alleged Qualcomm was engaging in unfair competition by selling industry-standard patents at a discount rate in exchange for an exclusivity agreement for its semiconductor products.[204] An FTC report reached similar conclusions.[204] Qualcomm filed counter-claims alleging Apple made false and misleading statements to induce regulators to sue Qualcomm.[205] Qualcomm also sued Apple's suppliers for allegedly not paying Qualcomm's patent royalties, after Apple stopped reimbursing them for patent fees.[205][206] Qualcomm petitioned the International Trade Commission to prohibit imports of iPhones, on the premise that they contain stolen Qualcomm patents after Apple's suppliers stopped paying.[207]

In August 2017, the International Trade Commission responded to Qualcomm's complaints by starting an investigation of Apple's use of Qualcomm patents without royalties.[208] Qualcomm also filed suit against Apple in China for alleged patent infringement in October 2017.[209] The following month, Apple counter-sued, alleging Qualcomm was using patented Apple technology in its Android components.[210]

In December 2018, Chinese[211] and German[212] courts held that Apple infringed on Qualcomm patents and banned sales of certain iPhones. Some patents were held to be invalid,[213] while others were infringed by Apple.[214]

In April 2019, Apple and Qualcomm reached an agreement to cease all litigation and sign a six-year licensing agreement.[215] The settlement included a one-time payment from Apple of about $4.5 to $4.7 billion.[216] Terms of the six-year licensing agreement were not disclosed, but the licensing fees were expected to increase revenues by $2 per-share.[215][216]

In January 2018, the European Competition Commission fined Qualcomm $1.2 billion for an arrangement to use Qualcomm chips exclusively in Apple's mobile products.[217][218][219] Qualcomm is appealing the decision.[217][218][219]

Federal Trade Commission

Stemming from the investigation that led to the Apple lawsuit actions, the FTC filed suit against Qualcomm in 2017 alleging it engaged in antitrust behavior due to its monopoly on wireless broadband technology. The complaints filed by the FTC included that Qualcomm charged "disproportionately high" patent royalty rates to phone manufacturers and refused to sell them broadband chips if they did not license the patents, a policy referred to as "no license, no chips", that Qualcomm refused to license the patent to other chip manufacturers as to maintain their monopoly, and that Qualcomm purposely offered Apply a lower license cost to use their chips exclusively, locking other competitors as well as wireless service providers out of Apple's lucrative market.[220] The trial starting in January 2019, heard by Judge Lucy Koh of the federal Northern District Court that also oversaw the Apple case. Judge Koh ruled in May 2019 against Qualcomm, asserting that Qualcomm's practices did violate antitrust. As part of the ruling, Qualcomm was forced to stop its "no license, no chips" bundling with phone manufacturers, and was required to license its patents to other chip manufacturers. As Qualcomm had expressed its intent to appeal, a panel of judges on the 9th circuit of appeals stayed the orders pending the litigation action.[221]

Qualcomm appealed to the Ninth Circuit, which reversed the decision in August 2020. The Ninth Circuit determined that Judge Koh's decision strayed beyond the scope of antitrust law and that whether Qualcomm's patent licensing may be considered reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing does not fall within the scope of antitrust law, but rather is a matter of contract and patent law. The court concluded that the FTC failed to meet its burden of proof and that Qualcomm's business practices were better characterized as "hypercompetitive" rather than "anticompetitive."[222][223][224]

Operations and market-share

Qualcomm develops software, semiconductor designs, patented intellectual property, development tools and services, but does not manufacture physical products like phones or infrastructure equipment.[225] The company's revenues are derived from licensing fees for use of its intellectual property, sales of semiconductor products that are based on its designs, and from other wireless hardware, software or services.[226]

Qualcomm divides its business into three categories:[227]

  • QCT (Qualcomm CDMA Technologies): CDMA wireless products; 60 percent of revenue
  • QTL (Qualcomm Technology Licensing): Licensing; 19% of revenue
  • QSI (Qualcomm strategic initiatives): Investing in other tech companies; 1% of revenue

Qualcomm is a predominantly fabless provider of semiconductor products for wireless communications and data transfer in portable devices.[228] According to the analyst firm Strategy Analytics, Qualcomm has a 39 percent market-share for smartphone application processors and a 50 percent market-share of baseband processors.[229] Its share of the market for application processors on tablets is 18 percent.[230] According to analyst firm ABI Research, Qualcomm has a 65 percent market-share in LTE baseband.[231] Qualcomm also provides licenses to use its patents, many of which are critical to the CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA and WCDMA wireless standards.[232] The company is estimated to earn $20 for every smartphone sold.[233]:64

Qualcomm is the largest public company in San Diego.[234][8] It has a philanthropic arm called The Qualcomm Foundation.[235][236] A January 2013 lawsuit resulted in Qualcomm voluntarily adopting a policy of disclosing its political contributions. According to The New York Times, Qualcomm's new disclosure policy was praised by transparency advocates.[237][238]

See also


  1. ^ "EDGAR Search Results". www.sec.gov. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b c d Chafkin, Max; King, Ian (October 4, 2017). "Apple and Qualcomm's Billion-Dollar War Over an $18 Part". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Nellis, Stephen (2021-01-05). "Chip giant Qualcomm names Amon CEO as 5G era ramps up". Reuters. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Tibken, Shara (December 21, 2011). "Qualcomm Founder Set to Retire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Mock, Dave (January 1, 2005). The Qualcomm Equation: How a Fledgling Telecom Company Forged a New Path to Big Profits and Market Dominance. AMACOM: American Management Association. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8144-2858-0.
  6. ^ Deagon, Brian (May 25, 2014). "Qualcomm Dialed 26,078% Gain as it Transformed Mobile". Investor's Business Daily. Retrieved 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Steinbock, Dan (2003). Wireless Horizon: Strategy and Competition in the Worldwide Mobile Marketplace. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. pp. 305. ISBN 978-0-8144-0714-1.
  8. ^ a b West, Joel, Before Qualcomm: Linkabit and the Origins of San Diego's Telecom Industry (PDF), The Journal of San Diego History, retrieved 2014
  9. ^ Salpukas, Agis (June 5, 1991). "Satellite System Helps Trucks Stay in Touch". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  10. ^ Kraul, Chris (November 23, 1988). "Big Boost for Qualcomm". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014.
  11. ^ a b Freeman, Mike (November 26, 2014). "Qualcomm completes sale of Omnitracs". The San Diego Tribune. Retrieved 2014.
  12. ^ Johnson, Greg (September 17, 1991). "Qualcomm Goes Public With Stock". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ Armstrong, Larry (September 3, 1995). "Qualcomm: Unproven, But Dazzling". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Elstrom, Peter (June 1, 1997). "Qualcomm: Not Exactly An Overnight Success". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ Nee, Eric (May 15, 2000). "Qualcomm Hits The Big Time Pushing a little-known digital cellular technology from surf's-up San Diego, this $4-billion-a-year hotshot wants to be THE NEXT INTEL". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ Perkins, Joseph (September 3, 2010). "A Qualcomm Quarter-Century". San Diego Magazine.
  17. ^ Junnarkar, Sandeep; Ard, Scott (January 7, 2000). "Taking stock of 1999". CNET. Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ a b Wollan, Malia (June 12, 2011). "At Qualcomm, Rise of Founder's Son Defies Hazards of Succession". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ "Qualcomm names Mollenkopf president, COO". EE Times. October 4, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ Chen, Brian (December 13, 2013). "Qualcomm Picks Insider as New Chief Executive". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ Barr, Alistair (January 6, 2014). "CES 2014: Qualcomm CEO sees growth in wearables, autos". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ Rubin, Ben Fox (November 19, 2014). "Qualcomm wants to move out of your pocket into your car, house and wearable". CNET. Retrieved 2018.
  23. ^ Pressman, Aaron (October 27, 2016). "Here's Why the Qualcomm-NXP Deal Makes Sense". Fortune. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ "Qualcomm's $47 Billion Acquisition Clears Key Hurdle". Fortune. April 4, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  25. ^ Chee, Foo Yun (October 10, 2017). "Qualcomm offers to buy NXP minus some patents to allay EU concerns:..." U.S. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ Drozdiak, Natalia (January 11, 2018). "Qualcomm Set to Win European Backing for $39 Billion NXP Buy". WSJ. Retrieved 2018.
  27. ^ King, Ian (November 6, 2017). "Broadcom Offers $105 Billion for Qualcomm in Landmark Deal". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ Mukherjee, Supantha (November 6, 2017). "Broadcom bids $103 billion for Qualcomm, open to going hostile". U.S. Retrieved 2018.
  29. ^ Mukherjee, Supantha (November 13, 2017). "Qualcomm rejects Broadcom's $103-billion takeover bid". U.S. Retrieved 2018.
  30. ^ Venugopal, Aishwarya (December 4, 2017). "Broadcom is laying the foundation for a hostile takeover of Qualcomm". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018.
  31. ^ King, Ian (February 5, 2018). "Broadcom Raises Qualcomm Hostile Bid to About $121 Billion". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  32. ^ Massoudi, Arash; Toplensky, Rochelle; Fontanella-Khan, James (March 5, 2018). "US national security regulator delays Qualcomm vote". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ McLaughlin, David (March 12, 2018). "Trump Blocks Broadcom Takeover of Qualcomm on Security Risks". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ a b c Webb, Alex (June 15, 2018). "Trump Throws a Wrench Into Qualcomm's NXP Deal". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ Swanson, Ana; Stevenson, Alexandra (April 18, 2018). "Qualcomm May Be Collateral Damage in a U.S.-China Trade War". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ Yuk, Pan (June 7, 2018). "Qualcomm, NXP jolted higher after US-ZTE deal". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ Rai, Sonam (June 29, 2018). "Qualcomm extends NXP tender offer yet again". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ Clark, Don (July 25, 2018). "Qualcomm Scraps $44 Billion NXP Deal After China Inaction". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  39. ^ Brown, Eliot; Davis, Bob (July 25, 2018). "Qualcomm Abandons NXP Deal Amid U.S.-China Tensions". WSJ. Retrieved 2018.
  40. ^ a b c d Blaxill, Mark; Eckardt, Ralph (2009). The Invisible Edge: Taking Your Strategy to the Next Level Using Intellectual Property. Portfolio. ISBN 978-1-59184-237-8.
  41. ^ Lei, David; Slocum, John W. (August 29, 2013). Demystifying Your Business Strategy. Routledge. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-136-26802-1.
  42. ^ a b c Hardy, Quentin (September 6, 1996). "Jacobs's Patter: An Inventor's Promise Has Companies Taking Big Cellular Gamble --- Qualcomm Boss's Innovation In Digital-Phone System Is Problematic -- and Late --- Are Claims Hope or Hype?". The Wall Street Journal.
  43. ^ a b c d e Klemens, Guy (September 9, 2010). The Cellphone: The History and Technology of the Gadget That Changed the World. McFarland. pp. 131-132. ISBN 978-0-7864-5996-4.
  44. ^ a b Armstrong, Larry; Therrien, Lois; Coy, Peter (August 20, 1990). "Bolting from the cellular herd". BusinessWeek.
  45. ^ a b c d e Hsiao-Hwa Chen (August 20, 2007). The Next Generation CDMA Technologies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-02295-5.
  46. ^ "Motorola Shift On Technology". The New York Times. November 20, 1990. Retrieved 2014.
  47. ^ Gale Group (December 2, 2002). International Directory of Company Histories. St. James Press. ISBN 978-1-55862-476-4.
  48. ^ a b William A. Cohen, PhD (May 24, 2010). Heroic Leadership: Leading with Integrity and Honor. John Wiley & Sons. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-470-40501-7.
  49. ^ a b c Lemstra, Wolter; Hayes, Vic; Groenewegen, John (November 18, 2010). The Innovation Journey of Wi-Fi: The Road to Global Success. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-139-49257-7.
  50. ^ "Shorts circuited: cellular phones. (US cellular telephone industry backs Qualcomm's code division multiple access technology)". The Economist (US). July 29, 1995. Retrieved 2014.[permanent dead link]
  51. ^ a b Reddick, Christopher G. (2012). Cases on Public Information Management and E-Government Adoption. IGI Global Snippet. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-4666-0982-2.
  52. ^ a b United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (2004). Good Practices in Information and Communication Technology Policies in Asia and the Pacific. United Nations Publications. p. 64. ISBN 978-92-1-120412-4.
  53. ^ a b Drake, William; Wilson, Ernest (December 5, 2008). Governing Global Electronic Networks: International Perspectives on Policy and Power. MIT Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-262-30931-8.
  54. ^ a b Harper, Alvin; Buress, Raymond (2008). Mobile Telephones: Networks, Applications, and Performance. Nova Publishers. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-60456-436-5.
  55. ^ a b Carsten, Paul; Martina, Michael (July 24, 2014). "China regulator determines Qualcomm has monopoly: state-run newspaper". Reuters. Retrieved 2014.
  56. ^ a b c Clark, Don; Beckerman, Josh (July 23, 2014). "Qualcomm Profit Rises; Company Notes 'Challenges' in China". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  57. ^ Oh, Myung; Larson, James (March 14, 2011). Digital Development in Korea: Building an Information Society. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-136-81313-9.
  58. ^ Ferranti, Marc (March 24, 1997). Motorola claims patent infringement by Qualcomm. InfoWorld. p. 44. Retrieved 2014.
  59. ^ Ferranti, Marc (March 24, 1997). "Motorola claims patent infringement by Qualcomm". Infoworld.
  60. ^ Wirbel, Loring (December 22, 1999). "Qualcomm sells CDMA phone division to Kyocera". Electronic Engineering Times. Retrieved 2017.
  61. ^ "Qualcomm, Kyocera strike deal for handset business". Electronic Engineering Times. December 22, 1999. Retrieved 2014.
  62. ^ a b Alleven, Monica (November 29, 1999). "Ericsson Tangles With Qualcomm". Wireless Week. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  63. ^ "Wireless giants get connected". The Associated Press. March 26, 1999. Retrieved 2014.
  64. ^ Alleven, Monica (May 8, 2000). "Qualcomm, Unhappy Employees Try Mediation". Wireless Week. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  65. ^ a b c d e f Drake, William J.; Ernest J. Wilson (III.) (December 5, 2008). Governing Global Electronic Networks: International Perspectives on Policy and Power. MIT Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-262-04251-2.
  66. ^ Taplin, Ruth; Wakui, Masako (February 1, 2006). Japanese Telecommunications: Market and Policy in Transition. Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-134-20815-9.
  67. ^ Information Resources Management Association (January 2010). Networking and Telecommunications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 240. ISBN 978-1-60566-987-8.
  68. ^ Hsiao-Hwa Chen; Guizani, Mohsen (May 1, 2006). Next Generation Wireless Systems and Networks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-470-02435-5.
  69. ^ Unhelkar, Bhuvan (January 1, 2006). Handbook of Research in Mobile Business: Technical, Methodological and Social Perspectives. Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 150. ISBN 978-1-59140-818-5.
  70. ^ a b Lennon, Michael (2007). Drafting Technology Patent License Agreements. Aspen Publishers Online. ISBN 978-0-7355-6748-1. Retrieved 2014.
  71. ^ Gohring, Nancy (March 29, 1999). "Ericsson/Qualcomm bitter feud ends". Telephony. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  72. ^ Gaither, Chris (July 25, 2001). "Qualcomm Calls Off a Spinoff and Realigns Management". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  73. ^ a b Allen, Mike (March 9, 2014). "Leap Wireless Reports $640.8M Loss for 2013 as Sale to AT&T Looms". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  74. ^ Unhelkar, Bhuvan (June 25, 2009). Mobile Enterprise Transition and Management. CRC Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-4200-7828-2.
  75. ^ Cox, Christopher (February 28, 2012). An Introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-Advanced, SAE and 4G Mobile Communications. John Wiley & Sons. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-119-94281-8.
  76. ^ Korhonen, Juha (March 1, 2014). Introduction to 4G Mobile Communications. Artech House. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-60807-699-4.
  77. ^ Carew, Sinead (November 13, 2008). "Qualcomm halts UMB project, sees no major job cuts". Reuters.
  78. ^ Hempel, Jessi (June 24, 2009). "What's next for Qualcomm?". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 2014.
  79. ^ Coll, Eric (September 9, 2013). Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers: Reference Book - CTNS Study Guide. Teracom Training Institute. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-894887-05-2.
  80. ^ Reed, Brad (April 26, 2012). "Watch out Apple: Samsung, Qualcomm positioned to dominate LTE patent wars". Network World. Retrieved 2015.
  81. ^ Yoshida, Junko (July 11, 2014). "Casualty is not Qualcomm but Broadcom". Retrieved 2014.
  82. ^ LaPedus, Mark (November 27, 2006). "Fabless Qualcomm zooms to next node". Electronic Engineering Times. Retrieved 2014.
  83. ^ "Snapdragon seeds Qualcomm's future". Electronic Engineering Times. June 4, 2007. Retrieved 2014.
  84. ^ BDTI (December 5, 2007). "Analysis: Qualcomm's 1 GHz ARM "Snapdragon"". Electronic Engineering Times. Retrieved 2014.
  85. ^ Whitwam, Ryan (August 26, 2011). "How Qualcomm's Snapdragon ARM chips are unique". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 2014.
  86. ^ Crothers, Brooke (February 3, 2009). "Toshiba handheld hits 1GHz with 'Snapdragon'". CNET. Retrieved 2014.
  87. ^ Buchanan, Matt. "Qualcomm Gobi 3G Chip Goes Both Ways: EV-DO or HSDPA". gizmodo.com. Retrieved 2011.
  88. ^ Murph, Darren (October 24, 2007). "Qualcomm's dual-3G Gobi chip handles EV-DO and HSPA -- Engadget". engadget.com. Retrieved 2011.
  89. ^ Hamblen, Matt (April 1, 2008). "Qualcomm's new Gobi: A WiMax and Wi-Fi killer?". Computerworld. Retrieved 2014.
  90. ^ "Panasonic taps Qualcomm Gobi for broadband data". Electronic Engineering Times. September 11, 2008. Retrieved 2014.
  91. ^ "Qualcomm to buy Atheros for $3.2 billion". Associated Press. January 6, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  92. ^ Krishna, Jai (October 18, 2013). "Qualcomm Exits India Broadband Venture". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  93. ^ Meyer, Dan (March 14, 2014). "AT&T closes on Leap acquisition, with conditions". RCR Wireless. Retrieved 2014.
  94. ^ Higginbotham, Stacey (October 14, 2015). "Qualcomm readies itself for 5G with these 3 tech breakthroughs". Fortune. Retrieved 2015.
  95. ^ Captain, Sean (October 18, 2016). "The Wild Technology That Will Make 5G Wireless Work". Fast Company. Retrieved 2017.
  96. ^ "5G high-speed data 'milestone' claimed". BBC News. October 17, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  97. ^ Smith, Ryan (2018-07-23). "Qualcomm Announces Their First 5G mmWave Antenna Module: QTM052, Coming This Year". AnandTech. Retrieved .
  98. ^ Horwitz, Jeremy (February 8, 2018). "Qualcomm signs 19 phone makers and 18 carriers for global 5G launches in 2019". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2018.
  99. ^ Nellis, Stephen (September 6, 2019). "Qualcomm-Samsung axis brings 5G to the masses as Huawei struggles". U.S. Retrieved 2019.
  100. ^ Langberg, Mike (February 27, 2000). "Technology Testdrive Column". San Jose Mercury News.
  101. ^ Grad, Peter (November 25, 1996). "Utilities get with the e-mail program". The Record.
  102. ^ a b "Good-Bye Eudora". Associated Press. October 21, 2006. Retrieved 2014.
  103. ^ "Alternativees can liberate you form Microsoft e-mail software". Dallas Morning News. September 1, 2003. Retrieved 2014.
  104. ^ Rouse, Margaret. "BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless)". TechTarget.
  105. ^ a b Etoh, Minoru (August 5, 2005). Next Generation Mobile Systems: 3G & Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-470-09152-4.
  106. ^ Carroll, Kelly (April 16, 2001). "A fresh outlook on 3G". Telephony. Retrieved 2014.
  107. ^ Graves, Brad (March 18, 2002). "Qualcomm Unveils its new BREW". Retrieved 2014.
  108. ^ Fitchard, Kevin (November 8, 2004). "Qualcomm Re-Imagines Mobile Media". Connected Planet. Retrieved 2014.
  109. ^ Clark, Don (November 2, 2004). "Qualcomm Invests In TV Broadcasts Over Cellphones". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  110. ^ Brown, Karen (February 27, 2007). "Go with the FLO?". Wireless Week. Retrieved 2014.
  111. ^ a b "Verizon to offer broadcast TV over cell phones". Associated Press. December 1, 2005. Retrieved 2014.
  112. ^ Fitchard, Kevin (September 26, 2005). "TV wars go wireless". Telephony.
  113. ^ Graves, Brad (November 2004). "Qualcomm Eyes Programming For Phones". San Diego Business Journal. Archived from the original on 2020-08-06. Retrieved 2014.
  114. ^ Merritt, Rick (September 12, 2005). "Mobile-TV on-ramp under construction -- But lack of chip sets, profusion of net options could bring delays". Electronic Engineering Times. Retrieved 2014.[permanent dead link]
  115. ^ Reardon, Marguerite (January 7, 2007). "Verizon offers live TV on cell phones". CNET. Retrieved 2014.
  116. ^ Lawson, Stephen (Mar 28, 2008). "AT&T's MediaFLO TV coming in May". IDG. Retrieved 2014.
  117. ^ Svensson, Peter. "AT&T airs TV service on new phones". Associated Press. Retrieved 2014.
  118. ^ a b Ganapati, Priya (October 5, 2010). "Qualcomm Suspends Flo Mobile TV Sales". WIRED. Retrieved 2014.
  119. ^ a b c d Kitchard, Kevin (April 9, 2014). "Why Qualcomm thinks LTE-broadcast will work where FLO TV failed". Giga Om. Retrieved 2014.
  120. ^ a b c Frommer, Dan (July 22, 2010). "Qualcomm Wants To Dump "MediaFLO" Mobile TV Business No One Watches". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014.
  121. ^ Lawson, Stephen (March 19, 2013). "LTE broadcast may help Qualcomm salvage Flo TV". PC World. Retrieved 2014.
  122. ^ Watters, Ethan (June 12, 2007). "Product design, nature's way". CNNMoney. Cable News Network.
  123. ^ Graves, Brad (June 9, 2008). "Qualcomm Screens Pack Visual Punch With Scant Power". San Diego Business Journal.
  124. ^ Edwards, Cliff (April 28, 2010). "Qualcomm's Bright Low-Power Screen". Businessweek. Retrieved 2014.
  125. ^ Simonite, Tom (November 15, 2011). "E-Reader Display Shows Vibrant Color Video". Technology Review. Retrieved 2014.
  126. ^ Captain, Sean (January 10, 2017). "The Everything Chip: Qualcomm's Plan To Power Drones, VR, Cars, PCs, And More". Fast Company. Retrieved 2020.
  127. ^ a b Neagle, Colin. "A guide to the confusing Internet of Things standards world". Network World.
  128. ^ Hunter, Leah. "At CES, the Internet of Everything will Speak Alljoyn". Fast Company. Retrieved 2014.
  129. ^ Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Katz, Marcos D. (December 11, 2013). Mobile Clouds: Exploiting Distributed Resources in Wireless, Mobile and Social Networks. Wiley. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-118-80140-6.
  130. ^ Graves, Brad (January 6, 2014). "Internet of Things Set to Bring Lots of Connections, Opportunity". San Diego Business Journal.
  131. ^ Shinal, John. "Qualcomm's smartwatch is Toq of the town". USA Today. Retrieved 2014.
  132. ^ "Qualcomm's Toq Smartwatch Needs More Time". AllThingsD. December 26, 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  133. ^ Randewich, Noel (August 5, 2014). "Timex launches smartwatch with Qualcomm technology". Reuters. Retrieved 2014.
  134. ^ "Qualcomm Subsidiary Focuses on Mobile Medical Data". InformationWeek. December 8, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  135. ^ Horowitz, Brian. "Qualcomm Launches Mobile Health Company, New Cloud Medical Data Platform". eWeek.
  136. ^ Keshavan, Meghana (March 11, 2013). "Qualcomm Acquires medical Software Maker". San Diego Business Journal.
  137. ^ "Qualcomm Life acquired by PE firm Francisco Partners, will spin off under new name". MobiHealthNews. February 11, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  138. ^ a b Tilley, Aaron (December 7, 2016). "Qualcomm Launches The First 10nm Server Chip". Forbes. Retrieved 2017.
  139. ^ Shah, Agam (December 12, 2016). "Sleeping giant Qualcomm awakens with aim to crush Intel at its own game". PCWorld. Retrieved 2017.
  140. ^ "Qualcomm Names Upcoming Server Family Centriq". eWeek.com. August 19, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  141. ^ Captain, Sean (August 15, 2017). "Qualcomm's New Camera Will Give Smartphones 3D Vision". Fast Company. Retrieved 2018.
  142. ^ King, Ian (December 5, 2017). "Qualcomm Takes Another Shot at Ending Intel PC Stranglehold". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  143. ^ Hyde, Justin. "Ford, Qualcomm form auto-telecom venture". The Associated Press. Retrieved 2014.
  144. ^ Lewis, Mark (June 4, 2002). "Ford Grounds Its Wingcast Venture". Forbes. Retrieved 2014.
  145. ^ Charny, Ben (June 4, 2002). "Qualcomm grounds Wingcast venture". ZDNet. Retrieved 2014.
  146. ^ Harris, Catherine (November 10, 2011). "University sells off wireless technology". The Press. p. A.14.
  147. ^ Sawers, Paul (February 11, 2019). "WiTricity acquires Qualcomm Halo to accelerate wireless charging for electric vehicles". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2020.
  148. ^ Niccolai, James (January 6, 2014). "Qualcomm brings its Snapdragon chip to the car". IDG News Service. Retrieved 2014.
  149. ^ Tibken, Shara (February 23, 2014). "Qualcomm launches 64-bit chips for high-end phones at MWC 2014". CNET. Retrieved 2014.
  150. ^ Velazco, Chris (January 3, 2017). "Qualcomm wants to make smarter cars by sharing sensor data". Engadget. Retrieved 2017.
  151. ^ Condon, Stephanie (August 31, 2017). "New Qualcomm auto chipset advances vehicle-to-everything communications". ZDNet. Retrieved 2018.
  152. ^ White, Michael (September 16, 2000). "Qualcomm streamlines for wireless battle". Associated Press. Retrieved 2014.
  153. ^ "Qualcomm spinning off businesses". Associated Press. July 26, 2000. Retrieved 2014.
  154. ^ a b c d Pressman, Aaron (January 26, 2017). "Qualcomm Slams Apple Over Lawsuits". Fortune. Retrieved 2017.
  155. ^ Delta, George (2009). Law of the Internet. Aspen Publishers Online. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7355-7559-2. Retrieved 2014.
  156. ^ Balint, Kathryn (June 8, 2007). "Qualcomm punished with phone import ban". Union-Tribune San Diego. Retrieved 2014.
  157. ^ a b Clark, Don (May 20, 2005). "Broadcom Levels Suit on Qualcomm". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  158. ^ a b Mei, Lei (November 8, 2012). Conducting Business in China: An Intellectual Property Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-19-976022-0.
  159. ^ London, Simon (May 20, 2005). "Broadcom seeks injunction in intellectual property war". Financial Times. Retrieved 2014.
  160. ^ Clark, Don (July 6, 2005). "Suit by Broadcom Says Qualcomm Seeks a Monopoly". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  161. ^ a b Stern, R.H. (2005). "Standardization skullduggery update: UMTS standard". IEEE Micro. 25 (4): 73-76. doi:10.1109/MM.2005.76. ISSN 0272-1732.
  162. ^ "Rival Names Qualcomm in Antitrust Suit". Bloomberg. July 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  163. ^ Simons, Andrew (July 18, 2005). "Qualcomm, Broadcom Fight Stands to Be Costly". San Diego Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  164. ^ Gross, Grant (July 11, 2005). "Qualcomm sues Broadcom over patents". IDG News Service. Retrieved 2014.
  165. ^ a b Grover, Ron; Kharif, Olga (October 3, 2006). "Qualcomm, Broadcom Face Off". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2014.
  166. ^ Stern, R. (September-October 2006). "New Jersey federal court holds Qualcomm's unFRANDly acts no antitrust violation". IEEE Micro. 26 (5): 9-85. doi:10.1109/MM.2006.97. ISSN 0272-1732. S2CID 16274288.
  167. ^ Cheng, Roger; Clark, Don (May 30, 2007). "Broadcom Wins Verdict Against Rival Qualcomm". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  168. ^ Sandvos, Jay (July 18, 2007). "Broadcom versus Qualcomm: Patents and the International Trade Commission". Electronic Design News. Retrieved 2014.
  169. ^ Crothers, Brooke (April 26, 2009). "Qualcomm, Broadcom reach $891 million settlement". CNET. Retrieved 2014.
  170. ^ a b Antitrust and Associations Handbook. American Bar Association. 2009. ISBN 978-1-60442-392-1.
  171. ^ a b c Bagley, Constance E.; Savage, Diane (February 5, 2009). Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies for the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-324-58204-8.
  172. ^ "Qualcomm battles in federal court". Herald Journal. October 13, 2007. Retrieved 2014.
  173. ^ Clark, Don (August 8, 2007). "Broadcom Lands Blows to Rival". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  174. ^ Clark, Dona (April 7, 2010). "Court Rules For Former Qualcomm Lawyers, Blasts Qualcomm Employees". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  175. ^ Block, Dennis J.; Epstein, Michael A. (December 1995). The Corporate Counsellor's Deskbook. Aspen Publishers Online. ISBN 978-0-7355-0381-6.
  176. ^ a b "E.U. Drops Antitrust Case Against Qualcomm". The New York Times. November 25, 2009. Retrieved 2014.
  177. ^ a b c d Schenker, Jennifer (July 24, 2008). "Why Qualcomm Folded to Nokia". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2014.
  178. ^ Spagat, Elliot (January 26, 2007). "Qualcomm's Business Model Attacked". Associated Press. Retrieved 2014.
  179. ^ Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David M.; Phillips, Nelson (November 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management. Oxford University Press. p. 571. ISBN 978-0-19-969494-5.
  180. ^ a b Lundqvist, Björn (May 30, 2014). Standardization under EU Competition Rules and US Antitrust Laws: The Rise and Limits of Self-Regulation. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-78195-486-7.
  181. ^ Sidener, Jonathan (March 21, 2008). "Qualcomm says competitors conspiring in patent dispute". Union Tribune San Diego. Retrieved 2014.
  182. ^ Nuttall, Chris (January 24, 2007). "Qualcomm warns of escalating costs". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2014.
  183. ^ Clark, Don (September 7, 2006). "Qualcomm's Legal Battles Hold Big Implications for Cellphones". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  184. ^ Meyerson, Bruce (November 7, 2005). "Qualcomm Files Lawsuits Against Nokia". The Associated Press. Retrieved 2014.
  185. ^ a b c "TIMELINE: Qualcomm vs Nokia patents battle". Reuters. February 25, 2008. Retrieved 2014.
  186. ^ Jung-a, Song (July 3, 2006). "Broadcom and TI take action on Qualcomm". Financial Times. Retrieved 2014.
  187. ^ "South Korea's fair trade regulators steps up Qualcomm probe". The Associated Press. January 5, 2007. Retrieved 2014.
  188. ^ Richtel, Matt (July 24, 2008). "In settlement, Nokia will pay royalties to Qualcomm". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  189. ^ "Nokia: German court rules Qualcomm patent invalid". Reuters. July 23, 2008. Retrieved 2014.
  190. ^ Graves, Brad (November 4, 2013). "Qualcomm Likely to Appeal $173M Verdict". San Diego Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  191. ^ Decker, Susan (June 23, 2014). "Qualcomm Wins Ruling Tossing ParkerVision $173M Verdict". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014.
  192. ^ Freeman, Mike (February 5, 2012). "Qualcomm not talking about bribery probe". Union-Tribune San Diego. Retrieved 2014.
  193. ^ Yao, Kevin; Miller, Matthew (February 19, 2014). "China accuses Qualcomm of overcharging, abusing dominance". Reuters. Retrieved 2014.
  194. ^ Clark, Don (February 8, 2015). "Qualcomm to Pay $975 Million Antitrust Fine to China". WSJ. Retrieved 2017.
  195. ^ a b "Why South Korea Just Hit Qualcomm with a Record $854 Million Fine". Fortune. December 27, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  196. ^ Cao, Jing (April 12, 2017). "BlackBerry Jumps as $814.9 Million Qualcomm Refund Bolsters Cash". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017.
  197. ^ "Qualcomm Fined Record $773 Million in Taiwan Antitrust Probe". Bloomberg. October 11, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  198. ^ Mickle, Tripp (August 10, 2018). "Qualcomm, Taiwan Reach Settlement in Patent-Licensing Dispute". WSJ. Retrieved 2018.
  199. ^ Lee, Yimou (August 10, 2018). "Qualcomm settles anti-trust case with Taiwan regulator for $93 million". U.S. Retrieved 2018.
  200. ^ "Qualcomm shares plunge amid US antitrust case". CNBC. January 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  201. ^ "Apple files $1 billion lawsuit against chip supplier Qualcomm". Reuters. 21 January 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  202. ^ Balakrishnan, Anita (January 21, 2017). "Qualcomm blasts 'baseless' $1 billion Apple royalties lawsuit". CNBC. Retrieved 2017.
  203. ^ "Apple Is Expanding its War with Qualcomm". Fortune. March 3, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  204. ^ a b King, Ian; McLaughlin, David; Rosenblatt, Joel (January 17, 2017). "Qualcomm Accused of Forcing Deal on Apple to Thwart Rivals". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017.
  205. ^ a b "Qualcomm Is Suing iPhone Manufacturers In Backlash Against Apple". Forbes. May 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  206. ^ "Apple Stops Paying Qualcomm Royalties". Fortune. April 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  207. ^ King, Ian; Decker, Susan (May 3, 2017). "Qualcomm Said to Seek U.S. Import Ban for iPhones". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017.
  208. ^ Heavey, Susan; Nellis, Stephen (August 8, 2017). "U.S. to review Qualcomm's complaints about Apple iPhone patents". U.S. Retrieved 2017.
  209. ^ King, Ian (October 13, 2017). "Qualcomm Seeks China iPhone Ban, Expanding Apple Legal Fight". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  210. ^ Nellis, Stephen (November 29, 2017). "Apple accuses Qualcomm of patent infringement in countersuit". U.S. Retrieved 2018.
  211. ^ Nellis, Stephen (December 11, 2018). "China court bans sales of older iPhone models in Apple-Qualcomm global battle". U.S. Retrieved 2019.
  212. ^ Feiner, Lauren (December 20, 2018). "Apple will stop selling some iPhone models in its stores in Germany following ruling in Qualcomm patent case". CNBC. Retrieved 2019.
  213. ^ Decker, Susan; King, Ian; Gurman, Mark (March 26, 2019). "Apple Dodges One Import Ban in Qualcomm Fight, Faces Another". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2019.
  214. ^ Nieva, Richard (March 15, 2019). "Apple dealt legal blow as jury awards Qualcomm $31 million". CNET. Retrieved 2019.
  215. ^ a b Clark, Don; Wakabayashi, Daisuke (April 16, 2019). "Apple and Qualcomm Settle All Disputes Worldwide". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020.
  216. ^ a b "Qualcomm Pegs Payment From Apple at $4.5 Billion to $4.7 Billion". The New York Times. April 1, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  217. ^ a b Olson, Parmy (January 24, 2018). "Qualcomm Hit With $1.2 Billion EU Antitrust Fine". Forbes. Retrieved 2018.
  218. ^ a b Bray, Chad (January 24, 2018). "E.U. Fines Qualcomm $1.2 Billion Over Apple Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  219. ^ a b Drozdiak, Natalia; Greenwald, Ted (January 24, 2018). "Qualcomm Is Slapped With $1.23 Billion EU Fine for Illegal Payments to Apple". WSJ. Retrieved 2018.
  220. ^ Robertson, Adi (January 9, 2019). "Competitors say Qualcomm is running a monopoly -- here's why". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.
  221. ^ Porter, Jon (May 22, 2019). "Qualcomm's licensing terms are anti-competitive, US judge rules". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.
  222. ^ Decker, Susan (August 11, 2020). "Qualcomm Win in Antitrust Suit Restores Lucrative Licensing". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2020.
  223. ^ Hollister, Sean (August 11, 2020). "Qualcomm handed a huge win as US court overturns the 'no-license, no-chips' antitrust ruling". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.
  224. ^ Callahan, Consuelo (August 11, 2020). "9th Circuit Appelate Court Summary" (PDF). 9th Circuit of Appeals. Retrieved 2020.
  225. ^ Kodama, Mitsuru (August 28, 2012). Interactive Business Communities: Accelerating Corporate Innovation through Boundary Networks. Gower Publishing, Ltd. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4094-5950-7.
  226. ^ Form 10-K Annual Report, Qualcomm, November 6, 2013, retrieved 2014
  227. ^ "About Qualcomm". QUALCOMM Incorporated. August 23, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  228. ^ Pfeifer, Stuart (February 16, 2014). "Qualcomm calling on a new CEO amid intensifying competition". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014.
  229. ^ "Report: Qualcomm led smartphone application processor market in 1H 2016". FierceWireless. October 12, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  230. ^ Manners, David (October 18, 2016). "Apps processor market grows 3% while tablet AP market sinks 34%". Electronics Weekly.
  231. ^ Mott, Nathaniel (January 18, 2017). "FTC: Qualcomm Has Unfair Monopoly In Smartphone Market". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 2017.
  232. ^ Asif, Saad (February 25, 2011). Next Generation Mobile Communications Ecosystem: Technology Management for Mobile Communications. John Wiley & Sons. p. 378. ISBN 978-1-119-99581-4. Retrieved 2014.
  233. ^ Cannady, Cynthia (April 4, 2013). Technology Licensing and Development Agreements. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538513-7. Retrieved 2014.
  234. ^ Mike, Allen (June 20, 2011). "San Diego's Largest Public Company Remains a Work in Progress". San Diego Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  235. ^ Healy, Michelle (August 27, 2014). "X Prize finalists design Trekkie-inspired health tools". USA Today. Retrieved 2014.
  236. ^ Allen, Mike (March 31, 1997). "Stadium perks 'Q' up for Qualcomm". San Diego Business Journal.
  237. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (January 3, 2013). "State Comptroller Sues Qualcomm for Data About Its Political Contributions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  238. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (February 22, 2013). "Qualcomm Reveals Its Donations to Tax-Exempt Groups". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes