The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See was an "office" (a technical category of dicastery) of the Roman Curia, erected on 15 August 1967, and entrusted with overseeing all the offices of the Holy See that manage finances, regardless of their degree of autonomy.
The prefecture did not manage finances itself, but instead audited the balance sheets and budgets of the offices that do. It then prepared and published annually a general financial report. It had to be consulted on all projects of major importance undertaken by the offices in question.
The Vatican Bank, which does not manage property of the Holy See, was not overseen by the Prefecture. This prefecture was also distinct from the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, which was formed from the merger of the Administration of the Property of the Holy See and the Special Administration of the Holy See.