Present Tense
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Present Tense

The present tense (abbreviated PRES or PRS) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in the present time.[1] The present tense is used for actions which are happening now. In order to explain and understand present tense, it is useful to imagine time as a line on which the past tense, the present and the future tense are positioned. The term present tense is usually used in descriptions of specific languages to refer to a particular grammatical form or set of forms; these may have a variety of uses, not all of which will necessarily refer to present time. For example, in the English sentence "My train leaves tomorrow morning", the verb form leaves is said to be in the present tense, even though in this particular context it refers to an event in future time. Similarly, in the historical present, the present tense is used to narrate events that occurred in the past.

There are two common types of present tense form in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood). The present tense is mainly classified into four parts:

  1. Simple present
  2. Present perfect
  3. Present continuous
  4. Present perfect continuous

English

The present indicative of most verbs in modern English has the same form as the infinitive, except for the third-person singular form, which takes the ending -[e]s. The verb be has the forms am, is, are. For details see English verbs. For the present subjunctive, see English subjunctive.

A number of multi-word constructions exist to express the combinations of present tense with the basic form of the present tense is called the simple present; there are also constructions known as the present progressive (or present continuous) (e.g. am writing), the present perfect (e.g. have written), and the present perfect progressive (e.g. have been writing).

Use of the present tense does not always imply the present time. In particular, the present tense is often used to refer to future events (I am seeing James tomorrow; My train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon). This is particularly the case in condition clauses and many other adverbial subordinate clauses: If you see him,...; As soon as they arrive... There is also the historical present, in which the present tense is used to narrate past events.

For details of the uses of present tense constructions in English, see Uses of English verb forms.

Hellenic languages

Modern Greek present indicative tense

In Modern Greek, the present tense is used in a similar way to the present tense in English and can represent the present continuous as well. As with some other conjugations in Greek, some verbs in the present tense accept different (but equivalent) forms of use for the same person. What follows are examples of present tense conjugation in Greek for the verbs (see), ? (eat) and (love).

  ?, ,
I ?, ,
thou ? ?,
/?/? he/she/it , ()
we , ?, ?,
you (pl.) ? , ? ?
//? they ?(?) ?(?), ?(?) ?(?), (?)

[2]

Slavic languages

Bulgarian present indicative tense

In Bulgarian, the present indicative tense of imperfective verbs is used in a very similar way to the present indicative in English. It can also be used as present progressive. Below is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Bulgarian.

  *
pisati
*
govoriti
*
iskati
*
otvarjati

az
?
pi?a

govorja

iskam
?
otvarjam

ti

pi?e?
?
govori?

iska?
?
otvarja?
, ,
toj, tja, to
?
pi?e

govori
?
iska

otvarja

nie

pi?em
?
govorim

iskame

otvarjame

vie

pi?ete

govorite

iskate

otvarjate

te

pi?at
?
govorjat

iskat
?
otvarjat

*Archaic, no infinitive in the modern language.

Macedonian present tense

The present tense of the Macedonian language is made of the imperfective verbs. The following table shows the conjugation of the verbs write (/pi?uva), speak (?/zboruva), want (?/saka) and open (a/otvara).

 
pi?uva
?
zboruva
?
saka
a?a
otvara

jas
?
pi?uvam

zboruvam

sakam
a
otvaram

ti
?
pi?uva?

zboruva?

saka?
a
otvara?
, ,
toj, taa, toa

pi?uva
?
zboruva
?
saka
a
otvara

nie

pi?uvame

zboruvame

sakame
a?
otvarame

vie

pi?uvate

zboruvate

sakate
a?
otvarate

tie

pi?uvaat

zboruvaat

sakaat
a?
otvaraat

See also

References

  1. ^ Comrie, Bernard (1985). Tense. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23652-5.
  2. ^ =Romance lantern Vulgar Latin. As a result, their usages and forms are similar.

    Latin present indicative tense

    The Latin present tense can be translated as progressive or simple present. Here are examples of the present indicative tense conjugation in Latin.

      plic?re deb?re dicere cupere sc?re
    conjugation 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd 4th
    ego plic? debe? d?c? cupi? sci?
    tu plic?s deb?s d?cis cupis sc?s
    is, ea, id plicat debet dicit cupit scit
    nos plic?mus deb?mus d?cimus cupimus sc?mus
    vos plic?tis deb?tis d?citis cupitis sc?tis
    ei, eae, ea plicant debent d?cunt cupiunt sciunt

    French present indicative tense

    In French, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. Below is an example of present tense conjugation in French.

      parler
    je parle perds finis pars
    tu parles perds finis pars
    il/elle/on parle perd finit part
    nous parlons perdons finissons partons
    vous parlez perdez finissez partez
    ils/elles parlent perdent finissent partent

    The present indicative is commonly used to express the present continuous. For example, Jean mange may be translated as John eats, John is eating. To emphasise the present continuous, expressions such as "en train de" may be used. For example, Jean est en train de manger may be translated as John is eating, John is in the middle of eating. On est en train de chercher un nouvel appartement may be translated as We are looking for a new apartment, We are in the process of finding a new apartment.

    Italian present indicative tense

    In Italian, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. What follows is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Italian.

      parlare vedere sentire
    io parlo vedo sento
    tu parli vedi senti
    egli/ella parla vede sente
    noi parliamo vediamo sentiamo
    voi parlate vedete sentite
    essi/esse parlano vedono sentono

    Portuguese and Spanish present indicative tense

    The present tenses of Portuguese and Spanish are similar in form, and are used in similar ways. What follows are examples of the present indicative conjugation in Portuguese.

    Pronoun falar comer insistir ter ser
    eu falo como insisto tenho sou
    tu falas comes insistes tens és
    ele/ela/você fala come insiste tem é
    nós falamos comemos insistimos temos somos
    vós falais comeis insistis tendes sois
    eles/elas/vocês falam comem insistem têm são

    There follow examples of the corresponding conjugation in Spanish.

    Pronoun hablar comer insistir tener ser
    yo hablo como insisto tengo soy
    hablas comes insistes tienes eres
    él/ella/usted habla come insiste tiene es
    nosotros hablamos comemos insistimos tenemos somosguages=

    The Romance languages are derived from Latin, and in particular wes

    vosotros habláis coméis insistís tenéis sois
    ellos/ellas/ustedes hablan comen insisten tienen son



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