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Presumption of Guilt
Presumption of guilt, in Latin, ei incumbit probatio qui negat, non qui dicit (the burden of proof is on the one who denies, not on one who declares), is the principle that one is considered guilty unless proven innocent. Generally, this is an argument from ignorance, a philosophical concept in which a thing is assumed to be true because not proved false.
Presumption of guilt is a denial of an international human right under the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 11. Under the presumption of guilt, the defence must collect and present compelling evidence to the trier of fact (a judge or a jury). The defence must, in most cases prove that the accused is innocent.
Presumption of guilt is pandemic, occasionally erupting into epidemic proportions. Smaller instances include adverse accusatory reactions to unusual costume such as the burqa, or merely a 'suspicious stare' from the police. More severe is the blame culture inherent in bureaucratic organisations where those with the least responsibility are blamed the most.
Belief in the 'Stab-in-the-back myth' - that Jews and profiteers were collectively guilty of losing the war for Germany in 1918 - is an extreme instance of guilt being presumed.
Collective guilt, for example the belief that 'all Muslims are terrorists'; conversely, the terrorist may believe his victims to be collectively guilty of some perceived injustice, as in the case of 9/11. A belief in Jewish deicide expresses the view that 'all Jews are Christ-killers', though in fact only the Romans had the legal authority to crucify someone.
Rushing to judgement, for example equating arrest with conviction.
Psychological game-playing; the aggressive accuser is said to play mind games, while the victim is on a guilt trip. Guilt feelings may be residual from early childhood, in which all of us are powerless and presumption of guilt ('you naughty boy', 'shame on you, wicked child') is often the norm.
A mind-set which favours Apocalypticism. According to Jonathan Schell, the religiously orthodox may 'take it upon themselves to please a wrathful God' through the 'extinction of 'evil' mankind'. Apocalypticism attracts 'desperate, humiliated and defeated' people, says John Michael Greer; it 'offers a free ticket out of the troubles of everyday life'.
Presumption of guilt is as old as suspicion itself. In ancient Greece, public officials were elected for very limited terms of office and barred from re-election, on the presumption that too long an incumbency would lead to abuse of power. Thucydides and Aristophanes pointed out that the crowd were too easily swayed by oratory and emotion. As Lord Acton wrote in the 19th century, again expressing presumption of guilt, "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men,..."
Adolf Hitler was a persistent presumer of guilt in those he disliked. Being allegedly a psychopath and narcissist he tended to blame others when things went wrong. From 1918 he blamed Germany's defeat on the November criminals of the Weimar Republic for negotiating a truce when Germany still had the capacity to fight on; in Mein Kampf he wrote; 'every third German is a traitor'. In 1945, when it was clear that Germany could not win the war, Hitler wished to punish the entire nation for failing to meet his expectations, according to Sebastian Haffner.
Between 1947 and 1956, many US citizens were unfairly accused of being communist agents or sympathisers and had their careers ruined during the era of McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare, or even killed like Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. The McCarthyites 'never produced a single Communist spy whose guilt was proved in court.'
In the UK case Hale, 2 P. C. 290 (n), the defendant was alleged to have murdered his niece, who had cried out 'good uncle do not kill me', and then was seen no more. The defendant, asked to produce the girl in court, had fraudulently produced another girl disguised as the niece. The court presumed him guilty on this basis and he was executed. Later, the niece was found, alive and well.
Sexual violence and harassment
The American actor and producer Jeremy Piven has spoken out against the Me Too movement, which, he claims, 'put lives in jeopardy without a hearing, due process or evidence'. Writing about Piven's comment, journalist Brendan O'Neill, suggests that the presumption of innocence, which barrister and writer John Mortimer described as a 'golden thread', is being weakened.
High Court judge Sir Richard Henriques has criticized UK police training and methods which allegedly assert that 'only 0.1% of rape allegations are false' ('lying with statistics' or straight-out lie to prejudice, this is better than 'accusers never lie', which is obviously false.) and in which all complainants are treated as 'victims' from the start. In three cases which later collapsed, including those of Liam Allan and Danny Kay, police withheld vital evidence from the defence.  It is difficult to assess the true prevalence of false rape allegations, but it is generally agreed that rape accusations are false about 2% to 10% of the time.
In March 2017 Elizabeth Truss, Justice Secretary, said "that from September juries across the country will watch the pre-recorded cross-examinations during a trial".
In 1990, Yale professor and radical feministCatharine MacKinnon, is alleged to have addressed a graduation crowd thus; 'look about you. Statistics tell us you have just laid eyes on someone guilty of sexual assault'. In her 1989 book Towards a Feminist Theory of the State she alleged that 'all sex is akin to rape'.
In China there has been a 'spate of wrongful convictions' and alleged misconduct by police and prosecutors.
In Turkey, a suspect arrested after the July 2016 coup attempt was asked to pay his defence lawyer $80,000, reflecting the cost to the lawyer's career; he would be thrown off the bar. 'Bogus and ludicrous charges' and confessions obtained under torture, were allegedly widespread.
In Japan the criminal justice system has been criticized for its wide use of detentions, suspects were forced to make false confessions during interrogations.
In popular culture
According to all four Gospels Jesus, though tried by Pontius Pilate and found to be a 'just man' with 'no fault in him', was condemned to death by the multitude who cried 'crucify him' 
McGivern, Gerry; Fischer, Michael (2010). "Medical regulation, spectacular transparency and the blame business". Journal of Health Organization and Management. 24 (6): 597-610. doi:10.1108/14777261011088683. PMID21155435.
^Marco Giannangeli, 'Police must stop training 'Presumption of Guilt', says High Court judge', Daily Express, 24 December 2017. . Accessed 6 February 2018.
^DiCanio, M. The encyclopedia of violence: origins, attitudes, consequences. New York: Facts on File, 1993. ISBN978-0-8160-2332-5.
^Lisak, David; Gardinier, Lori; Nicksa, Sarah C.; Cote, Ashley M. (2010). "False Allegations of Sexual Assualt [sic]: An Analysis of Ten Years of Reported Cases" (PDF). Violence Against Women. 16 (12): 1318-1334.. Accessed 7 February 2018.
^Laura Hughes, "Rape victims to be spared court cross-examination as Government brings forward plans for pre-recorded video evidence". Daily Telegraph, 16 March 2017. . Accessed 7 February 2018.
^Stuart Taylor Jr and KC Johnson, Until Proven Innocent, St Martin's Press, 2013, chapter 24
^Stuart Taylor Jr and KC Johnson, Until Proven Innocent, chapter 24