Provinces of the People's Republic of China
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Provinces of the People's Republic of China
Province-level administrative divisions
China administrative alt.svg
CategoryUnitary one-party socialist republic
Unitary semi-presidential republic
Location People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[1]
Created1947 (ROC consitutiton)
Number31 (Direct Jurisdiction) + 2 (Special Administrative Regions) + 1 (Disputed)
Populations552,300 (Macau) - 104,303,132 (Guangdong)
Areas30.4 km2 (11.7 sq mi) (Macau)[2] - 1,664,897 km2 (642,820 sq mi) (Xinjiang)[3]
GovernmentSingle-Party Government
SARs: 1 country, 2 systems
Provincial government
SubdivisionsSub-provincial city, Prefecture
Counties
province-level administrative divisions
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
province
Chinese?
Tibetan name
Tibetan
Zhuang name
ZhuangSwngj
Mongolian name
Mongolian script?
Uyghur name
Uyghur
Manchu name
Manchu script?
Romanizationgolo

Provincial-level administrative divisions (Chinese: ; pinyin: sh?ng-jí xíngzhèngq?) or first-level administrative divisions (; y?-jí xíngzhèngq?), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces (Chinese: ?; pinyin: sh?ng), four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. The Political status of Taiwan Province and a small fraction of Fujian Province (currently administered by the Republic of China) are in dispute.

Note that every province claimed by the People's Republic of China (except Hong Kong and Macau, the two special administrative regions, as well as the disputed Taiwan Province) has a Communist Party of China provincial committee (Chinese: ; pinyin: sh?ngw?i), headed by a secretary (Chinese: ; pinyin: sh?jì). The committee secretary is effectively in charge of the province, rather than the governor of the provincial government.[4]

Types of provincial-level divisions

Province

The government of each standard province (Chinese: ?; pinyin: sh?ng) is nominally led by a provincial committee, headed by a secretary. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province; second-in-command is the governor of the provincial government.

The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as "Taiwan Province", though Taiwan has not been under control of a government that ruled from mainland China since 1949, when the Republic of China lost the mainland to the Communist Party of China, which established the PRC. (Kinmen and the Matsu Islands are claimed by the PRC as part of its Fujian Province. Pratas and Itu Aba are claimed by the PRC as part of Guangdong and Hainan provinces respectively.) The territory is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, commonly called "Taiwan").

Municipality

A municipality (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: zhíxiáshì; literally: 'direct-administrated city') or municipality directly under the administration of the central government is a higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their political status is higher than that of common provinces.

Autonomous region

An autonomous region (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: zìzhìq?) is a minority subject which has a higher population of a particular minority ethnic group along with its own local government, but an autonomous region theoretically has more legislative rights than in actual practice. The governor of each autonomous region is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group.

Special administrative region (SAR)

A special administrative region (SAR) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngq?) is a highly autonomous and self-governing sub national subject of the People's Republic of China that is directly under the Central People's Government. Each SAR has a chief executive as head of the region and head of government. The region's government is not fully independent, as foreign policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government, according to the basic laws.

List of province-level divisions

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionTibet (Xizang) Autonomous RegionQinghai ProvinceGansu ProvinceSichuan ProvinceYunnan ProvinceNingxia Hui Autonomous RegionInner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) Autonomous RegionShaanxi ProvinceMunicipality of ChongqingGuizhou ProvinceGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionShanxi ProvinceHenan ProvinceHubei ProvinceHunan ProvinceGuangdong ProvinceHainan ProvinceHebei ProvinceHeilongjiang ProvinceJilin ProvinceLiaoning ProvinceMunicipality of BeijingMunicipality of TianjinShangdong ProvinceJiangsu ProvinceAnhui ProvinceMunicipality of ShanghaiZhejiang ProvinceJiangxi ProvinceFujian ProvinceHong Kong Special Administrative RegionMacau Special Administrative RegionTaiwan ProvinceChina administrative claimed included.svg
About this image
GB/T 2260-2007[5] ISO[6] Province Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin
Capital Population[a] Density[b] Area[c] Abbreviation[d]
AH CN-AH Anhui Province
?nhu? Sh?ng
Hefei 59,500,510 425.91 139,700 ?
W?n
BJ CN-BJ Beijing Municipality
B?ij?ng Shì
Beijing 19,612,368 1,167.40 16,800 ?
J?ng
CQ CN-CQ Chongqing Municipality
Chóngqìng Shì
Chongqing 28,846,170 350.50 82,300 ?
FJ CN-FJ Fujian Province[e]
Fújiàn Sh?ng
Fuzhou 36,894,216 304.15 121,300 ?
M?n
GD CN-GD Guangdong Province
Gu?ngd?ng Sh?ng
Guangzhou 104,303,132 579.46 180,000 ?
Yuè
GS CN-GS Gansu Province
G?nsù Sh?ng
Lanzhou 25,575,254 56.29 454,300 ?(?)
G?n (L?ng)
GX CN-GX Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region ?
Gu?ngx? Zhuàngzú Zìzhìq?
Nanning 46,026,629 195.02 236,000 ?
Guì
GZ CN-GZ Guizhou Province
Guìzh?u Sh?ng
Guiyang 34,746,468 197.42 176,000 ?(?)
Guì (Qián)
HA (HEN) CN-HA Henan Province
Hénán Sh?ng
Zhengzhou 94,023,567 563.01 167,000 ?(?)
HB (HUB) CN-HB Hubei Province
Húb?i Sh?ng
Wuhan 57,237,740 307.89 185,900 ?
È
HE (HEB) CN-HE Hebei Province
Héb?i Sh?ng
Shijiazhuang 71,854,202 382.81 187,700 ?
HI CN-HI Hainan Province
H?inán Sh?ng
Haikou 9,171,300[7] 255.04 34,000 ?
Qióng
HK CN-HK[f] Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ?
Xi?ngg?ng Tèbié Xíngzhèngq?
Hong Kong 7,061,200 6,396.01 1,108 ?
G?ng
HL CN-HL Heilongjiang Province ?
H?ilóngji?ng Sh?ng
Harbin 38,312,224 84.38 454,000 ?
H?i
HN (HUN) CN-HN Hunan Province
Húnán Sh?ng
Changsha 65,683,722 312.77 210,000 ?
Xi?ng
JL CN-JL Jilin Province
Jílín Sh?ng
Changchun 27,462,297 146.54 187,400 ?
JS CN-JS Jiangsu Province
Ji?ngs? Sh?ng
Nanjing 78,659,903 766.66 102,600 ?
S?
JX CN-JX Jiangxi Province
Ji?ngx? Sh?ng
Nanchang 44,567,475 266.87 167,000 ?(?)
Gàn
LN CN-LN Liaoning Province
Liáoníng Sh?ng
Shenyang 43,746,323 299.83 145,900 ?
Liáo
MO CN-MO[g] Macau Special Administrative Region ?
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngq?
Macau 552,300 19,044.82 115 ?(?)
Ào
NM CN-NM Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nèi M?ngg? Zìzhìq?
Hohhot 24,706,321 20.88 1,183,000 ?
M?ng
NX CN-NX Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ?
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìq?
Yinchuan 6,301,350 94.89 66,400 ?
Níng
QH CN-QH Qinghai Province
Q?ngh?i Sh?ng
Xining 5,626,722 7.80 721,200 ?
Q?ng
SC CN-SC Sichuan Province
Sìchu?n Sh?ng
Chengdu 80,418,200 165.81 485,000 ?(?)
Chu?n (Sh?)
SD CN-SD Shandong Province
Sh?nd?ng Sh?ng
Jinan 95,793,065 622.84 153,800 ?
L?
SH CN-SH Shanghai Municipality
Shàngh?i Shì
Shanghai 23,019,148 3,630.20 6,341 ?
SN (SAA) CN-SN Shaanxi Province
Sh?nx? Sh?ng
Xi'an 37,327,378 181.55 205,600 ?(?)
Sh?n (Qín)
SX (SAX) CN-SX Shanxi Province
Sh?nx? Sh?ng
Taiyuan 35,712,111 228.48 156,300 ?
Jìn
TJ CN-TJ Tianjin Municipality
Ti?nj?n Shì
Tianjin 12,938,224 1,144.46 11,305 ?
J?n
TW CN-TW[h] Taiwan Province[i]
Táiw?n Sh?ng
Taipei 23,162,123 650.97 35,581 ?
Tái
XJ CN-XJ Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
X?nji?ng Wéiwú'?r Zìzhìq?
Ürümqi 21,813,334 13.13 1,660,400 ?
X?n
XZ CN-XZ Tibet Autonomous Region
X?zàng Zìzhìq?
Lhasa 3,002,166 2.44 1,228,400 ?(?)
Zàng
YN CN-YN Yunnan Province
Yúnnán Sh?ng
Kunming 45,966,239 116.66 394,000 ?(?)
Yún (Di?n)
ZJ CN-ZJ Zhejiang Province
Zhèji?ng Sh?ng
Hangzhou 54,426,891 533.59 102,000 ?
Zhè
  1. ^ as of 2010
  2. ^ per km2
  3. ^ km2
  4. ^ Abbreviation in the parentheses is informal
  5. ^ Most of the Fujian Province is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC) while the Republic of China (ROC) retains control of the Kinmen and Matsu archipelagos under its own streamlined Fujian Province.
  6. ^ Has separate ISO 3166-2 code: HK
  7. ^ Has separate ISO 3166-2 code: MO
  8. ^ Has separate ISO 3166-2 code: TW
  9. ^ The People's Republic of China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, but Taiwan is currently administrated by the Republic of China. See Political status of Taiwan

History

Sui provinces

Sui provinces, ca. 610

By the time unity was finally reestablished by the Sui dynasty, the provinces had been divided and redivided so many times by different governments that they were almost the same size as commanderies, rendering the two-tier system superfluous. As such, the Sui merged the two together. In English, this merged level is translated as "prefectures". In Chinese, the name changed between zhou and jun several times before being finally settled on zhou. Based on the apocryphal Nine Province system, the Sui restored nine zhou.[8]

Provinces of the Sui dynasty
Name Traditional
Chinese
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Approximate extent in terms of modern locations
Ancient name Modern location
Yongzhou Y?ngzh?u ? ? Guanzhong, Gansu, and the Upper Yellow basin
Jizhou Jìzh?u ? ? Shanxi and Northern Hebei, including modern Beijing and Tianjin
Yanzhou Y?nzh?u ? ? Lower Yellow River area- west of Qingzhou and east of Jizhou
Qingzhou Q?ngzh?u ? ? Shandong Peninsula
Yuzhou Yùzh?u ? ? Henan
Xuzhou Xúzh?u ? ? Modern Xuzhou area- southern Shandong and northern Jiangsu
Liangzhou Liángzh?u ? ? Upper Yangtze- Sichuan Basin + south of the Qinling
Jingzhou J?ngzh?u ? ? Central Yangtze
Yangzhou Yángzh?u ? ? Lower Yangtze, entire SE Coast, Hainan, and Northern Vietnam

Tang provinces

Tang circuits, ca. 660
Tang circuits, ca. 742

Emperor Taizong (r. 626-649) set up 10 "circuits" (?, dào) in 627 as inspection areas for imperial commissioners monitoring the operation of prefectures, rather than a new primary level of administration. In 639, there were 10 circuits, 43 commanderies (, d?d? f?), and 358 prefectures (? and later ?, f?).[9] In 733, Emperor Xuanzong expanded the number of circuits to 15 by establishing separate circuits for the areas around Chang'an and Luoyang, and by splitting the large Shannan and Jiangnan circuits into 2 and 3 new circuits respectively. He also established a system of permanent inspecting commissioners, though without executive powers.[10]


Circuits of the Tang dynasty
Name Traditional
Chinese
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Approximate extent in terms of modern locations
Ancient name Modern location
Duji* D?j? Henan Fu Luoyang Luoyang and environs
Guannei Gu?nnèi Jingzhao Fu Xi'an northern Shaanxi, central Inner Mongolia, Ningxia
Hebei Héb?i Weizhou Wei County, Hebei Hebei
Hedong Héd?ng Puzhou Puzhou, Yongji, Shanxi Shanxi
Henan Hénán Bianzhou Kaifeng Henan, Shandong, northern Jiangsu, northern Anhui
Huainan Huáinán Yangzhou central Jiangsu, central Anhui
Jiannan Jiànnán Yizhou Chengdu central Sichuan, central Yunnan
Jiangnan Ji?ngnán Jiangnanxi + Jiangnandong (see map)
Qianzhong** Qiánzh?ng Qianzhou Pengshui Guizhou, western Hunan
Jiangnanxi** Ji?ngnánx? Hongzhou Nanchang Jiangxi, Hunan, southern Anhui, southern Hubei
Jiangnandong** Ji?ngnánd?ng Suzhou southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shanghai
Jingji* J?ngj? Jingzhao Fu Xi'an Xi'an and environs
Lingnan L?ngnán Guangzhou Guangdong, eastern Guangxi, northern Vietnam
Longyou L?ngyou Shanzhou Ledu County, Qinghai Gansu
Shannan Sh?nnán Shannanxi + Shannandong (see map)
Shannanxi** Sh?nnánx? Liangzhou Hanzhong southern Shanxi, eastern Sichuan, Chongqing
Shannandong** Sh?nnánd?ng Xiangzhou Xiangfan southern Henan, Hubei

* Circuits established under Xuanzong, as opposed to Taizong's original ten circuits.

** Circuits established under Xuanzong by dividing Taizong's Jiangnan and Shannan circuits.

Other Tang-era circuits include the West Lingnan, Wu'an, and Qinhua circuits.

Song provinces

The Song government abolished the previous commissioners and renamed their circuits ? (lù, literally meaning "roads", but however is still usually translated into English as "circuits"). They also added a number of "army" prefectures (?/?, j?n).

Counties]]

Circuits of the Northern Song dynasty
Name Traditional
Chinese
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Approximant extent in terms of modern locations
Ancient name Modern location
Chengdufu Chéngd?f? Chengdu central Sichuan
Fujian Fújiàn Fuzhou Fujian
Guangnan East Gu?ngnánd?ng Guangzhou eastern Guangdong
Guangnan West Gu?ngnánx? Guizhou Guilin western Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan
Hebei East Héb?id?ng Beijing Daming County, Hebei eastern Hebei
Hebei West Héb?ix? Zhending Zhengding County, Hebei western Hebei
Hedong Héd?ng Taiyuan Shanxi
Huainan East Huáinánd?ng Yangzhou central Jiangsu
Huainan West Huáinánx? Shouzhou Fengtai County, Anhui central Anhui
Jiangnan East Ji?ngnánd?ng Jiangning Fu Nanjing southern Anhui
Jiangnan West Ji?ngnánx? Hongzhou Nanchang Jiangxi
Jingdong East J?ngd?ngd?ng Qingzhou Qingzhou, Shandong eastern Shandong
Jingdong West J?ngd?ngx? Nanjing south of Shangqiu, Henan western Shandong
Jinghu North J?nghúb?i Jiangling Hubei, western Hunan
Jinghu South J?nghúnán Tanzhou Changsha Hunan
Jingji J?ngj? Chenliu Chenliu, Kaifeng, Henan Kaifeng and environs
Jingxi North J?ngx?b?i Xijing Luoyang central Henan
Jingxi South J?ngx?nán Xiangzhou Xiangfan southern Henan, northern Hubei
Kuizhou Kuízh?u Kuizhou Fengjie County, Chongqing Chongqing, eastern Sichuan, Guizhou
Liangzhe Li?ngzhè Hangzhou Zhejiang, southern Jiangsu, Shanghai
Lizhou Lìzh?u Xingyuan Hanzhong northern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi
Qinfeng Qínfèng Qinzhou Tianshui southern Gansu
Yongxingjun Y?ngx?ngj?n Jingzhao Xi'an Shaanxi
Zizhou Z?zh?u Zizhou Santai County, Sichuan central southern Sichuan

Yuan provinces

China was reorganised into 11 provinces keeping most of the previous boundaries of provinces created by the previous dynasty unchanged, the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) had 2 addition regions: Central region ruled by the Zhongshu Sheng () and the Tibetan region ruled by the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs ().

Province Provincial seat Notes
English Chinese Pinyin English Chinese Pinyin Modern location
Gansu () G?nsù Ganzhou Circuit G?nzh?u Lù Zhangye Consist of modern location of Gansu, Ningxia, & eastern Inner Mongolia.
Huguang () Húgu?ng Wuchang Circuit W?ch?ng Lù Wuhan Consist of modern location of Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan,
southern Hubei & western Guangdong.
Henanjiangbei ? Hénánji?ngb?i Bianliang Circuit Biànliáng Lù Kaifeng Consist of modern location of Henan, northern Hubei, northern Jiangsu, & northern Anhui.
Jiangxi Ji?ngx? Longxing Circuit () Lóngxìng Lù Nanchang Consist of modern location of Jiangxi & eastern Guangdong.
Jiangzhe Ji?ngzhè Hangzhou Circuit Hángzh?u Lù Hangzhou Consist of modern location of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, southern Jiangsu, & southern Anhui.
Liaoyang () Liáoyáng Liaoyang Circuit () Liáoyáng Lù Liaoyang Consist of modern location of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, eastern Hebei,
northwestern Inner Mongolia, northern Korea, & Outer Manchuria.
Lingbei () L?ngb?i Hening Circuit () Héníng Lù Kharkhorin Consist of modern location of Mongolia & southern Siberia.
Shaanxi () Sh?nxi Fengyuan Circuit Fèngyuán Lù Xi'an Consist of modern location of Shaanxi & mid-western Sichuan
Sichuan Sìchu?n Chengdu Circuit Chéngd? Lù Chengdu Consist of modern location of western Sichuan & Chongqing
Yunnan () Yúnnán Zhongqing Circuit () Zh?ngqìng Lù Kunming Consist of modern location of Yunnan and Upper Myanmar.
Zhengdong () Zh?ngd?ng Kaicheng Circuit () K?ichéng Lù Kaesong Consist of modern location of southern Korea.
Central region* () Zh?ngsh? Sh?ng none Consist of modern location of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi, Shandong,
northern Henan, central Inner Mongolia, & western Hebei.
A direct rule region under Zhongshu Sheng (Central Secretariat).
Tibetan region* Xu?nzhèng Yuàn none Consist of modern location of Tibet, Qinghai, & western Sichuan.
A region set up to supervised Buddhist monks in addition to managing
the territory of Tibet under the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs.

Ming provinces

The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) kept the province system set up by the Yuan Dynasty, however, it divided the original 10 provinces into 16 provinces, later 2 capital metropolitan areas and 13 provinces () within China proper and 5 additional military ruled regions.

Province Provincial seat Notes
English Chinese Pinyin English Chinese Pinyin
Fujian Fújiàn Fuzhou Prefecture Fúzh?u F?
Guangdong () Gu?ngd?ng Guangzhou Prefecture () Gu?ngzh?u G?
Guangxi () Gu?ngx? Guilin Prefecture Guìlín F?
Guizhou () Guìzh?u Guiyang Prefecture () Guìyáng F?
Henan Hénán Kaifeng Prefecture () K?if?ng F?
Huguang () Húgu?ng Wuchang Prefecture W?ch?ng F? Consist of modern location of Hunan & Hubei.
Provincial seat modern location is Wuhan.
Jiangxi Ji?ngx? Nanchang Prefecture Nánch?ng F?
Shaanxi () Sh?nx? Xi'an Prefecture X?'?n F? Consist of modern location of Shaanxi, Gansu, & Ningxia.
Shandong () Sh?nd?ng Jinan Prefecture () J?nán F?
Shanxi Sh?nx? Taiyuan Prefecture Tàiyuán F?
Sichuan Sìchu?n Chengdu Prefecture Chéngd? F? Consist of modern location of Chongqing & eastern Sichuan.
Yunnan () Yúnnán Yunnan Prefecture () Yúnnán F? Provincial seat modern location is Kunming.
Zhejiang Zhèji?ng Hangzhou Prefecture Hángzh?u F?
Jiaozhi Ji?ozh? Jiaozhou Prefecture Ji?ozh?u F? Consist of modern location of northern Vietnam.
1407-1428
North Zhili () B?izhílì Shuntian Prefecture () Shùnti?n F? Consist of modern location of Beijing, Tianjin, & Hebei.
Provincial seat modern location is Beijing.
South Zhili () Nánzhílì Yingtian Prefecture () Yìngti?n F? Consist of modern location of Shanghai, Jiangsu, & Anhui.
Provincial seat modern location is Nanjing.
Nurgan* () Nú'ergàn none Consist of modern location of Heilongjiang, Jilin, central-eastern Inner Mongolia, & Outer Manchuria.
1409-1616
Liaodong* () Liáod?ng none Consist of modern location of Liaoning.
1375-1621
Ü-Tsang* () W?s?zàng none Consist of modern location of Tibet.
1372-1565
Dokham* Du?g?n none Consist of modern location of Qinghai & western Sichuan.
1372-1644
Elis* Élìs? none Consist of modern location of Ngari, Tibet.
1375-1565

Qing provinces

By the latter half of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) there were 18 provinces, all of them in China proper (). Jiangsu and Anhui were originally one province called Jiangnan, with its capital at Nanjing. There was no discrete time period when the two halves of Jiangnan were split, but rather, this was a gradual process.

New provinces

Each province had a xunfu (; xúnf?; translated as "governor"), a political overseer on behalf of the emperor, and a tidu (; tíd?; translated as "captain general"), a military governor. In addition, there was a zongdu (; z?ngd?), a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces.

Outer regions of China (those beyond China proper) were not divided into provinces. Military leaders or generals (; ji?ngj?n) oversaw Manchuria (consisting of Fengtian (now Liaoning), Jilin, Heilongjiang), Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong (; fù d?t?ng) and civilian leaders headed the leagues (; méng zh?ng), a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans (?; zhù cáng dàchén) supervised the administration of Tibet.

In 1884 Xinjiang became a province; in 1907 Fengtian, Jilin, and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well. Taiwan became a province in 1885, but China ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895. As a result, there were 22 provinces in China (Outer China and China proper) near the end of the Qing Dynasty.

ROC provinces (1912-1949)

The Republic of China, established in 1912, set up four more provinces in Inner Mongolia and two provinces in historic Tibet, bringing the total to 28. In 1931, Ma Zhongying established Hexi in the northern parts of Gansu but the ROC never acknowledged the province. However, China lost four provinces with the establishment of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. After the defeat of Japan in World War II in 1945, China re-incorporated Manchuria as 10 provinces, and assumed control of Taiwan as a province. As a result, the Republic of China in 1946 had 35 provinces. Although the Republic of China now only controls one province (Taiwan), and some islands of a second province (Fujian), it continues to formally claim all 35 provinces (including those that no longer form part of the area of the People's Republic of China).

Other province-level divisions

List of PRC/ROC province-level divisions

  abolished   claimed

Greater administrative areas

Name Hanzi Pinyin Translation Capital Hanzi Notes
Huabei Huáb?i "North China" Beijing 1949-1954
Dongbei D?ngb?i "Northeast" Shenyang 1949-1954
Huadong Huád?ng "East China" Shanghai 1949-1954
Zhongnan Zh?ngnán "South Central" Wuhan 1949-1954
Xibei X?b?i "Northwest" Xi'an 1949-1954
Xinan X?nán "Southwest" Chongqing 1949-1954

Provinces

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Andong ?nd?ng ? ?n Tonghua 1949 abolished -> Liaodong, Jilin
Anhui ?nhu? ? w?n Hefei 1949 abolished -> Wanbei, Wannan; 1952 reverted
Chahar Cháh?'?r ? chá Zhangjiakou 1952 abolished -> Inner Mongolia, Hebei
Fujian Fújiàn ? m?n Fuzhou (PRC)
Jincheng (ROC)
parts of the Fujian Province consisting of Kinmen and Matsu are retained by the ROC
Gansu G?nsù ? g?n Lanzhou 1958 Ningxia split into its own autonomous region
Guangdong Gu?ngd?ng ? yuè Guangzhou 1952 & 1965 Fangchenggang, Qinzhou, Beihai -> Guangxi; 1955 reverted
1988 Hainan split into its own province
Guangxi Gu?ngx? ? guì Nanning 1958 province -> autonomous region
Guizhou Guìzh?u ? qián Guiyang
Hainan H?inán ? qióng Haikou
Hebei Héb?i ?
Tianjin (1954-67)
Shijiazhuang (present)


1967 Tianjin split into its own municipality
Hejiang Héji?ng ? Jiamusi 1949 abolished -> Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang H?ilóngji?ng ? h?i Qiqihar (1949-54)
Harbin (present)
?
1952 part of Xing'an split into Inner Mongolia
Henan Hénán ? Kaifeng (1949-54)
Zhengzhou (present)

Hubei Húb?i ? è Wuhan
Hunan Húnán ? xi?ng Changsha
Jiangsu Ji?ngs? ? s? Nanjing 1949 abolished -> Subei, Subnan; 1952 reverted
Jiangxi Ji?ngx? ? gàn Nanchang
Jilin Jílín ? Jilin (1949-54)
Changchun (present)

1952 north part split into Inner Mongolia
Liaobei Liáob?i ? táo Liaoyuan 1949 abolished -> Jilin, Liaoning
Liaodong Liáod?ng ? gu?n Dandong 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Liaoning Liáoníng ? liáo Shenyang 1949 abolished -> Liaodong, Liaoxi; 1954 reverted
1952 north part split into Inner Mongolia
Liaoxi Liáox? ? liáo Jinzhou 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Nenjiang Nènji?ng ? nèn Qiqihar ? 1949 abolished -> Heilongjiang
Ningxia Níngxià ? níng Yinchuan 1954 province -> Gansu
Mudanjiang M?d?nji?ng ? d?n Mudanjiang 1949 abolished -> Heilongjiang
Pingyuan Píngyuán ? píng Xinxiang 1952 abolished -> Henan, Shandong
Qinghai Q?ngh?i ? q?ng Xining
Rehe Rèhé ? Chengde 1955 abolished -> Inner Mongolia, & Liaoning
Sichuan Sìchu?n ? chu?n Chengdu 1949 abolished -> Chuanbei, Chuandong, Chuannan, Chuanxi; 1952 reverted
1997 Chongqing split into its own municipality
Shaanxi Sh?nx? ? sh?n Xi'an
Shandong Sh?nd?ng ? l? Jinan
Shanxi Sh?nx? ? jìn Taiyuan
Songjiang S?ngji?ng ? s?ng Harbin 1954 abolished -> Heilongjiang
Suiyuan Suíyu?n ? suí Hohhot ? 1954 abolished -> Inner Mongolia
Taiwan Táiw?n ? tái Taipei
Zhongxing New Village (ROC only)
claimed since 1949 the founding of the PRC
Xikang X?k?ng ? k?ng Kangding (1949-50)
Ya'an (1950-55)

1955 abolished -> Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet Autonomous Region
Xing'an X?ng'?n ? x?ng Hulunbuir ? 1949 abolished -> Heilongjiang
Xinjiang X?nji?ng ? ji?ng Ürümqi ? 1955 province -> autonomous region
Yunnan Yúnnán ? di?n Kunming
Zhejiang Zhèji?ng ? zhè Hangzhou

Autonomous regions

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Guangxi Gu?ngx? ? guì Nanning 1958 province -> autonomous region
Inner Mongolia Nèi M?ngg? ? m?ng Ulaanhot (1947-50)
Hohhot (present)
?
?
1947 created; 1969 truncated -> Liaoning, Heilongjiang,
Jilin, Gansu, Ningxia; 1979 reverted
Ningxia Níngxià ? níng Yinchuan 1958 special region -> autonomous region
Tibet X?zàng ? zàng Lhasa 1965 area -> autonomous region
Xinjiang X?nji?ng ? ji?ng Ürümqi ? 1955 province -> autonomous region

Municipalities

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Anshan ?nsh?n ? ?n Tiedong District 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Beijing B?ij?ng ? j?ng Dongcheng District
Tongzhou District

Benxi B?nx? ? b?n Pingshan District 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Changchun Chángch?n ? ch?n Nanguan District 1953 created; 1954 abolished -> Jilin
Chongqing Chóngqìng ? Yuzhong District 1954 abolished -> Sichuan; 1997 reverted
Dalian -> Lüda -> Dàlián ? lián Xigang District 1949 abolished -> Luda, 1950 reverted, 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Fushun F?shùn ? f? Shuncheng District 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Guangzhou Gu?ngzh?u ? suì Yuexiu District 1954 abolished -> Guangdong
Harbin H?'?rb?n ? h? Nangang District 1953 created, 1954 abolished -> Heilongjiang
Nanjing Nánj?ng ? níng Xuanwu District 1952 abolished -> Jiangsu
Shanghai Shàngh?i ? Huangpu District
Shenyang Sh?nyáng ? sh?n Shenhe District 1954 abolished -> Liaoning
Tianjin Ti?nj?n ? j?n Heping District 1954 abolished -> Hebei, 1967 reverted
Hankou -> Wuhan -> W?hàn ? hàn Jiang'an District 1949 abolished -> Hubei
Xi'an X?'?n ? hào Weiyang District 1954 abolished -> Shaanxi

Special administrative regions

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Hong Kong Xi?ngg?ng ? g?ng Hong Kong created 1997 (Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong)
Macau Àomén ? ào Macau created 1999 (Transfer of sovereignty over Macau)

Administrative territories

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Chuanbei Chu?nb?i ? ch?ng Nanchong 1950 created; 1952 abolished -> Sichuan
Chuandong Chu?nd?ng ? Chongqing 1950 created; 1952 abolished -> Sichuan
Chuannan Chu?nnán ? Luzhou 1950 created; 1952 abolished -> Sichuan
Chuanxi Chu?nx? ? róng Chengdu 1950 created; 1952 abolished -> Sichuan
Hainan H?inán ? qióng Haikou 1949 abolished -> Guangdong
Lüda L?dà ? l? Dalian 1949 created; 1950 abolished -> Dalian
Subei S?b?i ? yáng Yangzhou 1949 created; 1952 abolished -> Jiangsu
Sunan S?nán ? x? Wuxi 1949 created; 1952 abolished -> Jiangsu
Wanbei W?nb?i ? Hefei 1949 created; 1952 abolished -> Anhui
Wannan W?nnán ? Wuhu 1949 created; 1952 abolished -> Anhui

Regions

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Tibet X?zàng ? zàng Lhasa 1965 region -> autonomous region

Territories

Name Hanzi Pinyin Abbreviation Capital Hanzi Note
Qamdo Ch?ngd? ? ch?ng Qamdo 1965 merged into Tibet

The People's Republic of China abolished many of the provinces in the 1950s and converted a number of them into autonomous regions. Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.

In contrast, the Republic of China also had a number of provinces under its control such as Taiwan and Fujian, which the ROC currently administers, though the ROC abolished the Xinjiang Provincial Office in 1992. In 1998, after streamlining of the two provinces, some of its powers from the Taiwan and Fujian Provincial Governments were gradually transferred to county governments. This fractured further between 2018 and 2019 when the ROC central government de facto abolished the provincial governments with most of the remaining powers given to the Executive Yuan.

"Lost territories" of China

During the 20th century, China claimed that numerous neighbouring countries and regions in Asia were "lost territories" of China.[11][12] Many of these "lost territories" were under the rule of Imperial Chinese dynasties or were tributary states.[11]Sun Yat-sen claimed that these territories were lost due to unequal treaties, forceful occupation and annexation, and foreign interference. Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, among others, were supportive of these claims.[13] China published a series of maps during this time known as a "Map of National Shame" (simplified Chinese: ?; traditional Chinese: ?; pinyin: Guóch? dìtú) which showcased some of the "lost territories" that had links to various Imperial Chinese dynasties.

Name Hanzi Pinyin Note
South Tibet[12] (part of modern-day Arunachal Pradesh) (South Tibet)/

(Arunachal Pradesh)

Zàng nán (South Tibet)/

? l? nà qià ?r b?ng (Arunachal Pradesh)

Lost to the British Empire
The Great Northeast (Left bank of Amur River)[12] N/A N/A Lost to the Russian Empire
The Great Northeast[12] (Outer Manchuria) N/A N/A Lost to the Russian Empire
Bhutan[11] Bù d?n Lost to the British Empire
Ryukyu Islands[12] ? Liúqiú qúnd?o Lost to the Empire of Japan
Annam[12] (modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) ?nnán d? hù f? Lost to French Empire
Burma[12] Mi?ndiàn Lost to the British Empire
Sikkim[12] Xíj?n b?ng Lost to the British Empire
Ceylon[11] (Sri Lanka) X? lán Lost to the British Empire
Malaya[12] (part of modern-day Malaysia and Singapore) M? lái yà Lost to the British Empire
Taiwan and Penghu[11] (Taiwan)/

(Penghu)

Táiw?n (Taiwan)/

P?nghú xiàn (Penghu

Lost to the Empire of Japan
Korea[12] Cháoxi?n Lost to the Empire of Japan
Pamir Mountains/Ladakh area[12] N/A N/A Lost to the Russian Empire and the British Empire
Nepal[11] Níbó'?r Lost to the British Empire
Thailand[11] Tàiguó Became independent under joint Anglo-French control in 1904
Andaman Islands[12] ?ndá màn qúnd?o Lost to the British Empire
Sulu Archipelago[11] ? S? lù qúnd?o Lost to the Spanish Empire
Sakhalin[12] (in Chinese, Kuye) (Kuye)

? (Sakhalin)

Kùyè d?o (Kuye)

Sàh?lín d?o (Sakhalin)

Lost to the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan
Java[11] Zh?ow? d?o Lost to the Dutch Empire
Borneo[11] (part of modern-day Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei) Póluó zh?u Lost to the British Empire and the Dutch Empire

Economies

The provinces in south coastal area of China--such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian and (mainly) Guangdong--tend to be more industrialized, with regions in the hinterland less developed.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hwang, Jim (October 1999). "Gone with the Times". Taiwan Review. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Macao in Figures". Government of the Macao Special Administrative Region Statistics and Census Service. 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-11-05. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Archived copy" 6-1 [6-1 Overview of natural resources] (in Chinese). Xinjiang Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Archived copy" . . Archived from the original on 2017-09-17. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China". Archived from the original on 2004-03-05. Retrieved .
  6. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  7. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013.
  8. ^ "What were the ancient 9 provinces?" on www.chinahistoryforum.com
  9. ^ Twitchett 1979, pp. 203, 205.
  10. ^ Twitchett 1979, p. 404.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tseng, Hui-Yi (2017). Revolution, State Succession, International Treaties and the Diaoyu/Diaoyutai Islands. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 9781443893688.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kim, Samuel S. (1979). China, the United Nations, and World Order. Princeton University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780691100760.
  13. ^ Tzou, Byron N. (1990). China and International Law: The Boundary Disputes. Praeger. p. 77. ISBN 9780275934620.

External links


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