|Native to||India and Pakistan|
|113 million (2011-2017)|
Official language in
| India |
|Regulated by||Department of Languages, Punjab, India|
Punjab Institute of Language, Art, and Culture, Pakistan
Areas of the Indian Subcontinent where Punjabi is natively spoken
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: , Shahmukhi: ? ; Punjabi pronunciation: [p?n'd?a:b:i]; sometimes spelled Panjabi) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people and native to the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.
It has approximately 113 million native speakers. The larger part - 80.5 million as of 2017 - are in Pakistan, where Punjabi has more speakers than any other language but no official recognition at the national or provincial level. In India, Punjabi is spoken by 31.1 million people (as of 2011) and has official status in the state of Punjab. The language is spoken among a significant overseas diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.
In India, Punjabi is written using the Gurmukhi script, while Shahmukhi is used in Pakistan. Punjabi is unusual among Indo-Aryan languages (and Indo-European languages more generally) in its use of lexical tone.
The word Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) has been derived from the word Panj-?b, Persian for 'Five Waters', referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means 'Land of the Five Rivers'.
Panj is cognate with Sanskrit pañca (?), Greek pénte (), and Lithuanian Penki, all of which meaning 'five'; ?b is cognate with Sanskrit áp () and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.
Punjabi developed from Prakrit languages and later Apabhraa (Sanskrit: ?, 'deviated' or 'non-grammatical speech') From 600 BC, Sanskrit was advocated as official language and Prakrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: ?, pr?k?ta) collectively. Paishachi Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Paishachi Prakrit gave rise to Paishachi Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century. The earliest writings in Punjabi belong to Nath Yogi era from 9th to 14th century A.D. The language of these compositions is morphologically closer to Shauraseni Apbhramsa, though vocabulary and rhythm is surcharged with extreme colloquialism and folklore.
The Arabic and modern-Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi. So Punjabi relies heavily on Persian and Arabic words which are used with a liberal approach to language. Most important words in Punjabi, like and , and common words, like ?, , ?, etc., have all come out of Persian. After the fall of the Sikh empire, Urdu was made the official language of Punjab (in Pakistani Punjab, it is still the primary official language), and influenced the language as well.
In fact, the sounds of , , , and have been borrowed from Persian. Later, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese (words like /), Greek (words like /), Chagatai (words like , /), Japanese (words like /?), Chinese (words like , ?, /? ) and English (words like , ?, / ), though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic.
|English||Gurmukhi-based (Punjab, India)||Shahmukhi-based (Punjab, Pakistan)|
|Prime Minister||(pardh?n mantar?)*||(waz?r-e a?zam)|
| (knd?n) |
|Capital city||? (r?jdh?n?)||? (d?rul hak?mat)|
Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Delhi to Islamabad. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in India and Pakistan for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists of several eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Tarn Taran districts. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar.
In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukh? script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Latin scripts due to influence from English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.
In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukh? script, which in literary standards, is identical to the Urdu alphabet, however various attempts have been made to create certain, distinct characters from a modification of the Persian Nasta?l?q characters to represent Punjabi phonology, not already found in the Urdu alphabet. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu does.
Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh-most widely spoken in India, and also present in the Punjabi diaspora in various countries.
Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 80.5 million people, or approximately 39% of the country's population.
|Year||Population of Pakistan||Percentage||Punjabi speakers|
Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab. It is additional official in Haryana and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Ambala, Patiala, Bathinda, Hoshiarpur and Delhi.
In the 2011 census of India, 31.14 million reported their language as Punjabi. The census publications group this with speakers of related "mother tongues" like Bagri and Bhateali to arrive at the figure of 33.12 million.
|Year||Population of India||Punjabi speakers in India||Percentage|
Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
Standard Punjabi sometimes referred to as Majhi in India or simply Punjabi, is the most widespread and largest dialect of Punjabi. It first developed in the 12th century and gained prominence when Sufi poets such as Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah among others began to use the Lahore/Amritsar spoken dialect with infused Persian vocabulary in their works in the Shahmukhi script. Later the Gurmukhi script was developed based on Standard Punjabi by the Sikh Gurus.
Standard Punjabi is spoken by the majority of the people in Faisalabad, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat, Okara, Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Hafizabad, Nankana Sahib and Mandi Bahauddin districts of Pakistan's Punjab Province. It also has a large presence in every district in the rest of Pakistani Punjab, and in all large cities in Pakistan's other provinces.
In India it is spoken in Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, Pathankot and Gurdaspur Districts of the State of Punjab and sizable population also in major cities of the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Mumbai India.
In Pakistan Standard Punjabi dialect is not called Majhi which is Indian terminology, in Pakistan it is simply called Standard Punjabi. This dialect is used for both Punjabi Films, TV and Theater industry to make Punjabi language content in Lahore.
While a vowel length distinction between short and long vowels exists, reflected in modern Gurmukhi orthographical conventions, it is secondary to the vowel quality contrast between centralised vowels /? ? ?/ and peripheral vowels /i: e: a: o: u:/ in terms of phonetic significance.
|Close||i: ?||u: ?|
|Near-close||? ?||? ?|
|Close-mid||e: ?||o: ?|
|Open-mid||?: ?||?: ?|
|Open||a: ? ?|
|Nasal||m ? ?||n ? ?||? ? ?||? ? ?||? ?|
|tenuis||p ? ?||t ? ?||? ? ?||t ? ?||k ? ?|
|aspirated||p? ?||t? ?||?||t ?||k? ?|
|voiced||b ? ?||d ? ?||? ? ?||d ? ?||? ? ?|
|Fricative||voiceless||(f ?)||s ? ?||? ?||(x ?)|
|voiced||(z ?)||(? ?)||? ? ?|
|Rhotic||?~r ? ?||? ? ?|
|Approximant||? ? ?||l ? ?||? ||j ? ?|
Note: for the tonal stops, refer to the next section about Tone.
The three retroflex consonants /? ? ?/ do not occur initially, and the nasals /? ?/ occur only as allophones of /n/ in clusters with velars and palatals. The well-established phoneme /?/ may be realised allophonically as the voiceless retroflex fricative /?/ in learned clusters with retroflexes. The phonemic status of the fricatives /f z x ?/ varies with familiarity with Hindustani norms, more so with the Gurmukhi script, with the pairs /f p?/, /z d/, /x k?/, and /? g/ systematically distinguished in educated speech. The retroflex lateral is most commonly analysed as an approximant as opposed to a flap.
Level tone is found in about 75% of words and is described by some as absence of tone. There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. (Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.) However, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in the United States found no evidence of a separate falling tone following a medial consonant.
It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants (gh, jh, ?h, dh, bh) lost their aspiration. At the beginning of a word they became voiceless unaspirated consonants (k, c, ?, t, p) followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (g, j, ?, d, b), preceded by a low-rising tone. (The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.)
The presence of an [h] (although the [h] is now silent or very weakly pronounced except word-initially) word-finally (and sometimes medially) also often causes a rising tone before it, for example cá(h) "tea".
The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time.
Punjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and five cases of direct, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative/instrumental. The ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is usually confined to set adverbial expressions.
Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. There is also a T-V distinction. Upon the inflectional case is built a system of particles known as postpositions, which parallel English's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical base.
The Punjabi language is written in multiple scripts (a phenomenon known as synchronic digraphia). Each of the major scripts currently in use is typically associated with a particular religious group, although the association is not absolute or exclusive. In India, Punjabi Sikhs use Gurmukhi, a script of the Brahmic family, which has official status in the state of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi Muslims use Shahmukhi, a variant of the Perso-Arabic script and closely related to the Urdu alphabet. The Punjabi Hindus in India had a preference for Devanagari, another Brahmic script also used for Hindi, and in the first decades since independence raised objections to the uniform adoption of Gurmukhi in the state of Punjab, but most have now switched to Gurmukhi and so the use of Devanagari is rare. Often in literature, Pakistani Punjabi (written in Shahmukhi) is referred as Western-Punjabi (or West-Punjabi) and Indian Punjabi (written in Gurmukhi) is referred as Eastern-Punjabi (or East-Punjabi), although the underlying language is the same with a very slight shift in vocabulary towards Islamic and Sikh words respectively.
The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired.
This sample text was taken from the Punjabi popflock.com resource article on Lahore.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ' ? ? ? ? |
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
lahaur p?kist?n? panj?b d? r?jtni/d? d?rul hak?mat ài. lok gi?t? de n kar?c? tõ b?ad lahaur d?j? sáb tõ va ?áir ài. lahaur p?kist?n d? si?s?, rátal? ate pa? d? gá? ài te ise la? ín p?kist?n d? dil v? kih? j?nd? ài. lahaur r?v? dari? de káè te vasd? ài. isd? lok gi?t? ikk karo? de ne?e ài.
[l: pa:k?sta:ni: p?nda:b? dia:dtà:ni: /da: da:l h?ku:m?t lo:k? ?ti: de na:l? ka:ti: tõ: ba:?d? l: du:da: sb? tõ: :a? l: pa:k?sta:n? da: s?a:si: | ?t?lite: pà:i: da tese: l?i: n pa:k?sta:n? da: d?l? ?i: ka: da:nda? l: ?a:?i: da: de: k?e: te?s?da? ?s?di: lo:k? ?tik:? ko: de: ne:?e?]
Lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.
The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897-1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919-2005), Puran Singh (1881-1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876-1957), Diwan Singh (1897-1944) and Ustad Daman (1911-1984), Mohan Singh (1905-78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Ali Arshad Mir, Pir Hadi Abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Jaswant Singh Kanwal (1919-2020), Amrita Pritam (1919-2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930-1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936-1973), Surjit Patar (1944-) and Pash (1950-1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.
Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognised as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Urdu in its administration of North-Central and Northwestern India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali language was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language.
In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan after Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The only two official languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English.
When Pakistan was created in 1947, although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh.
Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces). Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department.
In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province (centred on the Lahore area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language.
The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level. In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province. Additionally, several thousand Punjabis gather in Lahore every year on International Mother Language Day. Thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals also demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres.
At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution, earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the 1950s. At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana and Delhi. In 2012, it was also made additional official language of West Bengal in areas where the population exceeds 10% of a particular block, sub-division or district.
Both federal and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab. Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana, and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education.[dubious ]
There are vibrant Punjabi language movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces. Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, where the Punjabi language is officially admitted in all necessary social functions, while in Pakistan it is used only in a few radio and TV programs, attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighbouring Pakistan. There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana and Delhi.
The Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana, established in 1954 is supported by the Punjab state government and works exclusively for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in Delhi. The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature in Jammu and Kashmir UT, India works for Punjabi and other regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighbouring states as well as in Lahore, Pakistan also advocate for the language.
Hindus and Sikhs generally use the Gurmukhi script; but Hindus have also begun to write Punjabi in the Devanagari script, as employed for Hindi. Muslims tend to write Punjabi in the Perso-Arabic script, which is also employed for Urdu. Muslim speakers borrow a large number of words from Persian and Arabic; however, the basic Punjabi vocabulary is mainly composed of tadbhava words, i.e. those descended from Sanskrit.
Punjabi vocabulary is mainly composed of tadbhav words, i.e., words derived from Sanskrit.
Punjabi was nonetheless included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India and came to be recognized as one of the fifteen official languages of the country.
in India, Punjabi is an official language as well as the first language of the state of Punjab (with secondary status in Delhi and widespread use in Haryana).
Punjabi was made the first compulsory language and medium of instruction in all the government schools whereas Hindi and English as second and third language were to be implemented from the class 4 and 6 respectively
Languages taught in the State under the Three Language Formula: First Language : Hindi Second Language : Punjabi Third language : English