Wahibre Psamtik I (Ancient Egyptian: w-jb-r? psm?k, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus ( Latinization of Ancient Greek: ?, romanized: Psamm?tikhos), who ruled 664-610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
Historical references for what the Greeks referred to as the Dodecarchy, a loose confederation of twelve Egyptian territories, based on the traditional
nomes, and the rise of Psamtik I in power, establishing the Saitic Dynasty, are recorded in Herodotus's , Book II: 151-157. From Histories cuneiform texts, it was discovered that twenty local princelings were appointed by Esarhaddon and confirmed by Ashurbanipal to govern Egypt.
Necho I, the father of Psamtik by his queen Istemabet, was the chief of these kinglets, but they seem to have been quite unable to lead the Egyptians under the hated Assyrians against the more sympathetic Nubians. The labyrinth built by Amenemhat III of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt is ascribed by Herodotus to the Dodecarchy, which must represent this combination of rulers.
Necho I died in 664 BC when the
Kushite king Tantamani tried unsuccessfully to seize control of lower Egypt from the Assyrian Empire. After his father's death, within the first ten years of his reign, Psamtik both united all of Egypt and freed it from Assyrian control.
Psamtik reunified Egypt in his ninth regnal year when he dispatched a powerful naval fleet in March 656 BC to
Thebes and compelled the existing God's Wife of Amun at Thebes, Shepenupet II, daughter of the former Kushite Pharaoh Piye, to adopt his daughter Nitocris I as her heiress in the so-called Adoption Stela.
Psamtik's victory destroyed the last vestiges of the
Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynasty's control over Upper Egypt under Tantamani since Thebes now accepted his authority. Nitocris would hold her office for 70 years from 656 BC until her death in 585 BC. Thereafter, Psamtik campaigned vigorously against those local princes who opposed his reunification of Egypt. One of his victories over certain Libyan marauders is mentioned in a Year 10 and Year 11 stela from the Dakhla Oasis.
Psamtik won Egypt's independence from the Assyrian Empire and restored Egypt's prosperity during his 54-year reign. The pharaoh proceeded to establish close relations with
archaic Greece and also encouraged many Greek settlers to establish colonies in Egypt and serve in the Egyptian army. In particular, he settled some Greeks at Tahpanhes (Daphnae). 
Investigation into the origin of language
7th century statue found in
mentioning Psamtik. The
inscription reads, "Amphimeos' son Pedon brought me from Egypt and gave as a votive; Psammetichos, the king of Egypt gave him a city for his virtue and a golden diadem for his virtue."
The Greek historian
Herodotus conveyed an anecdote about Psamtik in the second volume of his (2.2). During his visit to Egypt, Herodotus heard that Psammetichus ("Psam?ik") sought to Histories discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children. Allegedly he gave two newborn babies to a shepherd, with the instructions that no one should speak to them, but that the shepherd should feed and care for them while listening to determine their first words. The hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the root language of all people. When one of the children cried "" (bekós) with outstretched arms, the shepherd reported this to Psammetichus, who concluded that the word was Phrygian because that was the sound of the Phrygian word for "bread". Thus, they concluded that the Phrygians were an older people than the Egyptians, and that Phrygian was the original language of men. There are no other extant sources to verify this story. 
Psamtik's chief wife was
Mehytenweskhet, the daughter of Harsiese, the vizier of the North and High Priest of Atum at Heliopolis. Psamtik and Mehytenweskhet were the parents of Necho II, Merneith, and the Divine Adoratrice Nitocris I.
Psamtik's father-in-law--the aforementioned Harsiese--was married three times: to Sheta, with whom he had a daughter named Naneferheres, to Tanini and, finally, to an unknown woman, by whom he had both Djedkare, the vizier of the South and Mehytenweskhet.
Harsiese was the son of vizier Harkhebi, and was related to two other Harsieses, both viziers, who were a part of the family of the famous Mayor of  Thebes Montuemhat.
On 9 March 2017, Egyptian and German archaeologists discovered a colossal statue about 7.9 metres (26 ft) in height at the
Heliopolis site in Cairo. Made of quartzite, the statue was found in a fragmentary state, with the bust, the lower part of the head and the crown submerged in groundwater. 
It has been confirmed to be of Psamtik I due to engravings found that mentioned one of the pharaoh's names on the base of the statue.
    
A spokesperson at the time commented that "If it does belong to this king, then it is the largest statue of the
Late Period that was ever discovered in Egypt."  The head and torso are expected to be moved to the  Grand Egyptian Museum. 
The statue (colossus) was sculpted in the ancient classical style of 2000 BC, establishing a resurgence to the greatness and prosperity of the classical period of old. However, from the many gathered fragments (now 6,400 of them) of quartzite collected, it has also been established that the colossus was at some time deliberately destroyed. Certain discoloured & cracked rock fragments show evidence of having been heated to high temperatures then shattered (with cold water), a typical way of destroying ancient colossi.
Relief of Psamtik I making an offering to Ra-Horakhty (Tomb of
"Psamtek I Wahibre". Digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2 December 2011 . Retrieved 2011.
^ Peter Clayton,
Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, 1994. p.195
Eichler, Ernst (1995). Namenforschung / Name Studies / Les noms propres. 1. Halbband. Walter de Gruyter. p. 847. ISBN . 3110203421
"Psamtik I". Touregypt.net. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011 . Retrieved 2011.
^ a b
Smith, Tyler Jo; Plantzos, Dimitris (2018). . John Wiley & Sons. p. 294. A Companion to Greek Art ISBN . 978-1-119-26681-5
Keesling, Catherine M. (2017). . Cambridge University Press. p. 116. Early Greek Portraiture ISBN . 978-1-107-16223-5
Herodotus, "2.2.3", Histories, Internet Classics Archive , retrieved 2017 .
Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, 1991, Christian Settipani, pp. 153, 160 & 161
^ a b
"Massive Statue of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Found in City Slum". National Geographic. 10 March 2017. Archived from the original on 11 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
Youssef, Nour (17 March 2017). "So Many Pharaohs: A Possible Case of Mistaken Identity in Cairo". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
Thompson, Ben (18 March 2017). "Two pharaohs, one statue: A tale of mistaken identity?". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
"Egypt Pharaoh statue 'not Ramses II but different ruler. BBC News. 16 March 2017. '" Archived from the original on 18 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
"Inscription reveals colossus unearthed in Cairo slum not of Ramses II, more likely Pharaoh Psamtek I". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
Bel Trew (17 March 2017). "Statue found in Cairo may be biggest ever from the Late Period". The Times. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
"Egypt Pharaoh statue 'not Ramses II but different ruler". BBC News. 16 March 2017. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
Hendawi, Hamza. "Recently discovered Egyptian statue is not Ramses II". CTVNews. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
dates     Egypt
Chronology of the Neolithic period 4000-3200 BCE
Naqada culture (4000-3100 BCE)
Sumerian period (4000-2340 BCE) Susa I
Pre-Dynastic period (4000-2900 BCE)
Naqada I Naqada II
Uruk period (4000-3100 BCE) (Anonymous "King-priests") Legendary ante-deluvian rulers: In Eridu: Alulim, Alalngar, then in Bad-tibira: En-men-lu-ana, En-men-gal-ana, Dumuzid, the Shepherd, then in Larag: En-sipad-zid-ana, then in Zimbir: En-men-dur-ana, then in Shuruppag: Ubara-Tutu "then the flood swept over"  Susa II (Uruk influence or control)
Proto-Dynastic period ( Naqada III) Early or legendary kings:
Upper Egypt Finger Snail Fish Pen-Abu Animal Stork Canide Bull Scorpion I Shendjw Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer / Menes
Lower Egypt Hedju Hor Ny-Hor Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Nat-Hor Mekh Double Falcon Wash 3100-2900 BCE
Early Dynastic Period First Dynasty of Egypt Narmer Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith ? Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka
Jemdet Nasr period Proto-Elamite period ( Susa III) (3100-2700 BCE)
Second Dynasty of Egypt Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy
Early Dynastic Period I (2900-2700 BCE)
First Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic)
First kingdom of Mari (Semitic)
Kish I dynasty Jushur, Kullassina-bel Nangishlishma, En-tarah-ana Babum, Puannum, Kalibum
Kalumum Zuqaqip Atab Mashda Arwium Etana Balih En-me-nuna Melem-Kish Barsal-nuna
Uruk I dynasty Mesh-ki-ang-gasher
Enmerkar ("conqueror of Aratta")
Early Dynastic Period II (2700-2600 BCE)
Zamug, Tizqar, Ilku Iltasadum
Lugalbanda Dumuzid, the Fisherman
En-me-barage-si ("made the land of Elam submit") 
Aga of Kish
Old Elamite period (2700-1500 BCE) Indus-Mesopotamia relations
Third Dynasty of Egypt Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Nebka Khaba Qahedjet Huni
Early Dynastic Period III (2600-2340 BCE)
Sagisu Abur-lim Agur-lim Ibbi-Damu Baba-Damu
Kish II dynasty (5 kings) Uhub Mesilim
Ur-Nungal Udulkalama Labashum
Lagash En-hegal Lugalshaengur
Ur A-Imdugud Ur-Pabilsag Meskalamdug (Queen Puabi) Akalamdug
Enun-dara-anna Mes-he Melamanna Lugal-kitun
Adab Nin-kisalsi Me-durba Lugal-dalu
Old Kingdom of Egypt Fourth Dynasty of Egypt Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf
Thamphthis Ur I dynasty Mesannepada "King of Ur and Kish", victorious over Uruk
Phoenicia (2500-539 BCE)
Second kingdom of Mari (Semitic) Ikun-Shamash Iku-Shamagan Ansud Sa'umu Ishtup-Ishar Ikun-Mari Iblul-Il Nizi
Akshak dynasty Unzi Undalulu
Kish III dynasty Ku-Baba
Uruk II dynasty Enshakushanna
Umma I dynasty Pabilgagaltuku
Lagash I dynasty Ur-Nanshe Akurgal
A'annepada Meskiagnun Elulu Balulu
Awan dynasty Peli Tata Ukkutahesh Hishur
Fifth Dynasty of Egypt Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas
Elamite invasions (3 kings)  Shushuntarana Napilhush
Eannatum (King of Lagash, Sumer, Akkad, conqueror of Elam)
Adub-Damu Igrish-Halam Irkab-Damu
Kish IV dynasty Puzur-Suen Ur-Zababa
Ur-Lumma Il Gishakidu (Queen Bara-irnun)
Enannatum Entemena Enannatum II Enentarzi
Ur II dynasty Nanni Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II
Sixth Dynasty of Egypt Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah
Adab dynasty Lugalannemundu "King of the four quarters of the world"
Enna-Dagan Ikun-Ishar Ishqi-Mari
Mari Anbu, Anba, Bazi, Zizi of Mari, Limer, Sharrum-iter 
Puzur-Nirah Ishu-Il Shu-Sin
Uruk III dynasty Lugalzagesi (Governor of Umma, King of all Sumer)
Akkadian Period (2340-2150 BCE)
Akkadian Empire (Semitic) Sargon of Akkad Rimush Manishtushu
Akkadian Governors: Eshpum Ilshu-rabi Epirmupi Ili-ishmani
Lugal-ushumgal (vassal of the Akkadians)
First Intermediate Period Seventh Dynasty of Egypt
Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
Second Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) (Vassals of UR III)
Shakkanakku dynasty (Semitic) Ididish Shu-Dagan Ishma-Dagan (Vassals of the Akkadians)
Igigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu (3 years) Dudu Shu-turul
Uruk IV dynasty Ur-nigin Ur-gigir
Lagash II dynasty Puzer-Mama Ur-Ningirsu I Pirig-me Lu-Baba Lu-gula Ka-ku Hishep-Ratep Helu Khita Puzur-Inshushinak
Ninth Dynasty of Egypt Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut
Neo-Sumerian Period (2150-2000 BCE)
Nûr-Mêr Ishtup-Ilum Ishgum-Addu Apil-kin
Gutian dynasty (21 kings) La-erabum Si'um
Kuda (Uruk) Puzur-ili Ur-Utu
Umma II dynasty Lugalannatum (vassal of the Gutians)
Ur-Baba Gudea Ur-Ningirsu Ur-gar Nam-mahani
Tenth Dynasty of Egypt Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare
Iddi-ilum Ili-Ishar Tura-Dagan Puzur-Ishtar Hitial-Erra Hanun-Dagan (Vassals of Ur III)  Uruk V dynasty Utu-hengal
Ur III dynasty "Kings of Ur, Sumer and Akkad" Ur-Nammu Shulgi Amar-Sin Shu-Sin Ibbi-Sin
Middle Kingdom of Egypt Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV
circa 2000 BCE
Amorite invasions Elamite invasions Kindattu ( Shimashki Dynasty)
Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu ?
Third Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) Ibbit-Lim Immeya Indilimma
Old Assyrian Empire (2025-1378 BCE) Puzur-Ashur I Shalim-ahum Ilu-shuma Erishum I Ikunum Sargon I Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Sin Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I Ishme-Dagan I Mut-Ashkur Rimush Asinum Ashur-dugul Ashur-apla-idi Nasir-Sin Sin-namir Ipqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu Adasi Bel-bani Libaya Sharma-Adad I Iptar-Sin Bazaya Lullaya Shu-Ninua Sharma-Adad II Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I Puzur-Ashur III Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-shaduni Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadin-ahhe I Enlil-Nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-bel-nisheshu Ashur-rim-nisheshu Ashur-nadin-ahhe II
Isin-Larsa period ( Amorites) : Dynasty of Isin Ishbi-Erra Shu-Ilishu Iddin-Dagan Ishme-Dagan Lipit-Eshtar Ur-Ninurta Bur-Suen Lipit-Enlil Erra-imitti Enlil-bani Zambiya Iter-pisha Ur-du-kuga Suen-magir Damiq-ilishu Dynasty of Larsa: Naplanum Emisum Samium Zabaia Gungunum Abisare Sumuel Nur-Adad Sin-Iddinam Sin-Eribam Sin-Iqisham Silli-Adad Warad-Sin Rim-Sin I (...) Rim-Sin II Uruk VI dynasty: Alila-hadum Sumu-binasa Naram-Sin of Uruk Sîn-kid Sîn-iribam Sîn-g?mil Ilum-gamil Anam of Uruk Irdanene Rim-Anum Nabi-ili?u
Sukkalmah dynasty Siwe-Palar-Khuppak
Second Intermediate Period Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Abraham ( Biblical)
First Babylonian dynasty ("Old Babylonian Period") ( Amorites) Sumu-abum Sumu-la-El Sin-muballit Sabium Apil-Sin Sin-muballit Hammurabi Samsu-iluna Abi-eshuh Ammi-ditana Ammi-saduqa Samsu-Ditana Early Kassite rulers
Second Babylonian dynasty (" Sealand Dynasty") Ilum-ma-ili Itti-ili-nibi Damqi-ilishu Ishkibal Shushushi Gulkishar mDI?+U-EN Peshgaldaramesh Ayadaragalama Akurduana Melamkurkurra Ea-gamil
Sixteenth Dynasty Abydos Dynasty Seventeenth Dynasty
Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (" Hyksos") Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi
Mitanni (1600-1260 BCE) Kirta Shuttarna I Parshatatar
New Kingdom of Egypt Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Amenhotep I
Third Babylonian dynasty ( Kassites) Agum-Kakrime Burnaburiash I Kashtiliash III Ulamburiash Agum III Karaindash Kadashman-harbe I Kurigalzu I Kadashman-Enlil I Burnaburiash II Kara-hardash Nazi-Bugash Kurigalzu II Nazi-Maruttash Kadashman-Turgu Kadashman-Enlil II Kudur-Enlil Shagarakti-Shuriash Kashtiliashu IV Enlil-nadin-shumi Kadashman-Harbe II Adad-shuma-iddina Adad-shuma-usur Meli-Shipak II Marduk-apla-iddina I Zababa-shuma-iddin Enlil-nadin-ahi
Middle Elamite period
Kidinuid dynasty Igehalkid dynasty Untash-Napirisha Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III
Hatshepsut ? Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten ? Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret ? Elamite Empire Shutrukid dynasty Shutruk-Nakhunte
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI Third Intermediate Period
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II
Phoenicia Kingdom of Israel Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon
Middle Assyrian Empire Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur Ashur-dan I Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur Mutakkil-Nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apal-Ekur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV Ashurnasirpal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-dan II
Fourth Babylonian dynasty (" Second Dynasty of Isin") Marduk-kabit-ahheshu Itti-Marduk-balatu Ninurta-nadin-shumi Nebuchadnezzar I Enlil-nadin-apli Marduk-nadin-ahhe Marduk-shapik-zeri Adad-apla-iddina Marduk-ahhe-eriba Marduk-zer-X Nabu-shum-libur
Neo-Elamite period (1100-540 BCE)
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth Babylonian dynasties ("Period of Chaos") Simbar-shipak Ea-mukin-zeri Kashshu-nadin-ahi Eulmash-shakin-shumi Ninurta-kudurri-usur I Shirikti-shuqamuna Mar-biti-apla-usur Nabû-mukin-apli
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Pedubast II Osorkon IV
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt Tefnakht Bakenranef
Kingdom of Samaria Kingdom of Judah
Neo-Assyrian Empire Adad-nirari II Tukulti-Ninurta II Ashurnasirpal II Shalmaneser III Shamshi-Adad V Shammuramat (regent) Adad-nirari III Shalmaneser IV Ashur-Dan III Ashur-nirari V
Ninth Babylonian Dynasty Ninurta-kudurri-usur II Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina Shamash-mudammiq Nabu-shuma-ukin I Nabu-apla-iddina Marduk-zakir-shumi I Marduk-balassu-iqbi Baba-aha-iddina (five kings) Ninurta-apla-X Marduk-bel-zeri Marduk-apla-usur Eriba-Marduk Nabu-shuma-ishkun Nabonassar Nabu-nadin-zeri Nabu-shuma-ukin II Nabu-mukin-zeri Humban-Tahrid dynasty Urtak Teumman Ummanigash Tammaritu I Indabibi Humban-haltash III
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (" Black Pharaohs") Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun
( Sargonid dynasty) Tiglath-Pileser + Shalmaneser + Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon + Sennacherib + Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi + Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon + Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II
Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III
Neo-Babylonian Empire Nabopolassar Nebuchadnezzar II Amel-Marduk Neriglissar Labashi-Marduk Nabonidus
Median Empire Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt ( Achaemenid conquest of Egypt)
Achaemenid Empire Cyrus Cambyses Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Artaxerxes IV Darius III
Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt 331-141 BCE
Ptolemaic dynasty Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra (regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Hellenistic Period : Argead dynasty Alexander I Philip Alexander II Antigonus
: Seleucid Empire Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kingdom of Judea Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias
Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus
Parthian Empire Mithridates I Phraates Hyspaosines Artabanus Mithridates II Gotarzes Mithridates III Orodes I Sinatruces Phraates III Mithridates IV Orodes II Phraates IV Tiridates II Musa Phraates V Orodes III Vonones I Artabanus II Tiridates III Artabanus II Vardanes I Gotarzes II Meherdates Vonones II Vologases I Vardanes II Pacorus II Vologases II Artabanus III Osroes I
30 BCE-116 CE
Roman Empire (
Roman conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia under Trajan
Parthamaspates of Parthia
Province of Mesopotamia
Sinatruces II Mithridates V Vologases IV Osroes II Vologases V Vologases VI Artabanus IV
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Ardashir I Shapur I Hormizd I Bahram I Bahram II Bahram III Narseh Hormizd II Adur Narseh Shapur II Ardashir II Shapur III Bahram IV Yazdegerd I Shapur IV Khosrow Bahram V Yazdegerd II Hormizd III Peroz I Balash Kavad I Jamasp Kavad I Khosrow I Hormizd IV Khosrow II Bahram VI Chobin Vistahm
Palmyrene Empire Vaballathus Zenobia Antiochus
Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Sasanian conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt Shahrbaraz Sahralanyozan Shahrbaraz
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Khosrow II Kavad II
Byzantine Empire Ardashir III Shahrbaraz Khosrow III Boran Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Azarmidokht Farrukh Hormizd Hormizd VI Khosrow IV Boran Yazdegerd III Peroz III Narsieh
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of the Levant
Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia Rulers of Ancient Central Asia